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THINGS AND THOUGHTS, Nov.-Dec., 1902, Vol. 2, No. 5, Pp. 275-330, $1.25 yearly, 25 cents singly, Winchester, Va., illus.

Rev. W. H. H. Joyce declares that the modern negro is no longer material for literature, he is only a subject to be dissected by the sociologist. The slave's place though is fixed in letters by Russell, Harris, Page, Harris being the ideal master in his creation. Rev. J. M. Hawley defends the culture of the Old South, and asserts that literary barrenness then was not due to the "peculiar institution” but to the lack of the emergency for productivity.

The rest of this issue consists of stories and sketches, several being extracted from other sources.

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FLORIDA MAGAZINE, January, February, March, 1903, Vol. 6, Nos. 1, 2, 3, pp. 59, 61-114, 117-172, $1.00 yearly, 10 cents singly, Jacksonville, Fla.

The January number has a sketch of the inland waterways of Florida, a huge improvement extending from St. John's River to Key West, some 560 miles, at a cost of over a million dollars. There is thus formed a land locked route at tide level throughout, 5 feet deep as minimum, and hundreds of thousands of acres of valuable land are reclaimed. A regular service of broad, commodious light draught steamers is maintained.


OUR VANDALS OF HISTORY.—The wanton carelessness and adamantine ignorance of public officials in their treatment of historical material never were better described than by Dr. R. A. Halley in American Historical Magazine for January last with regard to Tennessee. The tale is a sickening one of barbaric debauchery of intelligence. Documents have been burned as “rubbish” to get them out of the way as they "smelled bad," or they have been mutilated for the signatures and stamps. Employees have ramsacked and clipped at pleasure through a “great lot of old papers at the capitol" and sold hundreds of dollars worth to collectors.

But plutonian darkness of appreciativeness was illustrated by janitors and building superintendents. The State at one time had perhaps a complete series of the books of the old State bank and its branches, a rich mine of local financial history. These three thousand volumes, with a stupidity equaling moslem fanaticism, were stripped of their covers and hauled to the junk shop to fetch a good sum as linen paper, while the covers were in part burned on the capitol grounds, and carted off to help fill a low spot in Nashville.

The official papers in the hands of the Secretary of State were put in a room proudly labeled “Archives," but this boastful "publicity" was no bar to idiotic heedlessness. In time they overflowed and trickled down to the crypt, piled “in masses on the stone floors, among old paint barrels, ashes, trash of every description, dirt and grime. They were wet and rotting." Unfortunately the janitor had delicate nasal nerves. He applied the torch to "several cartloads" because they were "wet and nasty and smelled bad."

The printed page has fared no better. Time and again have flames, paper mills, dealers and dump heaps relieved the accumulations so as to suit the artistic ideas of proportions that successive dull brains have had. No sooner does the legislative session end than the porters clear out the "stuff" that has been coming from the press. The result may be anticipated by every one. We are prepared to learn that "in only a single one of the State departments is there a complete set of its own publications.”

And yet it must be confessed with unutterable shame that Tennessee can very likely be matched and even surpassed by several other States in this example of gothic indifference to historical literature.

THE OHIO STATE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, Columbus, 0., is a popular institution with the members of the Legislature. In fact the most of its support comes from the public treasury. The appropriations for current year aggregate $7,500, one-third for salaries, one-third for explorations, and one-third for publications. Only a comparatively small amount is realized from membership dues, some $400 yearly, and about half as much from sales. The lawmakers also readily vote extra sums for special purposes. Besides, nearly every session they order complete sets of all issues for free distribution to themselves. This is not expensive as all the publications are in plates. With such generosity from the Commonwealth, it is sad that the historical side is so lame, if we are to judge from the July, 1902, Quarterly, in which form the publications have been appearing for more than a year. That shows no acquaintance whatever with modern scholarship. Aside from reviews a couple of weak poems, and the report of the annual meeting, it is composed of medium essays based on secondary sources, and these not even mentioned. The authors are hopelessly unaware that their names are no guarantees, and hence all their work will have to be done over before it can be accepted. Too much credit cannot be given to the State for its liberality, and to ful party and the confiscation of property, are the themes of the major portion of the book. The remainder deals with the life of the Loyalists in exile during the war, their treatment by the British and their final expatriation and emigration to the British possessions in America and the islands of the Atlantic.

The work is based mainly on original sources, including the laws, journals and other published documents relating to the period, the printed journals and papers of various prominent Loyalists and contemporary newspapers, especially the great source of Tory hopes and fears, Rivington's Gazette. In appendixes are given summaries of the laws passed by the colonies seeking to limit and destroy the power of the Tories, including test laws, laws against freedom of speech and action, laws suppressing, quarantining, banishing and exiling Loyalists, laws providing for fines, confiscation, &c.

The work is scholarly and is carefully indexed, but the fact remains that it is based too much on the New England idea that that section did all that is worth recording for American independence.

LITERATURE OF AMERICAN HISTORY. Supplement for 1900 and 1901 [to the Literature of American History, a Bibliographical Guide, edited by J. N. Larned, Boston, 1902). Edited by Philip P. Wells. Boston: Published for the American Library Association, by Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 1902. Royal O., pp. 21+37, cloth, $1.00.

The present work, as its title indicates, is a supplement to Larned's Guide and in typographical makeup and general appearance follows the lead of that work of which a review appeared in these Publications for November last (vi., 517). But unfortunately the similarity hardly extends beyond the outward form. Larned's work is filled with critical notes which represent the trained judgment of forty specialists in as many fields of American history. These notes were written for the volume in which they appear and represent the matured judgment and critical opinion of men on books in fields with which they are thoroughly familiar. Even then a note of weakness is found occasionally when men undertook work beyond their recognized field and made their notices descriptive rather than critical.

Such is the fatal weakness in the present Supplement. Practically all of its illuminating notes are taken from reviews in The Nation and in the American Historical Review. It may be granted that the book reviews of these journals are the best that appear in the United States. Yet it will not take a second reading of the estimates printed after Bassett's Byrd, Coues' Garces, Graham, Hollander, Keifer, James, Lowndes, Lubbock, Palmer and Ranck, to prove to the student that the writers of these reviews did not have sufficient first hand knowledge of the fields in question to write such criticisms of the books as were worth while. They have written descriptive notes; while this side of a book review is necessary it is not of the most importance either to the student or the general reader, both of whom want impartial and scholarly criticism of the way the author has succeeded in accomplishing what he set out to do.

The present work includes 188 titles, is arranged alphabetically under authors with cross reference to subjects, although this cross indexing is by no means as analytical as that found in the parent volunie. There are a few titles on Canada, three or four on South America and three on the Boxer uprising in China.

THE RISE OF RELIGIOUS LIBERTY IN AMERICA. By Sanford H. Cobb. New York: The Macmillan Company. 1902. O., pp. xx+[11] +541. Cloth, $4.00, net.

This work is not a history of the churches in America. It follows the plan of work outlined by the late Professor

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