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THINGS AND THOUGHTS, Nov.-Dec., 1902, Vol. 2, No. 5, pp. 275-330, $1.25 yearly, 25 cents singly, Winchester, Va., illus.

Rev. W. H. H. Joyce declares that the modern negro is no longer material for literature, he is only a subject to be dissected by the sociologist. The slave's place though is fixed in letters by Russell, Harris, Page, Harris being the ideal master in his creation. Rev. J. M. Hawley defends the culture of the Old South, and asserts that literary barrenness then was not due to the “peculiar institution” but to the lack of the emergency for productivity.

The rest of this issue consists of stories and sketches, several being extracted from other sources.

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FLORIDA MAGAZINE, January, February, March, 1903, Vol. 6, Nos. 1, 2, 3, pp. 59, 61-114, 117-172, $1.00 yearly, 10 cents singly, Jacksonville, Fla.

The January number has a sketch of the inland waterways of Florida, a huge improvement extending from St. John's River to Key West, some 560 miles, at a cost of over a million dollars. There is thus formed a land locked route at tide level throughout, 5 feet deep as minimum, and hundreds of thousands of acres of valuable land are reclaimed. A regular service of broad, commodious light draught steamers is maintained.

the Southern vote; and that the antimasonic influence will turn New England to Calhoun.

“Our strong ground is that the tendency of Genl. Jackson's administration has been the organization of the Country into too hostile personal factions, that the strife for office has endangered the constitution, and that the selection of the third candidate who will administer the govt in justice & moderation is rendered necessary. That under such considerations the withdrawal of Mr. Clay will leave Genl. Jackson no apology for continuing as a candidate except his desire to gratify his personal favorites and to appoint his successor which it is the incumbent duty of the people to defeat."

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From-Duff Green.
Tom R. K. Crallé, Lynchburg, Va.
Dated-Washington, Sept. 5, 1831.

Green, on the eve of his departure for the North on political business and with special reference to conferences with the Antimasons, emphatically reiterates his conviction of the necessity of the immediate nomination of Calhoun by the people or the press of Virginia.

“The strong point to urge constantly is that Mr. Calhoun's proposition is in favor of Union. That Ritchie & Gales & Webster admit the right of resistance but insist that such resistance would be disunion. They therefore admit the right of disunion and Ritchie avows that unless the Tariff is repealed it will justify resistance. Whereas Mr. Calhoun's doctrine avows the right of resistance, and denies the right of oppression, and the only difference between him & Ritchie & Gales is that whilst they admi[t] the right of resistance on the part of the states they also claim the right of oppression for the Federal government. Preposterous !! We should argue that Mr. Calhoun's doctrine denies to the Federal Govt, none of its legitimate powers.-It denies its

have flames, paper mills, dealers and dump heaps relieved the accumulations so as to suit the artistic ideas of proportions that successive dull brains have had. No sooner does the legislative session end than the porters clear out the "stuff” that has been coming from the press. The result may be anticipated by every one. We are prepared to learn that "in only a single one of the State departments is there a complete set of its own publications."

And yet it must be confessed with unutterable shame that Tennessee can very likely be matched and even surpassed by several other States in this example of gothic indifference to historical literature.

The OHIO STATE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, Columbus, O., is a popular institution with the members of the Legislature. In fact the most of its support comes from the public treasury. The appropriations for current year aggregate $7,500, one-third for salaries, one-third for explorations, and one-third for publications. Only a comparatively small amount is realized from membership dues, some $400 yearly, and about half as much from sales. The lawmakers also readily vote extra sums for special purposes. Besides, nearly every session they order complete sets of all issues for free distribution to themselves. This is not expensive as all the publications are in plates. With such generosity from the Commonwealth, it is sad that the historical side is so lame, if we are to judge from the July, 1902, Quarterly, in which form the publications have been appearing for more than a year. That shows no acquaintance whatever with modern scholarship. Aside from reviews a couple of weak poems, and the report of the annual meeting, it is composed of medium essays based on secondary sources, and these not even mentioned. The authors are hopelessly unaware that their names are no guarantees, and hence all their work will have to be done over before it can be accepted. Too much credit cannot be given to the State for its liberality, and to the officers of the society for their skill and energy in obtaining means and developing a museum, but the historical wing painfully needs bolstering.

CHANCE OR HEREDITY?-A most remarkable lineage is that of Joseph Woodward, the first English settler of South Carolina, presented by J. M. Barnwell in News and Courier (Charleston, S. C.), Feb. 22, 1903. As gathered from the meager records, Woodward came with a party to Port Royal in 1664 to study the Indian life and language. He seems to have been a man of force and intelligence and was of great service in dealing with the natives, and rapidly won the favor of the Proprietors “by his industry and hazard," and was given land and office. His descendants in the male line were soon extinct, but through the female members he numbers among his progeny the following eminent instances : three South Carolina governors; four U. S. Senators; six U. S. representatives; three S. C. attorney generals; two military generals; four bishops, and a most distinguished Baptist preacher; four State judges; a millionaire and a poet of reputation; one-tenth of the honor graduates of the S. C. College up to 1861; three college presidents; two prominent editors; and one-tenth of the local authors as listed in dictionaries. If it is possible to get such vast genealogical data on other early emigrants, it would be interesting to follow out the blood of some typically obscure one and compare results. A few studies of the sort would give more safe conclusions than volumes of the average “heredity" speculations.

THREE REVOLUTIONARY MEMORIALS.-In South Carolina it is claimed are two historic likenesses of Washington; an exact marble statue of him by Houdon, possessed by the State government in Columbia, and a silk woven portrait in the hands of a volunteer militia company of Charleston. Less than half a dozen copies of the latter are known to be in existence. They were made at the celebrated Jacquard loom, of Lyons, France, in 1855. One of these was presented by the firm to the Charleston organization in 1876, through the efforts of Hon. W. A. Courtenay.

The third reminder of those early days is the sword of the famous cavalry officer, Tarleton, which was captured by General Wade Hampton and is now owned by the family of his descendant, the last Wade Hampton who used it during the Civil War.

The OLDEST COLLEGE WALLS IN U. S. are those of the main building of William and Mary at Williamsburg, so claims her president in his Quarterly of January, 1903. Though they have passed through three fires (Oct. 29, 1705; Feb. 8, 1859; Sept. 9, 1862), he thinks, from their substantial character and from documentary proof, that they have survived the attacks of fame and time from the very beginning. It is entirely reasonable to believe so when we consider the thickness of the main wall. It is 30 inches through in the basement and 24 inches in the first and second stories. Harvard is of course earlier in origin, but none of her first structures exist in any part at all.

EARLY INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES.- Perhaps the first instance in the U. S. of a commercial canal is the Santee canal in South Carolina, opened in 1800, and designed to connect practically all of the State with the chief seaport, Charleston. A full account of it appears in News and Courier, Feb. 15, 1903, prepared over a quarter century ago by Prof. F. A. Porcher who believed that the history of the venture shows that the people then had “the spirit of enterprise” but that they lacked “administrative ability.”


EARLIEST ORCHARD West VIRGINIA.—Quite an interesting discussion has been developed in the Trans

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