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a Pennsylvania lawyer, politician and pungent pamphleteer, a man of worth, of aristocratic tendencies and conservative disposition who opposed the onrush toward separation and who for his beliefs was exiled and had his property confiscated while his memory has been buried beneath the mire of opprobrium heaped upon his head by partisan hatred. The purpose of the present monograph is not to present an adequate biography of Galloway but to determine “if the reproach he suffered and the exile he endured were deserved.” The conclusion reached is that “to the activity and prominence of Mr. Galloway as a Tory leader in the British camp and later in England are due the memorable place his name has had among the characters of the American Revolution. And yet the extraordinary obloquy heaped upon his memory, and which has served to discredit his whole career, was undeserved” (p. 86.)
The study is based on the original sources for the life of Galloway, including his own private correspondence, his public letters and papers, his pamphlets, his law briefs and his testimony before the Parliamentary and Loyalist commissioners, besides much contemporary material. There is a bibliography divided into primary and secondary material, a list of his principal pamphlets with notes and extracts, and many footnotes. The monograph as a whole bears every mark of scholarship and is admirable in tone and execution.
The Texas Academy of Science has published volume 4, part 2, of its TRANSACTIONS, comprising eight different issues (nos. 1-9, one being double; each separately paged, 8 vo. 1902, covering operations of 1901).
Papers: 1. Influence of Applied Science, by Prof. J. C. Nagle (16 pp., a good statement, with earnest plea for development of local manufactures); 2. Consideration of S. B. Buckley's “North American Formicidae,” by Prof. W. M. Wheeler (15 pp., discussion of 67 species); 3. Silt problem in connection with irrigation storage reservoirs, by Prof. J. C. Nagle (14 pp., strong summary of the difficulties, with remedies); 4. Water power of Texas, by Prof. Thos. W. Taylor (48 pp., originally contributed to U. S. Geological Survey); 5. Reptiles and batrachians of McLennan county, Texas, by J. K. Strecker (7 pp., enumerates 59 species); 6. (a.) Red Sandstone of the Diabolo Mountains, Texas, and (b.) Cretaceous and later rocks of Presidio and Brewster counties, by E. T. Dumble (8 pp.) ; 7. Preliminary report on the Austin chalk underlying Maco, Texas, and the adjoining territory, by J. K. Prather (8 pp.); 8. Proceedings of the Academy (16 pp., brief minutes, list of members (157), and constitution.)
As part 1 of its 19th Annual Report the Bureau of Ethnology publishes a paper on the MYTHS OF THE CHEROKEE, by James Mooney. The myths here printed are part of a large body of material collected among the Cherokee, 188790, comprising notes and original Cherokee manuscripts relating to the history, archaeology, geographic nomenclature, personal names, botany, medicine, arts, home life religion, songs, ceremonies and language of the tribe. These will in time all be published in a series of monographs on the Cherokee Indians, one on their sacred formulas having been published in 1891. In the present volume the history of the tribe occupies a little less than half of the space. This is based on the well known printed authorities, the sources being frequently quoted at second hand from books like The Winning of the West. (Washington, G. P. O., 1900. O., pp., xcii+576.)
The Western Reserve University has published Colonel Washington a study by Archer Butler Hulbert, author of Historic Highways of America, dealing with the career of young Washington as a messenger to the French commandant on the Ohio and as commandant and defender of Fort Necessity. The avowed purpose of the paper is to give a glimpse of the young manhood of the future general; in form it is neither popular nor scientific and adds nothing to our knowledge of the man or his work. ([Cleveland), 1902. D., pp., 58, ils., maps.)
The First Maryland Regiment is known to students of the Revolution as the Tenth Legion of the war. It has found a historian in Mr. A. A. Gunby, of the Louisiana bar, who has recently published Colonel John Gunby of the Maryland line (Cincinnati, Robert Clarke Co., 1902. D., pp., 136, ills.) His book violates every canon of historical writing, adds nothing to the history of the Revolution and little to the personal history of Colonel Gunby whose work was of enough importance to entitle him to a competent biographer.
An amusing bit of local history is found in The Life of Amos Owens, the noted blockader of Cherry Mountain, N. C., by M. L. White. (Shelby, N. C. O., pp., 55, port. ill.) Owens was a Confederate sharpshooter and a ku klux for which he served a term in Sing Sing. He has been a moonshiner all his life and has served two terms of imprisonment for his persistence along that line. The pamphlet professes to be a narration of actual occurrences, but is so written as to leave the reader in doubt as to whether the whole is more than a burlesque.
Mr. Francis Nash, an attorney of Hillsboro, N. C., has published Hillsboro, Colonial and Revolutionary. (Raleigh, 1903. O., pp., 100.) It covers the period 1754-82, is based on the Colonial and State Records, on the unprinted county records, and seems to be more accurate than such work is generally expected to be. The principal events considered are the Regulation war, in which this writer can see little that is good, and Cornwallis's visit in February, 1781.
The ROMANCE OF THE COLORADO RIVER. By Frederick S. Dellenbaugh. (New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1902.
. O., pp., xxxv+399, 204 illus., maps and portraits. Cloth, net $3.50.)
This volume seeks to present a comprehensive history of the explorations of the Colorado River of the West from the time of its discovery, by Cardenas, in 1540, to the present time. Before this Alarcon had been on its lower waters and Melchior Diaz had been on its banks, but it was left for Cardenas to discover and report to Europeans that grandest of all natural wonders, the Grand Canyon. Sixty years later came Oñate, and at the end of the 17th century Padre Kino. Padre Garces and Padre Escalante were in its bosom in 1776, the former being expelled from the Moki towns on July 4, 1776,- an American Declaration of Independence, which in spite of all our boasted progress, has been practically maintained to the present. With the death of Garces in 1781 the period of the entradas comes to an end. The men who conducted them, saving Cardenas and Oñate, were soldiers of the cross and were stimulated by the desire of plucking heathen souls from the burning. With the 19th century came the trappers, men like the Patties and Ashleys, who came to the region for beaver and who generally considered the natives as mere cumberers of the ground. These men grew rich in trade and incidentally added something to our knowledge of the giant canyon and its ferocious river. With American domination came a second age of exploration and discovery, the first under government auspices being that by Lieutenant J. C. Ives in 1858 when he explored from the mouth of the river as far up as Fortification Rock.
So much for the history of explorations and discovery of the Colorado by earlier adventurers. The remainder of the book deals with the two expeditions of Maj. J. W. Powell from the head waters of the river through all of its canyons, the first made in 1869, the second in 1871-73. The first was under private auspices; the latter, under government direction, included the author among its members, and his autobiographical account of its work is therefore of the highest value and authority. Those who know nothing of the Grand Canyon, who have not seen other canyons of the Southwest differing from the Grand only in size and not in character, cannot realize or comprehend its majestic greatness or the magnitude of the difficulties which the intrepid explorer must face. Given a yawning abyss, hemmed in on either side by walls in many places almost perpendicular and running up in height to 5000 or 6000 feet, the distance from one upper edge of this chasm to the other, from rim to rim, being in places 12 miles across; a chasm from which egress was possible in perhaps not more than 20 places in its 2000 miles of length and into which provisions had to be packed for many miles on the backs of burros, a chasm at whose bottom was a ferocious, unconquered river, swollen at times by torrential rains and by melting snows, on whose turbid waters filled with hidden rocks, cataracts and whirlpools, the argosies of commerce had never floated, whose rocky shores had never been charted by man and through whose vast, wild desolation no man, Caucasian or Amerind, had passed or if passing had lived to tell the story; it was into the jaws of this monster, into the maw of this dragon, that Powell and his party boldly steered, not knowing what was before them, without chart or human experience to guide them and strange as it may seem not a life was lost of those who remained with the boats while the three who left the river soon fell before the hostile Utes.