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pushed again with a lively team and merry driver. The country from Frederick to Hancock is very broken and many of the hills are very high, yet notwithstanding the road is populously settled, having in many places from one to five acres of ground to cultivate. Six miles from Hancock is the base of the Cumberland Mountain, immediately on reaching of which we commenced ascending it, and continued our ascent for more than three miles. The top presented a spec

NATURE GRAND, MAN FRAIL.

tacle indeed! Near me floated the clouds in their whitened apparel, deep deep below me run a little angry brook and all along upon the sides, rocks and trees hung suspended by an Almighty power. I knew not which presents to wondering man the greatest spectacle and which most calls forth his astonishment and at the same time his gratitude to Cod for his preserving and sustaining care, whether upon the shoreless ocean where nought breaks the monotony of the view save the white surges of the angry waters, and where we feel as if there was indeed but a plank betwen us and eternity, or whether on the top of the rugged mountain where a false step, a stumbling of a horse or breaking of a carriage might precipitate us down to the depths below as an atom in creation. Both tell us how frail is man, both tell us that there is one who says to the ocean "here let thy proud waves be staid” and to the mountains "be thou removed and they obey his voice”—and all call upon us to give glory to God for his goodness and his love to poor and feeble worms of earth.

(To be continued.)

JOHN C. CALHOUN AS SEEN BY HIS POLITICAL FRIENDS: LETTERS OF DUFF GREEN, DIXON H. LEWIS AND RICHARD K. CRALLE DUR

ING THE PERIOD FROM 1831 TO 1848.

EDITED BY FREDERICK W. MOORE, PH.D., VANDERDILT

UNIVERSITY.

(Continued.)

From-Duff Green.
To—R. K. Crallé, Washington.
Dated—[Fredericksburg, Va.,] August 9, 1837.

Green in Virginia making speeches and canvassing for the weekly edition of the U. S. Telegraph. The late change of the name of the weekly is unpopular and will have to be abandoned. "It requires explanation. Everyone knows that the old Telegraph was anti Abolition and they do [sic. not?] hesitate to speak about it. But the term Reformer they say does not convey the idea that they attach to the paper."

From-Duff Green.
To-R. K. Crallé, Washington, D. C.
Dated-Raleigh, N. C., August 28, 1837.

Scheming to get "our friends" to insist on a share in the public printing for him as the condition of their voting for Gales & Seaton.

Travelling in the interest of his paper and meeting with encouragement.

“I hear but one voice among our friends. They say give us no more choice of evils.”

From-Dixon H. Lewis.
To-R. K. Crallé, Washington, D. C.
Dated-Philadelphia, July 17, 1838.

Stating that John Sergeant is the attorney of the Bank and of the Pennsylvania State Abolition Party; enclosing other material showing that the United States Bank Party, in and about Philadelphia, at least, is an abolition party; and requesting Crallé to publish a strong editorial for the purpose of influencing the approaching Alabama elections.-Smith Coll. and Denny Coll.

From Duff Green.
To—R. K. Crallé, Lynchburg, Va.
Dated-New York, April 19, 1839.

Green has completed arrangements for bringing out a paper in New York and wants Mr. Crallé to edit it.

He suggests the following as the editorial policy: "I believe that Mr. Calhoun is pressing his hostility to the Banking System too far. That his true position is a mediatorThat Van Buren will be reëlected and that Mr. Calhoun and his friends should be in position to profit by the changes of the times. Let Benton & Kendall make war on the Banks, If they wage the war, it will be for Mr. Calhoun's benefit unless he goes further than he should do. Let him occupy the position of moderation & patriotism & constitute as he should be the rallying point of the Patriotic of all parties. We have materials enough without making war on the banks. We have said enough against the system. Let us maintain the banks as they are, and use the sub-treasury as a means of sustaining the banks not of subverting them. Let us be the friends of a well regulated credit, instead of its enemies, and we will [have enough to war on in Clay's colonization."

"The cabinet is now divided. The struggle is between Kendall and Poinsett."

From-Duff Green.
To--R. K. Crallé, Lynchburg, Va.
Dated-Baltimore, December 16, 1839.

"I found things in a strange jumble at Richmond. The Whigs are planning personal arrangements and combinations which promise to consolidate a powerful party. Southall to be governor, Gilmer to retire and perhaps supercede Garland in the H. Rep. Tyler to be Vice Prest. with the assurance of the reversion. Gilmer, Southall & Gregory to support Rives for the Senate. Leigh & other friends of Clay feel assured that if Harrison is elected Clay will in fact control the patronage & that so far as the offices go the same men will reap the honors in either case. Hence the cordiality of the support of the nomination.”

"I fear that the administration do not appreciate their position, & hence the great importance of a sound press at Lynchburg," the establishment of which Green has been promoting.”

“I learn that the administration will throw themselves on the south and that the message & measures will tend to our principles.”

The contest between Benton and Calhoun for the succession.

From-Dixon H. Lewis.
Tom[R. K. Crallé).
Dated-House of Representatives, March 20, 1840.

“Calhoun is now my principal associate, & he is too intellectual, too industrious, too intent in the struggle of politics to suit me except as an occasional companion. There is no relaxation with him. On the contrary when I seek relaxation in him, he screws me only the higher in some sort of excitement

Calhoun is I think enjoying more consideration every day & I never saw his power half what it now is--There are however some miserable undercurrents as usual, to keep [him] from rising above the common level of men.

In about a fortnight "Buchanan will make his report to

*

alter the Constitution so as to prevent the circulation of bank bills under twenty dollars. This opens the whole currency question, and Calhoun will make his greatest effort, being a full development of his views on the Currency question. Buck's project originated in a caucus move, & Calhoun will be almost alone, but he has great advantages in position, and I am glad to see that for once he will have public sentiment with him in refusing to engraft, by amendment, the paper system on the Constitution. Inter nos, Benton & his clique are pledged to Buchannan—to go with him & thus they will lose the credit of being the 'exclusive hard money men.'”

From Dixon H. Lewis.
To-R. K. Crallé, Lynchburg, Va.
Dated-House of Representatives, March 14, 1842.

"I send you by to-day's mail some (copies] of Mr. Calhoun's late very great speech on the veto—and I hope you will have it published in your papers with such appropriate comments as you may prepare calculated to draw public attention to both the speech & the maker. In doing this, it is necessary not to make them so strong as to be considered a nomination for the Presidency & at the same time not so weak as to convey the idea that the writer does not think him fully worthy of that high distinction."

After referring to Ritchie's unfriendly attitude towards Calhoun and apparent support of Van Buren, Lewis says: “We count that there are on this floor from forty to fortyfive members one half of the Democratic Party in favor of Calhoun against all others

But you know as well as I do, the effectiveness of party organization, & I fear particularly in Virginia, it will prevail.”

From-Dixon H. Lewis.
To—R. K. Crallé, Lynchburg, Va.
Dated-House of Representatives, April 5, 1842.

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