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est of modern nations and from the loins of the little colony he planted on the James has sprung the nation that in our own day broke the power of Spain. Could Smith revisit the scenes of his earthly labors how completely would he find his ideas and hopes of the 17th century brought to perfection in the 20th!

Smith, like his great contemporaries whom we have named, was a belated knight errant who entered the lists not for the sake of a lady fair, but for the sake of the English nation and the Protestant religion; both would have been poorer and weaker had it not been granted him to run the race marked out by destiny.

Miss Woods is a firm believer in Smith and a strong defender of her hero. She steadily protests against the attitude of Deane and other critics and in these matters her position is no doubt well taken. As a basis for her work she has depended mainly on Smith's own writings as they appear in Edward Arber's edition of 1884, and on the various other narratives dealing with that period of Virginia history. But she has constant references to Fiske's Old Virginia and Her Neighbors for illuminating and illustrative material and follows sometimes even to the extent of copying him when he himself is satisfied with following a secondary authority.

The book can by no means be considered a successful biography. It is not scientific. It has none of the paraphernalia of scholarship. It is without foot-notes, bibliographical apparatus and index. It confuses and confounds primary and secondary authorities. It is distinctly an appeal to the popular reader and yet in that respect is a dismal failure. The style is heavy and lumbering; despite the picturesqueness of the subject, despite the marvellous and exciting career of the adventurer whose life is here told, the narrative limps and halts and stumbles with heavy and unattractive English. So greatly does the story lack the vivid force and power, the verve of its subject that in many places

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it is actually difficult reading. The author fails to grasp the significance of the story she tells and lacks inspiration.

The Reminiscences of Dr. Hillyer are just what the title indicates. They do not undertake to give a detailed or complete history of Georgia Baptists, but they give slight sketches of many prominent ministers and laymen of that denomination in the State. It is said that to the personal recollection of the writer are added kindred materials from the records and from reliable tradition; but the general character of the work, its gossipy, reminiscent style, its lack of formal system and the presence of few dates would indicate that the chief sources of information came from the personal knowledge of the author, not from written records. While the writer of this note is thoroughly convinced from attempts to use just such work as this as materials for formal biography that it is of very limited value for that purpose, that when such work is considered the book is mostly padding, he is just as thoroughly convinced that as materials for the history of culture in general, for perspective and coloring, it is of the greatest service.

Dr. Hillyer writes in a flowing style that is full of the joy of human kindness; while he sometimes unnecessarily emphasizes the doctrines of Baptists he has shown such sweetness of temper that no offence can be taken at his words. He admits time and again that the great lack of the early missionaries of this denomination was education and h:: points out that often the conferences of the Baptist churches served as courts of justice. The sections dealing with individual churches are doctrinal and controversial rather than historical. There is a portrait of the author and a sketch of his life by his daughter, but no index. The student of migrations will trace with a curious interest the number of these early preachers who went into Georgia from Virginia and the Carolinas. While dating from 1732, the real birth of Georgia is more nearly 1770 and its parents the three older States to the north which have just been named. It is interesting to note also that more of the ministers come from North Carolina than from the other States. The Virginians were more aristocratic as Phillips has pointed out, while the North Carolina immigrants belonged to the middle class, from whose ranks the great mass of Baptist communicants have always come.

Mrs. Arthur's book is another contribution in furtlier elucidation of the text with which this article is headed. The Fowlers are a North Carolina family, but like nine-tenths of the old families of that State, originated in Virginia. They went into North Carolina perhaps as early as 1743. They settled in Wake county; from there, about the end of the eighteenth century, they went into Tennessee and Kentucky, and later into Alabama, Mississippi and Texas. The majority of those mentioned in Mrs. Arthur's book are naturally Texans.

The volume contains many items of personal and local history; many incidents that throw light on the manners and customs of the times in which the actors lived. Unfortunately the author is unacquainted with genealogical forms There are no superior figures, no numbering of individuals for reference, no subordination of one generation to another, as clues by which a person ignorant of the family could arrive at the relationship of individuals, few notes on sources of the material used, much irrelevant matter and much quoted from newspapers, which may generally be accourted unreliable, if not worthless, and greatest of all, no index. A genealogist who fails to get all the details of form may be forgiven, but for the one who omits an index there can be no forgiveness, neither in this world nor in that to come. There are a number of half-tone portraits, generally of a good quality, and some materials on related families. Several Fowlers rendered important services to the Republic of Texas and the whole book illustrates a chief characteristic of that land hungry race from whom this family sprung-a desire for more land and better land.

When books are printed in serials the editor of the series is always in danger of getting inferior workmen for his assignments, as he must provide writers for a certain number of volumes covering certain clearly defined fields. The field may be and occasionally is such that no author has made it his own. The person employed to prepare the volume in question must be taken for his general training, or for his ability as a writer in other lines, rather than because he is master of the particular subject. The result is a volume below the level of the series in which it appears. Witness several volumes in the Story of the Nations, the Ainerican Statesmen and the American Commonwealths.

The latest volume in the Commonwealth series is that on Texas by Professor George P. Garrison, of the University of Texas. Excluding volumes on Virginia and Maryland, which were published years ago, no other Southern States have been represented save Texas, now published, arc Louisiana, announced as in preparation by Albert Phelps. It is understood that the reason assigned by the publishers for not treating any States in this section is that the sales there are not large enough to justify the venture. It is hoped that

. this beginning with the great State of Texas will justify further essays in this rich and unworked field. .

The Commonwealth series does not undertake to give in its small and handy volumes a detailed history of the State in question. It is not so much a history of the State as it is a study based on that history. It seeks to embody and present what is distinct and peculiar in the evolution and growth of each; to show how the particular one differs from others, to point out what it stands for as contrasted with

others and to show what it has contributed that is essential in the making of the nation.

In his work on Texas Professor Garrison has been very successful in following the general plan of the series. He has omitted many details, yet has included enough to make clear the outlines of the earlier struggle of Spanish and French civilizations in the 17th century in this border land between new Spain and Louisiana. The French civilization failed not because it was essentially less fit to survive, but because French efforts were even weaker and more spasmodic than those of Spain. It is not until the time of Mexican independence and the coming of Moses Austin that any effort to settle the Texas country is worthy of more than passing notice.

About one-third of this volume deals with the Texas of the Spanish and French periods. Then come Austin and other empresarios and the flood of Anglo-American colonists.

Certainly no American State can boast a history as full of brave deeds and picturesque daring as can Texas during the years from the beginning of the struggle for the constitution of 1824 against the Mexican centralists till the beginning of the war between the United States and Mexico. The annals of the short-lived Republic are full of courage and sacrifice, but an outsider is forced to ask why the Texans made no effort to relieve Travis and thus prevent the tragedy of the Alamo, and why they thought fit to honor Houston despite the inaction and negligence which he displayed at San Jacinto. Nothing could have been more cowardly ani uncertain than his course; his army held together in spite of his lack of decision and the battle was finally won by the bravery of his men, not by his generalship. Yet this battle made him president of the Republic !

There are no foot-notes and no bibliography, but the author has held his subject well in hand. It is evident that he


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