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This is particularly visible in the natives of the sea-coast provinces of Ceylon, and the hilly tracts of the interior, where there are few Europeans but the government functionaries; in the former the inhabitants are many of them incorrigible drunkards, and the criminal calendar of the circuit shews their proneness to crime; murders, robberies, earslitting, and amputation of the limbs, for the sake of the rings and bangles with which they are adorned, being unfortunately too prevalent; but in the Kandian districts, crimes are of unfrequent occurrence. This fact with respect to India, did not escape the acute vision of the amiable Heber; in speaking of the Rajpoots he says,
some effects of a favourable nature have been produced among them by the intercourse which they have had with the English ; the specimens of our nation which they have heretofore seen, have on the whole been very favourable ;* 3 Circulating libraries.
4 Jewellers. 6 Booksellers and stationers. 3 Watchmakers. 3 Music-sellers.
10 General shopkeepers. 10 Artists.
11 Milliners. 5 Surgeon-apothecaries.
9 Tailors. 2 Do. dentists.
3 Hair-dressers. 5 Chemists and druggists. 7 Boot and shoe-makers. 6 Ship-builders.
5 Provisioners. 16 Male seminaries.
8 General commission agents. 17 Female do.
3 French merchants. 4 Boarding-houses.
9 Armenian do. 3 Hotels.
5 Greek do. 6 Taverns.
do. 4 Banks.
8 Jew do. 33 Mercantile houses.
29 PrincipalHindoostan bankers. 10 House-builders.
13 Do Bengallee do. 6 Coach-makers.
15 Marine insurance societies. 7 Cabinet-makers.
3 River do. officers. 5 Carvers and gilders.
5 Life do. societies, This is a fair specimen of the gradual colonization' which is now going on at the presidencies, and a complete refutation of Mr. Rickards' statement. With reference to the European tailors above mentioned, it must be observed, that of native tailors, dirzees, it is computed that 10,000 come into Calcutta every morning!
* Mr. Holt Mackenzie says, “the habits of the Hindoos are still comparatively simple.”--Evidence before Parliament, 1832.
none of the king's regiments have yet been sent here, and few Europeans of any description except officers; they have therefore seen little of the drunkenness, and violence of temper, which has made the natives of our own provinces at once fear and despise a Feringee soldier ; and they still therefore admire us,* and wonder at the difference of wisdom, morals and policy, which they perceive between us and them.” Heber, p. 71.
Neither has the demoralization of the people of India, proceeding from the example of open vice, escaped the penetration of the philanthropic Rammohun Roy, who thus remarks in his able replies to the questions of the Board of Control :
“From a careful survey and observation of the people and inhabitants of various parts of the country, and in every condition of life, I am of opinion that the peasants or villagers who reside away from large towns and head stations and courts of law, are as innocent, temperate, and moral in their conduct as the people of any country whatsoever; and the farther I proceed towards the north and west, the greater the honesty, and simplicity, and independence of character I meet with. The virtues of this class, however, rest at present chiefly on their primitive simplicity, and a strong religious feeling, which leads them to expect reward or punishment for their good or bad conduct, not only in the next world, but, like the ancient Jews, also in this ; 2d, the inha
* Mr. Chaplin, in his evidence before the Lords, March 30, 1830, says, “ 2783. I am not quite sure that the admixture of Europeans of the middling or lower order with the natives, would have a tendency to create in them an increased sense of the advantages of living under the English government. I should be very much afraid that the respect and reverence the natives now have for the English, would rather be diminished than increased by mixing with Europeans of the middling or lower classes.—2787. Å free unrestricted resort of Europeans would at no distant period lead to the total overthrow of our government.—2785. I am perfectly sure that native prejudices would be outraged if the lower classes of Europeans came much in contact with the natives, and that it would produce hostility to our government, and disaffection generally:" Mr. Ritchie, a free merchant at Bombay, says, that “the Company's authorities having the power to send persons away, most certainly affords them the means of supporting their authority in the country. He was asked, “ Q. Would you think it advisable that that power should be withdrawn from the Company ?”—“ A. Certainly not. 1479."
bitants of the cities, towns, or stations who have much intercourse with persons employed about the courts of law, by zemindars, &c., and with foreigners and others in a different state of civilization, generally imbibe their habits and opinions; hence their religious opinions are shaken without any other principles being implanted to supply their place; consequently a great proportion of these are far inferior in point of character to the former class, and are very often even made tools of in the nefarious work of perjury and forgery. 3d. A third class consists of persons who are in the employ of landholders (zemindars), or dependent for subsistence on the courts of law, as attorneys' clerks, &c., who must rely for a livelihood on their shrewdness, not having generally sufficient means to enter into commerce or business ; these are, for the most part, still worse than the second class, more especially when they have no prospect of bettering their condition by the savings of honest industry, and no hope is held out to them of rising to honour or affluence by superior merit.”
Probably these considerations will be despised, and colonization permitted ; but then, English laws, as Rammohun Roy says, and English police, must be introduced all over India; it is, however, not to be forgotten what has been repeatedly attested before Parliament, that the simplest customs and minutest acts of the Hindoo have their origin in his religious creed. To introduce therefore English laws, would be a monstrous violation of the promises held forth by the British government, of allowing perfect freedom of present institutions, and it would be a direct annihilation of his moral creed; this point, however, will be more fully seen in the “ Judicial" chapter. It may, however, be said, “ if we do introduce
• The evidence of the Honourable Mountstuart Elphinstone before the Lords' Committee in 1830, is conclusive with respect to the evils which the natives would suffer from the projects of colonization now on the tapis. This enlightened individual says, “I think that any unrestricted residence of Europeans in India would be productive of more harm than good.”
2382. Q. Would not a greater resort of Europeans to the country tend to keep down the native population, and to prevent the natives rising to the possession of those offices in which you think it would be desirable to place them ?- A. I think it certainly would. If Europeans
our vices among the Hindoos, and suppress their laws, yet we shall make them compensation by introducing among
them the arts of civilized life ;” but let us pause and enquire whether the Hindoos, although so long bowed down by despotism, are such an uncivilized race, that they would profit by receiving in exchange for a knowledge of the arts of life a familiarity with European crimes, an entanglement in the chicanery and extravagance of English jurisprudence, and a loss of their landed property. That the latter would be the probable result of colonization, has were allowed to go without restraint to India, I think many
go at first, some without capital, and others on speculations which would soon reduce them to poverty ; that from the compassion of their countrymen in India, and their greater fitness for office, they would be introduced into employments to which we have been of late endeavouring to introduce the natives; and that if they formed friendships with the Europeans in power, which they have greater means of doing than the natives, they would get advantages in other ways.-Q. So that the elevation of the native character appears to be inconsistent with the more general resort of Europeans to the country? A. Inconsistent with the unrestricted resort.-Q. In your opinion, would it be necessary to subject the Europeans residing in India to restrictions as well as to impose restrictions on their resort thither ?-A. I do not know that any of the present restrictions could be dispensed with. It would be sufficient if the Government had the power of sending them out of the country, and of sending them from one district to another, in case of their being guilty of any oppression, or creating any great disturbance in any particular district, as has happened sometimes. I am always supposing they are not so numerous as to form a very considerable community in India. Such a community would be very unruly, and very difficult to manage, on the part of a government which must be always arbitrary in its character. If there were a great body of discontented colonists, such as at the Cape, for instance, I think their clamours would probably weaken the government very much with the natives. Their disagreements with the natives would also be dangerous; and I think there would be a great increase of the feeling which there is now only among the lower orders of Europeans in India, of contempt and dislike for blacks. There would be a more marked distinction between blacks and whites, as there is in all regular colonies.-Q. Where differences arise between the Europeans residing in India and natives, by what court would they be tried in the provinces ?-A. At present, if the differences are of small consequence, they would be tried by the local court; but if of great consequence, the cause would go to the Supreme Court at the Presidency:— Q. Would a poor native have the power
prosecuting an European in the Supreme Courts?--A. No, a poor native would not. The only chance would be the Government taking up the prosecution, if it were a serious matter.
been demonstrated. Mr. Chaplin truly says, “ If Europeans were allowed to settle in the interior, I have no doubt it would lead ultimately to the stripping the natives of their land, depriving them of every office or employment, however subordinate, and ultimately reduce them to the most degraded state of a conquered people.” (Lords 2793.)
This is precisely the tenor of Mr. Elphinstone's, Mr. Baber's, (Mr. Rickards' !) and every individual who knows the condition of India, and is capable of expressing an unbiassed opinion. With respect to the uncivilized state of the natives, an answer will be found in the following extract from Bishop Heber's writings, and in a passage of Mr. Rickards' evidence :
“ To say that the Hindoos or Mussulmans are deficient in any essential feature of a civilized people, is an assertion which I can scarcely suppose to be made by any who have lived with them; their manners are, at least, as pleasing and courteous as those in the corresponding stations of life among ourselves; their houses are larger, and, according to their wants and climate, to the full as convenient as ours; their architecture is at least as elegant, and though the worthy Scotch divines may doubtless wish their labourers to be clad in hodden gray, and their gentry and merchants to wear powder and mot. tled stockings, like worthy Mr. and the other elders of his kirk-session, I really do not think that they would gain either in cleanliness, elegance, or comfort, by exchanging a white cotton robe for the completest suits of dittos. Nor is it true that in the mechanic arts they are inferior to the general run of European nations ; where they fall short of us, which is chiefly in agricultural implements and the mechanics of common life, they are not, so far as I have understood of Italy and the South of France, surpassed in any great degree by the people of those countries. Their goldsmiths and weavers produce as beautiful fabrics as our own, and it is so far from true that they are obstinately wedded to their old patterns, that they shew an anxiety to imitate our models, and do imitate them very successfully. The ships built by native artists at Bombay, are notoriously as good as any which sail from London or Liverpool ; the carriages and gigs which they supply at Calcutta are as handsome, though not as durable, as those of Long Acre. In the little town of