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CHAPTER XII.

SUMMARY OF THE PRECEDING CHAPTERS.

THE reader who has done me the honour of perusing the preceding chapters, will not have failed to perceive that strong and salient expressions have accompanied the eliciting of a fact, when conducive to the interests of truth; it is too late now to recall them, whatever regret the author may feel for their appearance; they are, however, but as the chaff to the grain, which although augmenting the bulk deteriorate not the substance, and may be easily given to the idle breeze; but as the sentiments of an individual, when commenting on an authenticated circumstance, from which every person is authorized to draw his own conclusions, may to some bear the semblance of partiality, the author feels it due to himself as well as to the cause of justice to state, that whatever way the Legislature may adjudicate the claims of the Honourable EastIndia Company, is to him, in his private capacity, a matter of no moment; for, being without the slightest prospect of employment in England, and abhorring a life of idleness, he is impelled to seek, on Continental Europe, a field for the exercise of that political and commercial knowledge which he acquired as a medical officer in his Majesty's navy, or as a private individual in various parts of the globe. Were he actuated by feelings of hostility to a country to which he owes nothing, but for which without arrogance he may say he has exerted himself much,” his talents, however feeble, would, on mature reflection, be devoted to the downfall of the East-India Company; but though adverse fate may some day place him in opposition to the ‘meteor flag, under which it was once his pride to serve, he cannot help regarding England, with all her faults, as the cradle of civilization, the resting-place of religion, and the asylum of liberty. Apologizing for these prefatory remarks, which it is anxiously hoped will prevent a misconception of motives, the following summary of facts are offered, and respectfully asserted to have been proved in the foregoing pages: 1st. The establishment of the East-India Company was coeval with the dawn of British maritime greatness. 2d. Through many revolving years of internal commotion and foreign war, the East-India Company expended an immense quantity of blood and treasure, in acquiring for England a footing in the eastern hemisphere, and ultimately a splendid dominion, which justly deserves to be termed the brightest jewel in the British diadem.

* The author may be permitted to state, that from the commencement to the close of the discussion on the Reform bill, he conducted a popular London Journal (The United Kingdom), in which the best

and dearest interests of the British public were advocated with a zeal which which has been appreciated by the people of the most remote depen. dencies of the empire, as attested in their journals; nor did he resign his arduous post until the freedom of England (and with her destiny that of the world) was placed, on what he trusts may prove, an impe. rishable basis for future prosperity. This exposition is made because the writer is a perfect stranger in Great Britain; and because his own unfortunate country (on whose troubled waters he would gladly pour the oil of peace) may demand his humble exertions. While it is madness on the part of Ministers to enforce the collection of tithe for the perpetual support of the Protestant Church in Ireland, the Irish should recollect, that in desiring to be free, they must remember to be just; this would not be accomplished by giving to a landlord a tenth which he had never purchased, or hereditarily acquired. The announcement of Government, that on the demise of existing incumbents, a portion of tithes, as they fall in, would be appropriated to national objects, such as schools, hospitals, and charitable institutions, would tranquillize the country; the attempt to perpetuate them for their present use will cause the shedding of much blood, a severing of the legislative union, and, subsequently, a series of endless disputes, if not of warfare, between both countries' Who, that wishes well to England and Ireland, can calmly contemplate the possibility of such terrible events!

3d. That, however advantageous to England, such conquests were not made at the expense of humanity; on the contrary, the arms of the Company were ever turned against despotism, and employed for the relief of the feeble, the indigent, and the oppressed. 4th. That to the combined efforts of the East-India Company's capital, skill, and patriotism, England is indebted for the vast commerce which she now enjoys with India and China.” 5th. That since the Legislature in 1814 authorized an open trade with India, no pains have been spared by the East-India Company to extend the commerce between both countries. 6th. That the declining export trade from India to England, has been caused by Parliament retaining prohibitory duties on the raw and manufactured produce of the former country, with one exception (indigo). 7th. That by examining the quantity as well as the value of the trade between England and India, it will be seen (allowing for fortuitous and propitious events, which arose in 1815) no actual increase of commerce has taken place. 8th. That the great sale of cotton goods in the East has been caused by annihilating the trade of many thousand Hindoos, and not in consequence of any unforeseen markets having been created. 9th. That the Hindoos justly complain, that while the ports of their country are open for many articles of English produce, duty free, the remainder being subject to a very slight import tax, the markets of Great Britain are virtually closed against their staples, (sugar, coffee,

* Wide the summing up chapter of “the Past and Present State of the Tea Trade of England, and of the Continents of Europe and America.”

rum, &c.) and the means of repairing the injury done to the native manufacturers denied them. 10th. That for England to demand the right of supplying the Hindoos with Liverpool salt, would (independent of its violation of native prejudices) be the means of throwing one million of Hindoos out of employment, and necessitate the Bengal and Madras governments to obtain a revenue on some other articles equal to that now lightly and uninguisitorially collected. 11th. That the assertions put forth respecting the condition of Molunghees, or salt manufacturers are untrue. 12th. That with reference to “Colonization, the natives of India are averse to it; that the object of the Company in prohibiting the purchase of land by Europeans in India, or their indiscriminate resort thereto, has not been from any selfish considerations, but with a view to preserve their subjects in the undisputed possession of their landed property, and to prevent a violation of their prejudices or feelings. 13th. That the landed revenue of Hindostan is neither so oppressive in its nature nor so exorbitant in amount as has been frequently stated; that its reduction is impracticable, and its substitution for an excise, income, or housetax, impossible, and that the revenue and debt of India is, in proportion to the population, less than that of any state in Europe or America. 14th. That the Company's Government have done every thing in reason to extend the blessings of a well conducted press, to enlighten the people entrusted to their care, and to check inhuman or immoral practices. 15th. That free political institutes, however advantageous to a country, are not the sole means of improving it.

16th. That in admitting the natives of India to high appointments of trust, the Governments have unavoidably been compelled by reason of the varied nature of the population, their personal antipathies, peculiar manners, and especially in consequence of the demoralizing effects of centuries of despotism, to be cautious in reducing an acknowledged principle to practice. 17th. That in the execution of civil law, the customs, religious rites, and cherished institutions of the natives have been sedulously maintained ; that justice has been purely, cheaply, and, as readily as peculiar circumstances would admit, expeditiously administered. 18th. That the criminal laws of India are wisely adapted to the end in view, by being humane in punishment, but speedy and certain in execution; their efficiency and that of the police being tested by the extraordinary diminution of crime which statistical tables exhibit. 19th. That official documents and unimpeachable testimony demonstrate the improved and improving condition of the Hindoos. 20th. That the home government of India is a triple power, wisely balanced and judiciously conducted, without vesting dangerous authority in the crown, while the patronage thereof is disposed of with safety and advantage to the state. 21st. That the foreign Government, while enjoying a wide exercise of power, is subjected to well regulated checks from the constituted authorities at home, who exercise a vigilant control over all its proceedings. 22d. That the Indian army, although not larger than is required for the maintenance of order within, and the defence of aggression from without, is too great to be amalgamated with his Majesty's army (independent of

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