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menis, Art. 12.)
. dent the VicePresident to
isamaediately choose by ballot one of them for President; and if no person hate a majority, then, from the five highest on the list, the said House shall in like manner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one rote: a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two thirds of the Stales ; and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person having the greatest number of votes of the Electors shall be the Vice-President. But if there shall remain two or more, who hate equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them, by ballot, the Annuncul. Vice-President.*
4. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the Congress may Electors and the day on which they shall give their votes ; time of chooswhich day shall be the same throughout the United States. ipso lectors of
5. No person, except a natural born citizen, or a citizen The President of the United States at the time of the adoption of this Con- to be stitution, shall be eligible to the office of President. Neither wenn ich shall any person be eligible to that office, who shall not have aged 35 years attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen leuidente sofa the years a resident within the United States.
6. In case of the removal of the President from office, or in case of va of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers fice of Presi and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President; and the Congress may, by law, provide for act, &c. the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the President and Vice-President, declaring what officer sball then act as President; and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.
7. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services, a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor of the Presi diminished, during the period for which he shall have been elected; and he shall not receive, within that period, any other emolument from the United States, or any of them.
8. Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall The President take the following oath or affirmation :
9. I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully Form of the execute the office of President of the United States; and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States."
SECT. 11. 1. The President shall be commander in chief of the
The President army and navy of the United States, and of the militia of the Commander
in chief, &c. several States, when called into the actual service of the United States. He may require the opinion, in writing, of written toin
He may require the principal officer in each of the executive departments, cipal esecutive upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective of- officers. fices; and he shall have power to grant reprieves and par- He can reprieve
and pardun. dons, for offences against the United States, except in cases of impeachment.
to take an oath.
1. may, in con. jin 1 with
+ Tilaties, - Am
2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and con. sent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two thirds of
the Senators present concur: and he shall nominate, and by ... ius, &c. and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint
Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States,
whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, "map.and which shall be established by law. But the Congress
Herein may, by law, vest the appointment of such inferior officers, ur other as they shall think proper, in the President alone, in the
courts of law, or in the heads of departments.
3. The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies ce that may happen, during the recess of the Senate, by grantihe ing commissions, which shall expire at the end of their next
11. Pesident 4
1. He shall, from time to time, give to the Congress inint to in- formation of the state of the Union; and recommend to their . Whend consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and ndo expedient.
He may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both Housrees, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between shal them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adindex journ them to such time as he shall think proper. He shall
in he receive Ambassadors and other public ministers. He shall I... · States. take care that the laws be faithfully executed; and shall
commission all the officers of the United States.
1. The President, Vice-President and all civil officers of con the United States, shall be removed from office, on impeachare cietion, ment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high
crimes and misdemeanors.
1. The Judicial power of the United States shall be vested * Su in one Supreme Court, and in such Inferior Courts as the
Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The
Judges, both of the Supreme and Inferior Courts, shall hold Isold their offices during good behaviour; and shall, at stated times, d be. receive for their services, a compensation, which shall not be
diminished during their continuance in office.
1. The Judicial Power shall extend to all cases, in law "Wefe and equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the
United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers, and Consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United States shall be a party; to controversies between two
or more States, between a State and citizens of another State, between citizens of different States, between citizens of the same State, claiming lands under grants of different States, striction of this and between a State, or citizens thereof, and foreign States, Amendments citizens or subjects.*
2. In all cases, affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers, and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be a
Original and party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction. appellate jurisIn all the other cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court Supreme Court. shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such regulations, as the Congress shall make.
3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, Trial of crimes shall be by jury: and such trial shall be held in the State &c. where the said crimes shall have been committed ; but when not committed within any State, the trial shall be at such place or places, as the Congress may by law have directed.
1. Treason against the United States shall consist only in Definition of levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted Two witnesses of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the necessary.to same overt act, or on confession in
Court. 2. The Congress shall have power to declare the punish-Congress to de ment of treason; but no attainder of treason shall work cor-ishment of trearuption of blood, or forfeiture, except during the life of the "ob. person attainted.
1. Full faith and credit shall be given, in each State, to Credit to be the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every State to the other State. And the Congress may, by general laws, pre-branother: scribe the manner in which such acts, records and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof. 1. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all priv- citizenship
Reciprocity of ileges and immunities of citizens in the several States.
throughout the 2. A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or criminals feeother crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in ing from one another State, shall, on demand of the Executive Authority er, to be deliv. of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be re- mand. moved to the State, having jurisdiction of the crime.
3. No person, held to service or labor in one State, under Runaway the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence be delivered up. of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor; but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due.
1. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this may be detit. Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within Union, &e.
ered up on de.
Congress to have power
ment guaran. teed to each State, &c.
the jurisdiction of any other State-nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more States, or parts of Stateswithout the consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned, as well as of the Congress.
2. The Congress shall have power to dispose of, and make over territory, all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or
other property belonging to the United States, and nothing in Claims of the this Constitution shall be so construed, as to prejudice any to be prejudic. claims of the United States, or of any particular States.
1. The United States shall guarantee to every State in Republican for in of govern- this Union a republican form of government; and shall pro
tect each of them against invasion, and on application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened,) against domestic violence.
ARTICLE V. 1. The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses Mode of amend: shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this
Constitution, or, on the application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one
or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the ["Concerning Congress: provided, that no amendment, which may be made tion of certain prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, shall
manner affect the first* and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no State, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.t
ARTICLE VI. 1. All debts contracted, and engagements entered into, be
fore the adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid debts incurred against the United States, under this Constitution, as under
2. This Constitution, and the laws of the United States tion, Acts or which shall be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties Creaties, and made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the Supreme Law, United States, shall be the supreme law of the land: and the
Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any thing in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.
3. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned,
and the members of the several State Legislatures, and all oath or affirma. Executive and Judicial officers, both of the United States and this construit of the several States, shall be bound, by oath or affirmation,
to support this Constitution ; but no religious test shall ever No religious
be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.
persons and di-
&c. The State Judges bound thereby
nine States suf.
ARTICLE VII. The ratification of the Conventions of nine States shall be Ratification of sufficient for the establishment of this Constitution between ficient, kes the States so ratifying the same. Done in Convention, by the unanimous consent of the States pres.
ent, the seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and eighty seven, and of the Independence of the United States of America, the twelfth. In witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed our names.
GEORGE WASHINGTON, President,
and Deputy from Virginia.
DELAWARE. Jony LANGDON,
GEORGE READ, NICHOLAS GILMAN.
GUNNING BEDFORD, JUN’R. MASSACHUSETTS. JOHN DICKINSON, NATHANIEL GORHAM,
DANIEL OF ST. THOMAS JENIFER,
James Madison, Jun'R.
NORTH CAROLINA. WILLIAM PATTERSON,
WILLIAM BLOUNT, JONATHAN DAYTON.
RICHARD Dobbs SPRAIGHT, PENNSYLVANIA. HUGH WILLIAMSON. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN,
SOUTH-CAROLINA. THOMAS MIFFLIX,
JOHN RUTLEDGE, ROBERT MORRIS,
CHARLESCOTESWORTH PINCKNEY, GEORGE CLYMER,
CHARLES PINCKNEY, THOMAS FITZSIMONS,
PIERCE BUTLER. JARED INGERSOL,
GEORGIA. JAMES WILSON,
WILLIAM Few, GOUVERNEUR MORRIS. ABRAHAM Baldwin.
Attest, WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary.
IN CONVENTION, Monday, Sept. 17, 1787,
HAMILTON, from New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Dela-
1. RESOLVED, That the preceding constitution be laid be-Constitution to fore the United States in Congress assembled, and that it is Congress, &c.