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a poor Lascar, belonging to the Me- nilla. She came with her whole famirope, was brought in, dreadfully bruis- ly to see me, bringing a suit of clothes ed, but not cut.

belonging to one of the murdered About dusk a guard came from Frenchmen, and soon after sent me a the city to convey Mr. Bennett to a cup of warm chocolate.-At 1 A. M. I place of safety, by orders of the gover- was taken from the stocks, and allownor; but he nobly refused to go, un- ed to lie down in a more comfortable less they took all of us; and the guard apartment; and at 8 A. M. Bennett, to returned. He was taken from the my great joy, was brought back. The stocks, and soon after taken from the serjeant was still with him. house, under pretence of visiting a sick We were shortly after put in boats, person, but in fact to be killed on the and conveyed to Santa Cruz, and pladead body of a woman who had just ced in the house of the corregidor.expired. A serjeant of the regular The populace were sadly disappointed troops saved his life by advising the in missing their expected prey; they people to take him to a house where a had assembled in great numbers, filling person lay at the point of death, and the streets they expected us to pass, oblige him to cure her. The woman from St. Miguel's through the towns of was quite cold at the time he began, Caipo and Santa Cruz. By going but, by dint of exertion, he preserved down the river we avoided what would her life. During this time the villains have been inevitable the fate of our sat round the bed, with their knives companions. ready to plunge in his breast the mo “ About half past 11 A. M. we rement she expired. Finding her get- ceived accounts that the mob were ting better, they agreed to go back to murdering and plundering the Chinese where we were confined, murder us, merchants in the Escalta; there shortand retire to their homes, as night was ly after appeared a great deal of confufar advanced. B's presence of mind sion among the white Spaniards, who, again saved us; “Touch one of those with their families were getting inside persons,' said he, and this woman the city as fast as possible. dies.

« The following evening, D'Arbell “ My own situation was extremely and our wounded friends were removed unpleasant, especially after Bennett into the hospital, and on the morning left the house. I supposed he was of the 11th we were conducted, to our murdered, and the men who surround- great satisfaction, inside the walls, and ed me, using every method, short of placed in the fortress of Santiago for taking my life, to distress me. “Should safety; where we found 20 or 30 layou recollect my face, (said one of dies and gentlemen, French, English, them to me,) so as to inform against Americans, &c. Our arrival afforded me in case we should spare your life?' great pleasure, as I had been two days • Prepare for confession, (said another,) on the dead list, and Mr. Bennett's fate you have half an hour only to live was also a mystery." These, and many other remarks and A list of the murdered is added; it questions of a like tendency, served includes Capt. Nichols of the Merope, not a little to aggravate my sufferings, and ten English seamen ; Godefoi, the saying nothing of lying nearly naked, naturalist, sent out by the French govunder an open window, through which ernment, and several French captains a cold drizzling rain beat in on me, as of vessels, &c.; two Danish merchants, I lay on the open bamboo floor of the six Europeans, unknown, three Spanhut, for 10 or 11 hours.

iards, killed by mistake of the mob, “ About midnight I was greatly re- and from 80 to '100 Chinese. The lieved by an old washer-woman, whom bodies were carried to the sea-shore, I employed the first time I visited Ma- and buried in a heap.


--Bene qui cænat, bene vivit--lucet-eamus Quy ducit gula--piscemur-venemur.

Horace, Epist. 6. lib. 1. PRAISED forever be thy obstinate two meals was the order of the day;

1 virtue, merry old England: for, to but every man brought to the table a this hour bast thou magnanimously full-grown appetite. There was then contemned the vanities of cookery. no hypocritical earnestness in the counNo, the specious miracles of Italian tenance and action of a guest, to justify science, the bedizening of Monsieur the praises of the viands; no frauduVery's coquinarial millinery, has no lent concealment of the morsel of which charms for thy downright simplicity of the world seem to have legitimately stomach. Thou hast set thine honest disposed. The sincerest interest in face against the proselytism of beef and the business in hand, pervaded the inmutton into ragouts, soups and other dustrious circle; and till repletion gave mysterious disguises ; and wouldst hold the alarm, never did hands or jaws no communion with the rash inventors "give o'-r their functions.” Eating of metaphysical dishes, and their disci- was then the most important concern ples. Honest, unsophisticated food, of life. Nothing in the way of politics such as his father throve upon, will or morals (as has since been the case) John Bull stand up for, to his last could be effected without a feast. A breath. Next to the glories of roast treaty of peace, or adjustment of a viland boiled, I prize the culinary history lage quarrel,-a marriage, or a camof my native country. The Romans, paign, was not undertaken, as in the when they came over to look for pearls, Roman times, without a savoury sacfound us in possession of choice beef rifice, proportioned to the occasion. and mutton“ multus numerus peco- Cæsar observes, that neither hares, ris," is the expression of Cæsar; and hens, nor geese, were used at the tables I may as well add here, the testimony of the Britons. The Druids, in excludof another foreigner-Voltaire, who ing these articles from consumption, thus historically speaks of us in the did no great violence to the taste of the reign of Elizabeth :

people. Their preference was fixed De leurs troupeaux feconds, leurs plaines upon beef; and that national dish,

sont couvertes. Henriade. whose pedigree has been calumniously All that the Romans could do, could dated from Ilenry VIII.'s time,* owes not induce our ancestors to look straight its birth to the free and early adoption at one of their cooks. Roasting and of the Britons. After the extinction of boiling required no great clerkship to the Druidical superstition he prejudice understand them. We were not very against poultry continue, and it was choice; but we fed copiously and sate in vain that the example of the Roisfactorily, and cared for no man. It mans recommended to us the use of the was no uncommon thing, in those days, cuckoo and the peacock,—the latter for a young princess to take her turn at being but recently brought under the the spit; and a commander-in-chief attention of that people, at a feast givwas not ashamed to exchange his trun- en by Hortensins the orator, to the clercheon for a basting-ladle. Who would gy of Rome. The Saxons, with a judgnot envy them the natural beauties of ment worthy of their high character, their unpremeditated dishes ? what concurred in, and even improved upon palate would not long to snatch a taste the British choice. They broke through of the rude energy of their extempore the effeminate practice of parcelling dumplings? In these primitive times, out limbs and steaks; and setting at

. * Vide last No. Edinb. Revier, art. Cookery. , ATIESECU VOL. 10.


nought the dictates of an illiberal disc during his expedition to Ireland he ascretion, they made the table groan, not tonished the natives of that country, by with the disjecti membra of an ox, but the number and variety of his dishes, the mighty length and breadth of that the titles of some of which only have noblest of quadrupeds, “ one entire and reached us, such as karumpie, delleperfect.” The Danes are said to have grout, &c. Indeedo William of Malmescommunicated to us the art of gorman- bury marks his sense of the growdizing. I do not think this assertion ing luxury of the times, in terms of the has been well considered; the only ad- most justifiable wrath. Richard II. vantage which I can find they had over was a monarch of very liberal notions the natives was, that their bill of fare upon the subject of eating: not a man included horse flesh. The conqueror, less than 10,000 a-day called for meat owing to the decided and well-directed at the kitchen of the royal household. efforts of the royal purveyors, was a The Earl of Lancaster distinguished very corpulent man. The circum- himself amongst the nobles, by the stance is authentically known to us, in most honourable profuseness. He deconsequence of its having been made voted about 100,0001. a year, modern the subject of an unlucky joke by the currency, to the manly expenditure of King of France. William kept his his table. Edward III. ridiculously bed for some days, and was informed, enough, thought to lower the average that Philip had inquired if he was not of consumption, by the enactment of yet delivered of his great telly. The sumptuary laws; the first violater of angry monarch vowed that ten thous- them was his own son, Lionel of Clarand lances, instead of the usual tapers, ence. The marriage of this prince should attend his churching at Notre was celebrated by Wirty exquisite Dame; and he made good the pledge courses; and agments of the wedconveyed in this metaphorical Wreat. ding feast fo po less than 1000 very The return of the great religious fésti- hungry peo I this reign it was val was celebrated chiefly by feasting. that the Ea of Watwick (Neville), Great piety, and a love of eating, were one of the gatesti fathers of eating by no means inconípatible things.- that, England has seen, rendered himChristmas was a period the most fa- self so beloved byghe people, in consevourable to the indulgence of the one quence of the grand scale of his enterand the other; and it was no uncom- tainments. Stonk mentions that whenmon thing for a very devout man to ever he came to London, he kept such die of a surfeit. Easter was not such a house, that six oxen, at a breakfast a time for gormandizing : the good was considered very moderate indeed ! folks, howe er, insinuated good cheer It was usual for the great barons of into that festiwal ; and it was generally those days to feast their retainers in the acknowldged that the onk, sore way halls of their castles. Nor should we a man ha acknowledge that he insult the memory of our ancestors, by was no Jam was to pay his hearty supposing that their entertainments, respects to a gammon of badon. We like those of the Romans, were mere are told of a feast, at a great castle, titular feasts, where a man was expecte that happened in those times, which ed to eat and drink a good deal less lasted from three o'clook in the after than he spoke and listened. They did noon to midnights and to the luxuries not esteem it of so much importance to of which, six remote cities of the East inquire, with whom, as upon what, they contributed their choicest products. had dined; and never made the ridi*This was a time of imnovation on the culous mistake of calling for a catasimple and substantial national meal.- logue of guests instead of a bill of fare. Henry II., I am afraid, was tial to Such an officer as an Anagnosten* was the cæna dubia, which nature ammo- never heard of in England. The usual rality alike condemn.--lle vindic d two meals a day were now split into his lineage by his fondness for cranes : four, and the latter escaping under the

* His function is fully explained in a note to the life of Atticus in Cornelius Nepos.

gentle title of a livery. An unhappy household book, employed but two love of variety (as great an enemy as cooks, for a retinue of 200 persons. disease to the ability of the stomach) Fowl, which had been forbidden to then gathered force. The Archbish- any under the class of lords, did not op.of York, at his installation feast, form a frequent dish even at their taleft to his guests the range of 104 oxen, bles; although the list of poultry, as 1000 sheep, 2000 pigs, and a due pro- well as other dinner articles, was sigportion of other constitutional commo- nally increased in this reign, as apdities. The day might have lived in pears from the authority of the followour admiration, but for an unlucky ap- ing verse : pendix of 104 peacocks, and 400 Turkeys, carps, pickerel, and beer, swans. But, oh, the revolutions of Were brought into England, all in one year. tastes! The ordinary breakfast of an In consequence of a temporary famearl and his lady, we are told, in those ine about this period, the common days, consisted of bread, meat, (salt- council of London, by a formal order, fish on days of abstinence), beer, and confined the Lord Mavor to seven dishwine! You might offer any sum for a es a-day, and prohibited the use of tady subject to the vapours, without cranes and bustards, under a penalty. the least risk of losing your money. The English found out the use of a vaThe more ambitious part of the nobili- riety of roots in this reign. · Queen ty permitted the introduction of fanci- Catharina

nci- Catharing ased to send to Flanders for fully-manufactured pastry at their din- a sallad bie

din- a sallad, but not it couldn't had for a ners. The most venerable characters song in London. The histories of this in paste were scfificed without mercy; time teem with Lomplaints of the lussex or age was ng pareds, and one ury of the clergy. Indeed we owe it common death and demon and to be profession to state, that they an angel. Thoracoe pn of Henry have been, at all times, the most libVIII. ought to be mark å in white by 'eral patrons so good eating. Whatall the lovers of good-eing. It yas ever they mighu Lay in theory, they in his reign that the policy of suppres- certainly admitted, by their practice, sing the system of purveying began to the truth of the ancient maxim, that show itself in the gloy. Ang and pathetic a perfectly wise man should be as exsirloin, that rendered us the envy of all pert in the use of pleasures, as in the our neighbours. The fear of the pur- discharge of any of his duties : « Cui veyor, it would seem, caused the re- cor sapiat, ei quoque sapiat palatus :" markable neglect of ox-breeding, in the a sentiment no where

m openly acearly part of our history. In a remon- knowledged than at the Inns of Court. strance to Edward I. by the barons, Elidabeth, in the magnificend of her. clergy, and commons of the great hard- soul, o uraged the spirit of feasting. ships imposed upon them by aids, tal- She Was a mortal enerto fasting, as lages, and contributions of provisions, appears from the cuki breambles to the necessity of supplying salt beef some of her acts. Hollinshed marks seems to go nearest to their hearts. In the rise of the toute for corrupt cookery Henry II.'s time an ox was worth but in his time, by x complamt, that the three sheep; before that, it was never nobility began to employ 66 musicalvalued at more than six. The extinc- 'headed Freachmen.” James I. was tion of the race of purveyors allowed no great friend to the pleasures of the the greatest attention to the feeding of table. The country gentlemen did the ox; and consequently, in the reign themselves lionour, meantime, by their of Henry VIII. the ox, on the average, virtuous fidelity to the traditions of was worth fifteen sheep. Families of their fathers ; for we find a member of distinction lived chiefly on salt-meat Pa hent, of that time, declaring that and fish during winter, with which they u stice of peace, in his day, was a consumed inordinate quantities of mus- sort of animal, which for half a dozen tard. Happily the rage for cooks had chickens, would dispense with a dozen not been introduced. The Earl of penal laws. The great national spirit Northumberland, as appears by his of eating was asleep in the reign of



Cromwell; and after the Restoration, meritorious citizens chiefly by cramwhen it began to peep forth occasion- ming them. The practice of sacrifically at, a wedding, a baptism, or a ing animals to the gods,proceeded from wake, the imprudent monarch pursued the experience which men had of the it by penal statutes. The last centu- appeasing properties of a dinner. The ry, which may be called the dark age English is the only nation which has of eating, is eminently relieved by the kept off cookery and despotism. Our circumstance of six Lord Mayors of liberties and our dishes are placed on a London dying in office, in the interval permanent basis : they mutually preof 30 years.

serve each other, and are allied in the Where is there a nation, then, that superstitious regard of the worshipful can exhibit such a spotless shield as people of England. Perhaps it is this England ? Greece and Rome affected prejudice that the legislature means to poverty and frugality, forsooth. Milo, compliment, by the custom of making and some think Epicurus, saved the laws only after dinner. Among the credit of the former. There were Romans, the circumstance of eating some redeeming characters also a- salt together bound strangers to each mongst the Romans. With what ex- other. In England, a dinner has alquisite glee does Horace chuckle over most a sacramental obligation. The his sleek and portly person ; and he policy of English monarchs has conpositively tells us that no one could es- tinued the coronation feast for wise cape him during his fasting moments. purposes. I have heard a friend boast, “ Impransus non qui civem dignosce- that the late venison feast at Westminret hoste.” But the Emperor Vitellius, ster hall, would have inoculated the sein my fancy, was worth all that sat verest republican with loyalty toGeorge on the same throne before and after IV. Happy England ! secure alike him. His brain was not turned with from hunger and from slavery ; may sauces; it was all glorious substantial the spirit of Eating, and of freedom eating with him. Seven millions Brit- never forsake thy sons ! May glory in ish, per annum, was his rate of expen- arts and arms be theirs-an uncorruptditure. What a reign for the gastrono- ed taste-keen appetite, and the huge mic department! What a time of sat- sirloin, in which they may urnalia for the masticators and their de

With desperate knife pendences! The oldest people in the The deep incision make, and talk the while world, the Chinese, are the greatest of England's glory ne'er to be defaced, flesh eaters, and do honour to their While hence they borrow vigour.

(Literary Gazette, Sept.)


war with America was at an end. One The Columbia lakes in a cargo for the Rus- of these, the Pedlar, was seized by the sians at Norfolk Sound.- Russian Scillers

Russians for selling powder to the nafor the Sanduich Islands.- Arrival at

tives in the Sound, but was given up Columbia River.-Sail for Oxyhee.Trade with the Natives.-- Russian selilers before we sailed, (after several attempts on Oxyhee.-Sail for Canton.- Return to to get out,) on the 17th of October,

Columbic River-Arriral at Norfolk Sound. 1815. The ship Isabella sailed at the U AVING returned to Columbia same time, with Dr. Shef ham, a RusIT from Monterey, we speedily dis- sian, and some settlers for the Sandcharged our cargo, and took on board wich Islands; it being their intention a fresh one for Norfolk Sound. The to obtain footing there, as they had 16th of September, having completed done on the coast of New Albion, the our wood and water, we sailed for that N. W. coast of America, of the whole place. On anchoring in Norfolk Sound of which I am of opinion the Russians we found four American vessels lying will possess themselves in time. there, from whom we learnt that the On the 25th of October, we again

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