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entered the river Columbia, and sent We acquainted the King with our inthe furs on shore to be re-packed. In tentions, and he sent one of his hikaNovember, nine bark canoes arrived nees or confidential men on board, with furs from the interior ; on the named Kenopoo, to accompany us and 10th we received our cargo on board see that we should get what we wantwith stores, &c. and on the 13th, made ed. On the 16th of December we sail for the Sandwich Islands. Nothing took leave of Tameahmeah, and with remarkable occurred on our passage, the ship full of men, women, and chiland on the 10th of December we made dren, made sail for Woahoo, passed the Island of Owyhee; the ship was the islands of Tahoorooa, Raini, and surrounded with canoes filled with arti- Morokoi, and on the 19th arrived at cles of trade. On the 12th we came Woahoo. We were boarded outside too off the village of Tyroa, half a mile by John Young, a white man, who had from the Morai on the point. Found lived on these islands upwards of 33 the American ship Milwood here, pur- years: he piloted us into the harbour chasing sandal wood at the rate of 7 and we moored close to the shore, dollars for 133lbs. The King, Ta- where thousands of the natives were meahmeah, came on board with the collected, and soon crowded us. Mr. gentlemen we left last year, who had Manning, a Spaniard, and Mr. Harrbeen well treated by the natives and bottle, an Englishman, who had been wanted for nothing. On their first on the island for many years, came on landing, the King had houses built for board, as did also a number of respectthem, and gave them servants to attend able wbite men. This being Sunday on them. His Majesty and the Queens we gave the people liberty to go on were rejoiced to see their old friend, shore; one of the men, who left the Captain Jennings, and after taking a Forester at Owyhee, came back with good proportion of wine they went on them, and remained. Next morning shore together. The Prince Reoreo at sunrise we fired two muskets and and his step-sister Maroo also visited sent the women out of the ship, and at the vessel ; the Prince was accompa- sunset did the same as a signal for them nied by one of the chief priests; he to come on board ; this practice we was highly tatooed, and would not go continued, and by that means kept the under deck for fear the sailors or na- ship clear of natives. By the 29th of tives would walk above him. Being December we had completed repairing the greatest man on the island, no per- the rigging, caulked and painted the son was allowed to put even a hand ship inside and out, and salted a quanabove his head on pain of death. His tity of pork; we then left these friendsister was not so ceremonious, but came ly people, and made sail towards Mooi, below and took her wine with me, and another of the group. 1st of January, pressed me very much to remain on 1816, we were close in with the vilinge

of Whymea ; the natives came off in The Russians had arrived and were great numbers, bringing hogs, goats, on shore. Dr. Shef ham assured the and vegetables to barter. The King, King that he merely came to collect Tamoree, did not make his appearplants and see what the Islands produ- ance, but sent his head man to measure ced. During our whole stay, our the schooner. On the 4th our gentlidecks were continually crowded with men came on board, and we sailed for natives. We shipped a large quantity China, where we arrived on the 11th of island rope, which makes excellent of February. The grand mandarin running rigging; and the people were came on board to measure the vessel, employed killing and salting pork; the and made the usual present of two lean King, Queens, Prince and Princess bullocks, ten jars of sour stuff misnamcoming on board daily and remaining ed wine, and ten bags of something until evening. Wanting to overhaul they call flour; they were not worth the rigging and caulk the ship, we de- the trouble of taking on board, and I termined to run down to Woahoo, sold them to the compridore for two where there is a fine close harbour. dozen geese.

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April 30th.—Weighed and made about the size of an egg, I suppose for sail from Macao towards the N. W. ballast. I could never find out where coast of America. On the 23d of the seal winters ; but certain it is, they May we passed Ormsby's Peak, a very must have a place where they remain high rock that makes like a ship in full during that season and feed, which has sail, and is quite covered with birds, not yet been discovered. The people latitude 30d. 48m. north, longitude on these islands live under ground; 217d. east. Our passage was the they collect drift-wood enough in sumquickest ever made. July 11th, we mer to last the winter; they live chiefsaw Hallibut Island; also a remarka- ly on sea-lion meat jerked, pickled ble volcano on the main land, from ducks, gull's eggs preserved in oil, &c. which a column of smoke ascended. On the 24th we saw the ship-rock, Stood along towards the Straits of and could hear the roaring of the seaOonalaska, and next day were close lion and elephant, long before we could up with the island of that name.- see the rock, it being very foggy. On Tacked one mile from the west side of its clearing away, we saw the Island of the Straits, wind blowing in hard Oonalaska, and stood towards Cook's squalls from N. W.; all the islands in Straits. The next day it came on to sight were covered with snow; three blow hard from S. E.; made sail for bodarkees, with Oonalaska Indians, the harbour, black whale blowing in came on board, abreast of Cook's-har- all directions; we found a snug town, bour. They had been out fishing, and church, &c. the natives were all emwere returning home; they gave us ployed drying salmon for the winter. some fish, and we gave them rum in Captain Jennings and the gentlemen exchange. July 17th, off the Island accompanied the governor on shore ; of St. George, we were boarded by two they took some rum with them to treat bodarkees, with one Russian and four the Russians, who have a numerous Indians; next day we got off the land- berd of cattle and make excellent buting-place where there was a considera- ter and cheese. They keep two skinble store, a large bodarkee came on boats constantly employed in summer, board and took the cargo on shore, and collecting the drift-wood about the isl. by the evening we had taken on board and, which is the only fuel they have. 313 bales of fur seal-skins. The Rus- We lay here until the 29th, when we sians brought us off plenty of gull’s made sail towards Cook's Straits. eggs, salted ducks, and a number of While we lay about these islands we young sea lions, which we found very had not more than three clear days. good eating. The Islands of St. Paul The Island of Oonalaska is in the and St. George are within sight of each latitude of 53d. 55m. north, and longiother; the Russians keep 12 men on tude 166d. 22m. west. This island is each, for the purpose of curing the furthe chief depot for all the furs collected seal-skin, with which these islands on the Aluthean Islands; and appears abound. They take 40,000 annually, quite barren, without the least sign of and still the seal does not decrease. wood. There is an excellent harbour The mode they pursue is as follows :— off the N. W. side, capable of holding The seal comes on shore to pup in seven hundred vessels, and completely July, and stays the whole summer, land-locked. The town consists of (leaving a sufficient number of clap about twenty houses, a church, and matches and wigs :) the hunters drive some large sheds for the purpose of up the last year's pups like a flock of drying salmon and other fish. There sheep, out of sight and hearing of the are about twelve Russians here; the old ones, and knock them on the head; remainder of the inhabitants of the taking care not to let one of those dri- town are Kodiacks, and natives of the ven up escape. Each summer's pups island, all converts to the Greek church. go to sea and come on shore next sum- The natives of this, as well as of all iner, and are fit to kill. They leave the Aluthean Islands, are low in stathe islands in November very lean; ture, broad, flat faces, with black eyes, they take in several smooth stones and coarse black hair. Their dress consists of a loose frock, made of the catching the sea-otter and seal, these skins of ducks and other birds, sewed people are very dexterous ; they conneatly together; this part of the dress ceal themselves behind the rocks, and is the same in both sexes. When the throw out a seal-skin blown, with a line men go in their canoes to hunt or fish, affixed, and draw it gently towards the they wear a dress of the entrails of the shore : the seal or sea-otter following seal; it is made like a large loose shirt, till within reach of their spears, they with a hood, and is water-proof. They are easily captured. In hunting, they also wear trowsers and boots, made wear masks and skins to represent the from the throat of the sea-lion or ele beasts they are in pursuit of; they alphant, which are water-proof also.- ways carry a ride with them, in the They are extremely fond of ornaments, use of which they are very dexterous. particularly of beads, with which they All of them are extremely fond of rum, ornament their garments and person; and they often part with their garments they wear them round the neck, and and hunting utensils, to purchase a pendant from the nose and ears, through small quantity. Their principal food which many holes are made. The consists of the black whale; also, men have a helmet or cap, ornamented salmon, cod, hallibut, herrings, &c. with the beard of the sea-lion and with When these fish are in season, they seed-beads. All the natives use paint. cure sufficient to last them through the There are several villages about the winter, by drying and smoking them, harbour, but the island seems very thin- without salt; they also eat their victuals ly peopled, owing, I suppose, to the without it; and the reason they give number that are employed by the Rus- is, that it hurts the sight. Whether sians on their establishments on the N. this be the case or not, all the natives W. coast of America. Their canoes are very sharp-sighted. On this islor bodarkees, are made from the skins and they have about 40 head of fine of the hair-seal, stretched over a light cattle, first imported from the Spanish wooden frame, leaving one, two, or Maine ; they have also some large three holes on the top for the sitters ; hogs, which are fed on fish, and consethe frame is sometimes of whalebone, quently not very delicate. and the vessels are from 10 to 16 feet long, and about three feet wide in the

CHAP. VI.. middle, gradually tapering towards the ends. They are pulled with great The Winter of 1816, on the Columbin Riswiftness by a double paddle, about 12

ver.--Sail for the Sandwich Islands.

Account of the Columbia.-Manners and feet long, with a blade at each end, and Customs of the Natires. held by the middle; they are general

IN August, 1816, we once more ly made of ash. The canoes perform touched at the Columbia, unloaded,and voyages along the coast for several refitted. We lived in tents on shore, hundred miles, for the purpose of hunts within a fence erected to keep the Ining the sea-otter and seal; they also dians from stealing our tools. On the kill black whales, which are about these 9th Sept. two canoes, belonging to the islands in great plenty. If in their N. W. Company, arrived from the inhunting excursions they are overtaken terior: they had left the brigade, conby a gale of wind, they lash all their sisting of nine canoes and about sevencanoes together in form of a raft, and tv men, encamped at Oak-point, sixty in this manner float lightly on the top miles up the river. On the 1st of Ocof the sea without the least danger. tober, the whole brigade of canoes arThe large boats, or bodarkees, are rived with furs; and, on the 5th, they made from the skins of the sea-lion or again sailed (well armed) with stores elephant, stretched over a stout wooden for the interior, under the direction of frame, open at the top, and are capable Mr. M'Kenzie. of carrying 50 or 60 men. In these W hile here, I employed an Indian boats they go to all the Aluthean Isle hunter; who, with my finding powder ands, to collect the furs; and some

and shot, supplied the ship with ducks, umes to the main land for timber. In

geese, and swans, for one blanket.

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On the 10th Jan. we crossed the bar they keep their property and spare and got safe to sea.

garments, and also their dry provision. The Columbia river is full of sand- When the Indians shift to their winter banks, formed by the numerous small quarters, they carry all the planks and rivers that branch off in various direc- mats of their houses with them, leaving tions from the main one. The coun- nothing but the rafters and frame standtry, on both sides, is formed of impen- ing. They are filthy to the extreme; etrable woods, chiefly pine, elder, mac allow whole piles of fish entrails and ple, and birch trees; further up, there other uncleanness to lie in the middle are plenty of good oaks and ash. The of the houses, never attempting to clear first tribe of Indians we saw were call. it away. Even in their eating they are ed the Chickeloes, under a chief,named very nasty; I have frequently seen ('alpo. They come from a place call- them with a piece of meat, half roasted, ed Classet, to the northward of the ri- in the dirt and ashes, lying on the ver, on the sea coast, and bring, otter ground with their feet on it, and tearand beaver skins to trade at the fort. ing it like wild beasts with their teeth. They encamp in Baker's-bay, and con. After their fish is boiled, they turn it tinue, from June to October, curing out on a mat, or, if they have not got salmon and sturgeon for the winter. one readily, on the ground, and collect They are a very warlike people, and round it like a pack of hounds, devourextremely dangerous, taking every ad- ing dirt and all. Their mode of boilvantage if you are off your guard. So ing fish, vegetables, &c. &c. is rather hostile and treacherous were they, that singular, and deserves to be related. we never allowed the men of ti is tribe They put whatever is to be cooked in. to come on board.


to a basket, and, nearly filling it with About five miles up the river, on water, place it on the ground; they the north side, stands the Chinook vil- then proceed to boil or sodden it, by lage. The king of this tribe is called putting in red hot stones (of which they Com Comly, or Madsaw, which, in the have a number for the purpose) in Chinook tongue, signifies Thunder. quick succession, until the victuals are The village consists of about thirty done to their satisfaction. houses, built of wood, and very large; The chief employment of the men is they are formed of boards, with the to hunt and fish; they are, however, edges resting on each other, and fasten- generally speaking, very lazy, and ed with stripes of bark to upright posts, their young men lie basking in the sun, which are stuck in the ground on eith- on the sides of the river, for hours toer side of them. Some have ridge- gether. The women and girls are empole and rafters, but the chief part are ployed in making hats, mats, &c. and nearly flat on the top; they have old in collecting berries and wood. These mats spread inside and out, to keep people have not the least notion of tillout the wind and rain. In every house ing the ground; they trust to Provithere are from five to fifteen families, dence for every thing, and derive their and each family has a fire in the mid- chief support from the river and sea. dle of the building. On the sides they They collect plenty of berries and fish have their bed places, raised about a in summer to last them through the foot from the earth, and covered with winter. The former they preserve by mats; where they pig in all together, mixing them up with salmon or seal men, women, and children. The oil, and, making them into lumps, set houses are decorated with rude carved them to dry in the sun. When sufijimages, which they call clamas, or ciently dry, they are laid by in boxes gods, but they do not seem to pay any and baskets for winter. The salmon kind of homage or attention to them. they cure by splitting it up into four Their furniture consists of boxes or slices, and running splinters of wood chests, hollowed from the solid wood, across them. These they also dry in of all sizes, and curiously carved; and the sun, and then hang them up in the a number of baskets, which they work houses, where they are soon smoked so close as to hold water. In the boxes and laid by for use. They are cured

without salt, which is never used. The Indian, who was standing by, laughed Indian women are complete drudges, most heartily at them, and taking up yet they seem to work cheerfully.- his bow, stood on the stern, and shootThey have a root here like the pota- ing, broke the glass in pieces, at a distoe, called by the natives wapitoe; it tance of 95 feet, the mark being about grows chiefly in swampy ground, and three inches square. The bludgeon is is collected in September.

made of bone or iron, about two feet The men are very stout and hardy ; long, and stout in proportion, and their height from 5 feet to 5 feet eight handsomely carved and ornamented; inches, well proportioned, and with the daggers are made of flint-stone or very little beard. They wear a dress iron, and are held by the middle, so made of the skins of the wood-rat, sew- that they use both ends. The natives ed neatly together and thrown over the have a kind of loop to the bludgeon shoulders : this garment is the same in and dagger, which goes over the wrist, both sexes, with the addition of a pet- to prevent their being wrenched out of ticoat, which the women wear. It their hands; and they never stir out goes under the right arm and above the without one of these weapons. Their left, where it fastens with a wooden original tools are chisels made out of skewer, being open down the side, so the pine knot, axes of stone, and stone that it leaves both arms at liberty for mallets. With these they split large the use of their weapons. Their ears cedar trees into planks, with which are perforated in many parts, and small they build their houses. Their canoes bits of leather fastened in, from which are very simple; some are large enough hang shells in shape not much dissimi- to carry 30 people, being about 40 feet lar to a game cock's spur, and about long, the middle nearly 6 feet broad, one inch in length. These shells are and becoming gradually narrower tocalled hiaqua. The nose is also per- ward the end. They are about two forated, from which beads are suspend- feet deep, handsomely ornamented and ed; and sometimes a large goose or painted; the ornamental parts are the swan's quill is pushed through. They teeth of the wolf and sea-otter, which anoint their bodies with a sort of red navigators have taken for human teeth. ochre and seal oil; and are very ex. The paddles are made light and small, pert in the use of the bow, bludgeon, the length generally 6 feet, of which and dagger. Their bows are made of 2 1-2 feet forms the blade : the lower pine, about four feet long, and, in the end is forked like a fish's tail, and the middle, two inches broad, tapering off upper end is crutched very neatly. In towards each end. The sinew of the the canoes they keep nets, hooks, harelk is laid on the back of the bow, poons, and fish-gigs, &c. also long which bends it the contrary way, and spears for spearing salmon. The strengthens it; the string is also made Chenook women are short and very of the sinew of the elk, and it requires stout, with thick and often bandy legs. a man of some strengih to string them. Their hair, which is jet black, they alThe Chenooks are very expert in the low to hang loose all round their heads use of this weapon ; they will stand on and over their shoulders, never cutting the deck and stick an arrow into the it off unless at the death of some near truck with ease. Their arrows are relative. They wear, as I have noticinade of light wood, and pointed with ed, a petticoat made of rushes twisted stone, bone, glass, ivory, or iron.- over a string, with ends hanging looseThose barbed with ivory I have seen ly down. This garment reaches the pierce a three-quarter of an inch plank knee, and keeps them very twelve yards distance. One day The war-dress of the men is made of some of our people were practising the the elk-skin, which is dressed in the bow on board; they stood aft, and en- interior; it is very thick and yet pliadeavoured to strike a small looking ble; an arrow cannot penetrate it. and glass placed on the bow of the vessel, I have even tried with a pistol ball at but none of them could succeed. An the distance of twelve yards without


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