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The Official Part.
The Imperial Palace .
His Imperial Majesty the Sultan .
A. Letters of the Alphabet. § 1. The following table shows the shape of the Ottoman-Turkish letters, when they are connected with a preceding or a following letter, or with both, and when isolated :
Numer Names Isolated Final Medial Initial
S 2. The letters of the Ottoman-Turkish Alphabet are 32 in number, and consist of 28 Arabic letters, together with some which the Persians have added
Ey). The Turks, as most other Oriental nations, read and write from right to left, instead of from left
Letters of the Alphabet.
to right as we do; and a book consequently begins where it would end in English. Capital letters are unknown, and the punctuation marks have been adopted recently. They are the same as in English.
$ 3. There are four kinds of writing:
I. Righ, which is the ordinary current handwriting used in letters and in all kinds of civil and official documents.
II. Nésikh, is the common print of books, newspapers etc.
III. Divanee, is a style of large handwriting used in the Imperial Chancery for engrossing letters-patent.
IV. Taliq, is the Persian model of Arabic characters, it is used by Persians, and also in documents of the Ottoman Canonical court. Examples of these and other forms of rarer occurence are given at the end of this work.
$ 4. There is always more or less difficulty in representing the sounds of one language by those of another. This is true also in the case of the OttomanTurkish language. It belongs to a family or group of tongues different from the English, possessing sounds entirely foreign to English ears. To express these sounds, we have made some modifications of some of the English vowels and consonants. It is necessary to master these sounds before going on. They must be pronounced fully; all having only one regular sound. For instance: a has only one sound, and not five or more as in English: e has only one, as in pet, though the name itself will cause some blunder. i, o, u also have only one sound each.
There are eight vowel sounds in Turkish.
§ 5. The vast population of Turkey, especially the Christians, do not all use the Ottoman characters in their writing. The Armenians and the Greeks have adapted them to their characters. There are books and papers in Turkish, in Armenian and Greek characters, published in Constantinople. Most of the Englishmen and Americans, resident in Turkey, find it easier to begin Turkish with English or Armenian characters, and after mastering the pronunciation and the elements of the language, they turn to begin it with the Arabic