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ژاندارمه ,jita quicksilver ژیوه ,jenger verdligris زنكار :j

, as

as:

.sol left صول ,sagh right صاغ

.Bladir ilyas St. Elias خضر الياس ,qadi judge قاضی

): , jiva , jandarma a county policeman.

sin is a soft s, always followed by a soft vowel in all Ottoman words, as: jou s@oz word.

shin is English sh, as: ish work. so sad is a hard s, it designates a hard vowel,

, i dad is used in Arabic words only. It is generally pronounced as a hard z, but sometimes as a hard d; thus: Bly razee content, anbria zaptiyé a gendarme,

, khidir . b is pronounced as t, thus: web top ball. But sometimes in Turkish words it is pronounced as d.

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bi zê is used in Arabic words only, as a very hard z, thus: 115 zalim cruel.

E ayn, ¿ghayn, ö qaf, s kéf. See SS 33–36.
; is the English f, in all cases, li féna.
J lam is the English l, in all cases.

mim is the English m, as: the mal.

o noun is like the English n, as: il nan bread. But before bé it is pronounced as m. pémbé light rose colour, Joao home I istambul Constantinople (Stambul).

§ 18. Note. The reason why so many s and % sounds occur in Ottoman is that Arabic words intro

.oda room اودا) اوطه ,dagh mountain (داغ) طاغ

شيه Thus

ب

ص‘س ‘ث In the latter tongue the sounds of

duced into the language have to be written as in Arabic.

and again those of bo';; are quite distinct from one another, as are those of and A, of , and But these distinctions are not observed by the Ottoman.

C1. The Orthographic Signs. § 19. There are five kinds of orthographic signs used in Ottoman-Turkish. The vowel signs, Jezma, Medda, Shedda and Nunation. These are put under or over the letters.

The Vowel Signs. $ 20. There are three kinds of vowel signs: ústûn, ésré, côtré. These are named haréké 'movements'; but by the Europeans they are commonly called vowel points.

$ 21. These three vowel signs have two values each.

I. With a soft or neuter consonant, ústún has the value of é; and with a hard consonant a.

II. With a soft or neuter consonant, ésré has the value of ė; and with a hard consonant ê.

III. With a soft or neuter consonant, côtré has the value of û, êo; and with a hard one o, ou.

a) Hard Towels. § 22. Hard vowels are used with hard letters.

I. Ústûn is a diagonal stroke drawn from right to left, placed above the letter thus —; it indicates that the hard letter over which it is placed, is to be followed in pronunciation by a, as in English bar, star.

ح خ ص ض ط ظ ع غ ق

Key. Ha ûstûn ha, khî ûstận kha, ayn ûstûn á, etc.

II. This sign is called és-, under hard letters it is pronounced è, as e in heaven.

جخ ص ض ط ظ ع غ قي

Key. Ha és-ré hi, khî és-ré khi, sad és-ré , etc. III. This sign 9 is éôtré, over the hard letters it is pronounced o or ou, as in cold, could.

' ص ض ط ظ غق

Key. Ha édtré ho, hou, khî eotré kho, khou, dad eotré do, dou, etc.

b) Soft Vowels. $ 23. Soft vowels are pronounced with soft or neuter letters. .

I. Û stún when put over a soft or neuter letter, is pronounced like é, as in met.

دن

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Key. Sin ûstûn sé, kéf ûstûn ké, géf ûstûn gé, etc.

II. Esré when put under a soft or neuter letter, is pronounced i, as in pit, him.

ملي في زج ت ث ژ

Key. Mim ésré mi, lam ésré li, zé ésré zi, etc.

III. Éotre when put over a soft or neuter letter, is pronounced û, eo, which have no equivalent in English. (8 6, 7. 8.)

سران
ش و

چ

Keny. Dal cotre di, de0, pe eotre pai, peo, shin eotre shai, sheo, etc.

Exercise b.

م م ززز

ح ج م و م ص ص ص س س س ق ق ق ك ك ك ت ت ت ط ط ط د د د

ظ ظب ب ب ش ش ش ث ث ج چ خ ذرژ ع في غوي

ادا

The Connection of the Letters. $ 24. The letters of the Ottoman alphabet are divided into two other divisions: connected and unconnected letters. is taken up,

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برا قدم

I. The unconnected letters are , jussl, which are never joined to the following letter, and when they occur the word is broken; that is, the

pen and the second part of the word is resumed unconnected. They may be joined only to the letter preceding them, as thus exhibited oglal idaré (administration) braqdim (I left).

II. The connected or joinable letters are those which may be joined to the letters which follow or precede them; the remaining letters are connected letters; as: chaiio mûnfasîl (unconnected).

Exercise c.

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ژن زل

زل
ل

C: (: (:

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دلی

ور

رس

JS

st's E Key. Dal kéf ûstûn dék, dal kéf ésré dik, dal kéf eotré dúk, deok.

§ 25. In dealing with the letters of the Ottoman alphabet on the preceding pages, we have shown only the shapes they take when standing alone; when they are combined with other letters, they are sometimes slightly modified, according as they stand at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of the word. These various changes will be seen from the Table of the Alphabet (P. 1 and 2).

§ 26. There is also a compound character in use, which is always to be found inserted in alphabets, and which, for that reason, cannot be passed over in silence. It is the character y, called lam élif, being, in fact, nothing more than J lam joined calligraphically to a following \ élif, in a similar manner to that whereby the English printers continue to join the f and 1 in fi, or f and i in fi, etc. When this double character is connected with a preceding letter, it has the shape of », )

Exercise d.

.(Mela ( evil بلا :as ,لا

نط از نخ نستليشدنيا بخند

پشین به بغبة بث حج ا حيا

بيح بنجما ذء فيغو ك ك بها

Key. initial; noun initial, final; té initial, khi medial; noun initial, khi medial; noun initial, , , lam, , , , noun, medial, elif final.

Exercise (Connected Monosyllables) e.

ب ش بش؛ (پ ر) پر؛ تل ثل : (ثم) ثم (ح م) جم ؛ ( ك) چك ؛ (شش) شش ؛ س س سس ؛ (لم) كم ؛ (قل) قل ؛ ( س) فس؛ (حج) حج

Key. Bé shin ûstûn bésh; pé ré ûstûn pér; té lam eotré túl, etc.

Vowel Letters. $ 27. Besides the vowel signs, sometimes the vowel letters Sogl are used, to indicate vowel sounds.

I. Elif indicates the hard vowel ústún, provided that it is the second letter of the syllable. Instead of

here elif is substituted ;حا طا ظا is written ح ط ظ

جی

for ústún.

II. Yé, sometimes when it is the second letter of the syllable, indicates the vowel ésré. Instead of TJ? is written s 53; here yé is substituted for ésré.

III. Vav, generally when it is the second letter of the syllable, indicates the côtré. Instead of is written gogo; here vav is substituted for côtré.

IV. , when it is the second letter of the syllable, generally indicates the ûstûn, either hard or soft. Instead

; ; ústún (, , ).

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مق

of

here he is substituted for ;ده ره به is written درپ

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