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.ocalamag to rub اوغه لامت ;qoomaq to expel قوغمق

or com. a-a' sir, ¿l bagh vineyard, üklė gl ogh'lan com. oʻlan, ou-lan boy. After a vowel vav 9, with the sounds 0, ou, ¿ has very much the sound of w; like the gh of throughout. Thus öyle gl ov-laq or ogh-luq kid; ac yö qora not qogha (a pail); ügis sovouq not soghouq cold;

; $ 37. Note. In the transliteration of the foreign proper names or nouns, the hard g, when followed by a hard vowel, is represented by ¿ and not by 5. Ex.: Hugo gs yo hou-gho, Gladstone ügüm s slė ghladîston, guardian übəylė ghardiyan, gazetta av ghazéta newspaper, gas ; lė ghaz.

$ 38. Hémzé. The élif at the beginning of words is a consonant (S 29), which is called hémzé or hemzé elif, because naturally there is a sign of hémzé over the elif, which is not generally written. Jel ol is originally , é, ! .

$ 39. The combination of hemzé élif with a vowel elif (ii) is expressed by médda, which is the vowel élif put over the consonant hémzé élif (SS 29 d, 47) 1 =T;

, , = $ 40. But when hémzé is found in the middle of words, if it ends the syllable, it is like an accent or a hiatus. Ex.: set té-ë'-sir influence, solo -é'-mour officer.

$ 41. At the beginning of syllables it is pronounced as y consonant; as: 15 15 qayil, jis dayir.

Note. The pronunciation of hémzé and the changes

. أيت is ایت ,أل is ال ,أثر ser

is- اثر ,أول


.آت or ات = أات ,tt ات ,almaq آلت = أالق

it undergoes, are in accordance with the rules of Arabic Grammar.

جزم (

(3. Other Orthographie Signs.

a) Jezma $ 42. The letters in a syllable are either vowelled or quiescent; the first letter of any syllable is naturally vowelled, the others quiescent. The rouelled letters are accompanied by a vowel sign, but those which are quiescent, are marked with the sign (), called Jézma. Ex.:

sua besh-lik: the letters b and jl are rowelled, as they are the first letters of the two syllables; sh and s k are quiescent; therefore marked with Jezma. bér ):

bés are vowelled and both of the , rés quiescent and therefore marked.

mim and are vowelled, s kéf and bé quiescent.

§ 43. The vowel letters cannot have the mark of quiescence, as they are substituted for the vowel signs,

), stands for ústún, and does not need the sign.

the two بربر


tel ( school مكي


baliq ( fish ) , where lif بالت and indicate their kind


Exercise h.
Read and write the following exercises:


صاحب .I ساعت ، لايت ، طاوق چوجوق چوجق قامش چاش ، راحت، چیچان ، چيلك ، ديلك ، وشنه ، گندی گیتدی ، گندی، تخته بشقه كتاب

Key. Sin élif ûstûn sa, ayn té ûstûn at sa-ut; Lam élif ûstûn la, yé qaf ésré yêq, la-yâq; Tî élif ûstûn ta, vay qaf éotré vouq, ta-vouq: and vav are consonants, because they begins the syllable.

.I آخشام ؛ اسلام ، اقرار ، اقبال ، اثبات ، اسراف ، انسان ؛

مخصوص ، مظلوم ،

تبديل ، تشریف، تريف، تليم ، تقسيم

محبوس مشهور مكتوب

Key. Elif khî ûstân akh, shin élif mim ûstûn sham all-sham; s-l0w, iq-o-dy, iq-al, s-bat, s-y-af, in-sn; teb-dl, t'sh-rif etc.

" .III کتاب ، کتابی تا به ؛ قيو، قیوبی، بویه ؛ يالى بالى بي يالى به ؛ پاره پارویی پاره یه ؛ ياره يارهيي ياره يه ؛ بابا بابایی بابا به ؛ آنا، آنايي ، آنا به ؛ قناد، قنادی قناده

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Key. Kéf ésré ki, té élif bé ûstùn tab, ki-tab; két ésre ki, té élif ûstûn ta, ki-ta, bé yé ésré , ki-ta-bi; kitaba etc.


.IV شربتجي ، كتا بينك ، كتابجيده ، كباجي ، حلواجي مجلسده ، مكتبنده سرمایه ، خبردار ، دولتلى هو سلی، مطلقا

يکيجه ده


باغچه ده ،

Key. Shin ré ústûn shér, bé té ûstûn bét, shér-bét

, jim yé ésré ji, shér-bét-ji; ki-ta-bi-nin, ki-tab-ja-da etc.

§ 44. In most cases, indeed, the vowel points are not inserted, except in quotations from the Qoran, or in writing a foreign word or name, and in some poetical works. This at first causes a little embarrassment to the learner; he must accustom himself to pronounce the word as if such vowels did not exist, until he can supply them by a knowledge of the word. The difficulty will vanish by dint of a little practice.

تشدید b


§ 45. A consonant which is to be doubled without the interposition of a vowel, is written only once, but marked with the sign –, which is called shéd'da or tésh-deed (strengthening). This reduplication is not a mere matter of orthography as it is in the English language; when a letter is doubled in writing, it must be doubled in pronunciation, as is done in English with the letters d, 1, n in the words mid-day, mad dog, full lips, thin nose.


: ,(hiddet ( anger چت is changed into the form جددت

let nation ملت

§ 46. The sign shedda belongs only to Arabic (700), in Turkish words the letter is simply written twice, as: zowho sal'-la-maq not as zotlo. Ex.:


Exercise i.
Write and read the following exercise:

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جراح : حال ، راز صراف ، جد، مداح ، بال، سا شناس، دلاك ، هت جت، حا، تحرك ، مكرم

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مدا c



, ,


a آت ,(tt


meat آت ;is feuo emeen آمين

.(a aneen ( amen آمين


) , a)

Key. Jim ré ûstûn jér, ré élif ha üstün rah', jér'-rah' etc.

c) $ 47. This sign is called méd'da =, which means long; it is put over élif to show that it must be pronounced with hard ûstûn a, and not as e, i, o. Arabic and Persian words it serves to lengthen the élif ($S 39, 603, 701 d); as: t. jí éz (crush), but jī az

ét (),

meen Read and write the following exercises: ol éh well! Jí él hand 1 ésh companion T ah alas jí év house



al take آل
ash food آش

!fg hallo ای
aq white آق ay mouth آی av hunting آو
آتش.P ؛ آلت .a ؛ آباد .p؛ آدم .a ؛ آلدم ؛ آقه

ek sow

! ! Key. Elif hé ústûn éh, élif hé medda ûstûn ah etc.

d $ 48. The marks of vowels when doubled, are pronounced with the addition of the sound n, - én,

تنوين d


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in, a ún. This is called tén-veen i. e. ‘giving the sound of noun'; it occurs only at the end of an Arabic word. The vowels thus doubled are spoken of as iki ústün, iki ésré, iki éôtré respectively (SS 670, 681). Ex.:

té ûstûn té: 6 or a or á té iki üstûn tén.

s dal ûstûn : » dal iki üstün dén.

j fé éòtré : ; fé iki éòtré fûn.

; Key. Noun ésré ni, zî élif ûstûn za, ni-za, mim élif iki üstün mén, ni-za-mén etc.


نظاما ، رضا ، مضاف ، حقا ، حد ، أطفة ، يوما ، ثانيا



D. Accent.

-ag1 آغلام ,'pyth-160 كويك ,te

' house او :last syllable


§ 49. It is difficult and wearisome to give absolute rules and their exceptions in regard to the accent in Ottoman Turkish, as it varies much. Some general rules are given in the following lines, while in all cases which cannot be included under these rules, the accent will be indicated. I. Usually every Turkish word is accented on the

; év, pékaghla-maq

II. Words with double consonants have the accent on the first consonant; as: žollo sal-la-maq to shake, d. jl jo sar'-raf banker, jaway! is'-siz lonely, púz qad - progress.

Note. The shedda in Arabic words serves as an accent (8 45).

III. In Persian and Arabic, the vowel letters or the Letters of Prolongation are pronounced long and are accented ($ 28); a. lolo ja-hil ignorant, a. reem' merciful, p. jessi a-tésh fire, a. Ogradi khou-soos' à point, respect.

-ht کریم

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