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,alir آلير

IV. In case of emphasis among words the accent is on that word which receives prominence. Ex.: 1. Sén dún' geldin? Was it yesterday that you came? 2. Dún sén' mi géldin? Was it you that came yesterday? 3. Sén dún géldiñ' mi? Did you come yesterday? (8 66).

V. The letters h, r, when they are in the middle and at the end of words, are accented; as ' ati allah', ogpö qah'ré coffee (pp. 5, 8).

E. Euphony or Harmony of the Vowels.

§ 50. A very remarkable peculiarity of Ottoman is the attention paid to euphony in pronunciation, and the changes of the sounds of vowels and consonants which take place in consequence. Thus the collision of hard and soft letters in the same word is always avoided. And when one declines a word or adds a particle or letter to it, whatever be the leading letter the others must be pronounced so as to agree with it (S 87).

§ 51. There are two simple rules of euphony in the language for the words of purely Turkish origin:

a) If the first syllable of the word contains a hard vowel, all the vowels in that word should be hard.

, , ghî--our credit; not ol-di, al-ti, a---ghi-mi-zi etc.

b) If the first vowel be soft, then the others should be soft also. Sigu séô-zû the word, soos géôr-he saw, MI A-tér hands, ;

msosing gbos----yi-miz; not so-zi, el-lar etc.

§ 52. Remark: 1. On the above principles, when one declines a word or adds a particle to it, the vowel of the syllable added is generally so pronounced that: î comes after a: dob' sobb'pkb dam, damê, dama;

é: al' JI Jl él, éli, e-;
0, qolou, ;


la ja آله جغمزی ,al ti six آلت ,ol

don it became اولدي



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qola قول ، قولى قوله :0


.arayisl آرایش

û comes after eò: 395 55 geolü, georûr;

» 0, ou: a b Nyo choula, qola; é » u, : sisse gûlén, gorén.

2. On the same requirements of euphony, in words of Turkish origin which end in s, ö ☺ these letters are changed into y, gh, d (SS 88, 89).

$ 53. When a word ending in a vowel receives a grammatical ending beginning with a vowel, a hiatus results, which is practically a difficulty in pronunciation. This is very common in Ottoman. To avoid this difficulty it is necessary to insert a consonants y (see SS 91, 284, 287, 528, 543 etc.):

IT ana: alī anaya, p. 1st ara:

$ 548. As a list of words supposed to be exceptions by some grammarians, we note UI élma, which was originally alma 'apple', and is still so pronounced in many places; while ogö qah'-vé coffee, w pi-lav, ügoo kim-yon, ügod li-mon (lemon) are not Turkish.

§ 546. As real exceptions to these rules are the ending of the Present tense so, which is always pronounced -yor, and the pronominal particle 5-ki, which is never changed (SS 140, 319).

F. Orthography. $ 55. As the orthography of every Arabic and Persian Ottoman word is fixed and unchangeable, it is only in pure Turkish and foreign Ottoman words that the orthography varies. The Vowel or Orthographic letters (1,9,0, s) as they are called in Ottoman without any inflexible rule are added or left out arbitrarily; as:

. , all admissible.

qalandi , are قلیندی‘ قبلندی ‘ قیلیندی ;batain بتون and بوتون

,'bash la باشلر ,gil

dima کلدم

.al anag آلت ,ach-lth اوچلك

§ 56. The true rule is: 1. Never introduce a vowel letter into a Turkish or foreign Ottoman word without removing a possible doubt as to pronunciation; 2. Never leave out a vowel in such a word, if by omission a doubt is created as to the pronunciation.

$ 57. The following two points must be regarded as exceptions to this rule:

a) In any syllable which is composed of two consonants, if the vowel is soft ústún, none of the orthographic (vowel) letters is added; but if it is composed of one letter he is added to indicate the

; : gél-, ! is-mék.

b) None of the grammatical affixes take the orthographic or vowel letters; as dim,


Note. The use of the orthographic or vowel letters is fully discussed and shown on pages 13–16.

$ 58. There are some words in Ottoman, the orthography of which is the same, but the pronunciation and meanings are different; as: ügl on ten; oun flour; ún fame.

shékér sugar; a. shûkứr thanks. jos g@öz eye; gúz autumn; kòz an ember. Joo, choul sackcloth; cheòl desert, wilderness.

qoul servant; qol arm; a. qarl word. sly

gévrék biscuit; kúrk fur; kúrék shovel; kéôrûk s gél come; kél scald-head; p. gül rose; a. küll all. del còlû dead; oulou big.

First Part.
Turkish Grammar.


bir برقیز ,bir keepth a dog بركويك ,bir at a horse برآت

,hoti bad كوتو ,tyi good ابي ‘ ایو ,gizel beautiful كوزل

lowy Lesson 1. The Definite and Indefinite Articles. § 59. There is no Definite Article in Turkish; all nouns, when used alone in a sentence, are usually considered as definite. Ex.: 16 baba the father, tī ana the mother, sjö qardash the brother. 8 60. The Indefinite Article is bir a, an. Ex.:

a a , . qiz a girl, poły. bir adém a man. § 61. The Adjective always precedes the noun. Ex.:

, !! éyi , güzel qiz the beautiful girl, é-yi adém the good man, bir lêôtô chojouq a bad boy. .

§ 62. As in English, there is no unnatural distinction of Gender in Turkish, that is to say: the names of males are masculine; those of females feminine, and those of inanimate objects, neuter. Thus: baba is masculine, ana feminine, jü qiz feminine, le gl ogh-lan ‘the boy' masculine. 53 -ñiz the sea, p. yeh shé-hir the city, kôôy 'the village’, are neuter.

$ 63. The Personal Pronouns are: o bén I, sén thou, el o he, she, it. ; biz we, in siz you, ylig!


onlar they

$ 64. The Demonstrative Pronouns are: , bou this, shou that (near by), el o that (distant).

$ 65. The Present Tense of the Turkish Substantive Verb is the following:

Affirmative Present

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Interrogative Affirmative Present.


or بن مى ایم ?
.(53 $) ? ben mi gina بن ميم
mi sin سن میسین ? « سن می سین ?

« او می در ?
?mou doun
0 او میدر?

« بز می ایز ?
? bi mi gia بز میز ?
? sis
mi siniz سز میسكز « سز من سكز ?
?onlar mi darlar اونلر میدرنر ?« اونلرم درلر ?

Am I? art thou? is he? etc.

8 66. As will be seen, the question is expressed by adding mi, mou after the word emphasized by the question (S 49 IV). Ex.:


.(53 $) ?ben mi im ? Am I بن ميم ? ?gta beyaz mt dir ? Is the rose white كل بياض میدر? ?bou bir gal

' at dir ? Is this a rose بو بر كل ميدر?


بو ميدر?

béyaz dîr ? . ? dûr?

js gûl bou mou dour? Is this the rose ? $ 67.

The third person ys is the Copula; its pronunciation, like that of mi is governed by the preceding vowel, and is: dir, dir, dour, dûr, as the case may be (852). .

. 3 té and

éo év’-vét

Words لغتل
to the house أو

let yes اوت
kas the ox او کوز


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