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characters, which they find very easy then. The method
adapted by us in this work, will remove all these diffi-

Single and Double Vowels.
S 6. In reading the names in the above Table
and in pronouncing the proper sounds, written in the
English characters, the learner must always remember:

1. Not to pronounce a, as in fate, mortal or all; but as in far, art or father.

2. é is always as e in met or send. Take care not to pronounce it as in mere, verb or cane.

3. i is always i, as in pin or ship; never as I, or as in tire.

4. î must be pronounced as o in seldom and ein heaven.

5. O must not be pronounced long as in oat, prose; but very short as in no.

6. ou pronounce always as in youth, bouquet, foot; and not as in pour, couple, about.

7. û is not as that of pure, turn, rule; it has no equivalent in English, but is the French tu, sur.

8. éo has no equivalent in English, it is in French feu, coeur; or German ö in Zöllner, völlig.

Compound Consonants.
$ 7. Turkish orthography does not employ com-
binations of two or three consonants and vowels to
represent a single sound; we are under the necessity,
however, of making use in this work of some combi-
nations to represent Turkish sounds, for which there is
no equivalent in English. These combinations are made
by the addition of some vowels and consonants to h or y.

kh has the sound of ch, as in the Scotch loch.
gh, as the Greek , Armenian 2.
zh must be pronounced as z in azure.

$ 8. The combinations tch and dj, so often to be seen in the transliteration of Turkish words, are but French notations of the English ch and j in church

and joy.

$ 9. y must always be considered a consonant, and never allowed to degrade the sound of any vowel that may precede it; particular care must be taken by



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Englishmen in this matter. It is always as in yell, yoke, buy.

$ 10. y is combined with other vowels to form à diphthong as will be seen in the next Table. ay Ex.: qaymaq; as in lime, high, I.

déymék; » fate, prey, hey.
iy chiy; » here, clear.

oy doymaq; boy, toy, going
ouy »

> cooing, doing.
ûy gậya;

Fr. essuyer, Guyot. eoy » éòylén; > Fr. deuii. § 11. In the transliteration of Ottoman words, h must be emphasized at the beginning, middle and end of words; at the end of the syllables it is generally accented; as: dl-lah', qah'vé, hekim. This is a most particular rule and requires a good deal of attention and practice in Englishmen; as a pernicious mode of orthography prevails among Englishmen, of introducing ħ mute very frequently at the beginning or end of words; as in honest, Jehovah etc. (8 49 V.)

R is used as in English; except that it must never be allowed to be uttered obscurely; it must be pronounced fully and strongly; it is generally accented at the end of syllables. ($ 17.) Take care not to vitiate the pure sound of any vowel that may precede it. G is always hard; as in give, got, get.

Numerals and Numeration by Letters. $ 12. The numerical figures, ten in number, have been adapted by the Ottomans from the Arabs. They are the same that we make use of, calling them Arabic, because we took them from the Arabs. Their forms, however, differ considerably from thoses, which our digits have assumed, as the following table shows:

q! I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9; 10, 20, 30; 100

They are compounded in exactly the same way as our numerals.

1902. § 13. The apparent strangeness of the fact that those numbers seem to be written and read not from

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ابجد هوز حطي ؛ كلمن ؛ سعفص ؛

.the Table of the Alphabet

right to left, but from left to right is due to the circumstance that, in Arabic, the smaller numbers are read as well as written first. Thus an Arab would read 19. 'two and nine hundred and a thousand'. This, however, a Turk does not do. (8 691.)

§ 14. If the Arabic alphabet is arranged according to numerical values, there appeares the ancient order, which is still used for notation and numeration. In this order, that of the old Phoenician, Hebrew, Syriac, Greek and Latin alphabets: the first nine letters represent the units; the second nine the tens; the third nine the hundreds and the last one į

one thousand; compare

. ' ? ? bis: jistö Ebjéd, hér véz, houtti, kélémén, safés, qaréshét, sakhéz, dazîghi. Therefore the numeration by letters, is called Ebjéd hisabî.

S 15. The method of numeration by the letters of the alphabet was a great task; it is fast going, if not entirely gone, out of practice, as puerile; but formerly great significance was attached to any combination of letters that expresses

in one or more words an event or date. Thus w ly kharab is 600 + 200 +1 +2 = 803, the Hejira date when Timurleng laid Damascus in ruins'; and aub öll béldiyi tay’yibé is 2 + 30 + 4 + 400 + 9 + 10 + 2 + 400 = 857, date of the year when the ‘Beautiful City", Constantinople, was taken by the Ottomans.

Exercise a. Write and give the names of the following letters; they are arranged according to their numeral value: s b

, Ć ! u

Division of the Letters. $ 16. The Ottoman alphabet is divided into four classes: vowels; hard, soft, and neuter letters.

طی ؛ ك گ ل م ن ؛

د؛ ه ه وزژ

اب پ ج چ

د؛ ض ظ غ

؛ ق ر ش ت ؛ث خ س ع ف ص

Vowel letters: Soyl, which are vowels generally, when they are the second letter of the syllable.

: B b o : : s o .

: and s , I, when at the beginning of the syllables; as is the case with y and w in the English language.

:ح خ ص ض ط ظ ع غ ق :Hard letters

. ت س ك گ ه :Soft letters ب پ ث ج چ د ذ ر ز ژش في ل م ن : Neuter letters

برادر ,bed bad بد :be has the value of English b , asں

گید وب :as ,- وب this the case with the Gerunds in

B1. Pronunciation of Letters. $ 17. All the Ottoman letters in the Alphabetical Table are considered to be consonants, except Soyl, which are often used as vowels, and call for further elucidation. (8 29 ff.)

We now proceed to the phonetic value of the consonants:

u birader brother. But when ending a syllable or word, it sometimes, anomalously, takes the value of p, as: when sharap wine, le iptida beginning. Especially is

: gidip, wdī alip. (8 435.)

y is the English P, as: jet pédér father.

ů té is the German t, as: 366 tatar a Tartar; courier. It is sometimes changed into d in derivation when it is originally final; as: git go, su gidér he goes.

() , (dépé a .

sé is found in Arabic words only, and is pronounced as s; as: sabit firm, Jhol émsal proverbs.

jim is pronounced as j, as: jb jan soul.

گیدر گیت .dept a hill (دیه) تپه ,demir iron (دمیر تیمور Also

chim has the value of the English ch, in church; ; as: pls cham the pine, sis chali bush. (8.)


ha has the harshly aspirated sound of English h, in horse. It is chiefly used in Arabic words; as:

. khê has no equivalent in English. It is the counterpart of the Scotch ch in loch and German Rache. It is generally transliterated kh. But there are a good many words in which it is commonly pronounced as h, : ; .

.haji pilgrim حاجی

.hane house خانه ;'hoja teacher خواجه :as

o dal is German d, as: sj3 dérd.

j zal is found in Arabic words alone; its value is z, as: ojj zér'ré atom.

» ré is in all positions a distinctly articulated lingual r as in rain. There are two important remarks, however, which is necessary for the English student to bear in mind with respect to this, to him, peculiar letter. Firstly, it must always be pronounced and accented (never dropped or slurred over, as in the pronunciation of part, pa't); and secondly, the value of the vowel before it in the same syllable must never be corrupted (as when it is pronounced pot pat; for far; cur car), but always kept pure, as with any other consonant; thus sjö qor', qir', olj zar'; not qo', qi, za'. (8 49 V.)

j zé is English %, as: ;5 géz.

9 xhé is only found in Persian and French words; it is of the value of the English s in treasure, and is transliterated zh; as: o3o múzhdé tidings, sajī azh'dér dragon, jlisoj zhour'nal journal. It is often pronounced

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