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6

اونلرك ابسه ، سزك ايسه ، بزم ایسه ؛ اونك ايسه ، سنك ايسه ، تم ایسه

bénim isé, séniñ isé, onoun isé; bizim isé, sizin isé, onlarin isé If the (book) is mine, thine, bis, etc. The Negative.

.

6

اونلرده دکلسه سزده دكاسه ، بزده دکلسه ؛ اونده دکلسه ، سنده دکلسه بنده دکلسه

béndé déyilsé, séndé --, onda ; bizdé déyilsé, sizdé—,

onlarda

.benim devils

, senin deyilse , etc - سنك دكلسه ‘بنم دكاسه

If I have not the etc. If the is not mine, etc.

8 245. Rewark. When od -dé is added to the conditional of the verb To Have, it expresses the sense of but. .

var isé ,
I have a but

-, but
It is yours, but
, It is not yours, but
isé , He has the but

,bendle car ist de بنده وار ایسه ده ,- bende yoghousada , I have not a بنده يوغیسه ده

,senin ist de سن ایسه ده ,senin deyilse de سنك دکلسه ده

,onda ist de اونده ايسه ده ,onda dleyilsede اونده دکاسه ده

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He has not the

but

§ 246. The Dubitative tense of To Have (with a definite object].

اونلرده ايمش‘ سزده ايمش ، بزده ايش ؛ اونده اش ، سنده ايمش ، بنده اش

béndé imish, séndé -, onda ; bizdé imish, sizdé --, onlarda

ت

اونلرك ايش ، سزك ايش ، بزم امش؛ اونك ايش سنك ايش بنم امش

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bénim imish, séniñ --, onoun ; bizim imish, sizin onlariñ—

I have the —, thou hast the —; (That) was mine, thine, his

8247. The Dubitative tense of To HAVE [with an indefinite object].

.bende war anish ete اونده وار ايش ‘سنده وار ايش، بنده وار ايمش .benim var imash etc اونك وار ايش ، سنك وار ايش بنم وار ایمش

(They say that) I have a

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thou hast a -,

etc.

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.Examples مثالار

Séniñ parañ varîsa.
Inéyiñiz varîsa.
Parañ varîsa, baña bésh ghou-
roush vér.

.
Param var’îsa da vérmém.

.
If thou hast money.
If you have a cow.
If you have money, give me five

piasters.
I have money, but I will not give.

If you have not bread, take some.
They have not books, but
I have the pen, but I will not give it.
If he had a horse
Though he had not a donkey, yet –

Ekméyiñiz yoghousa alin.
Kitablarê yoyhousada
Qalém béndé isédé vérmém.
Ati var idi isé
Eshéyi yogh'oudou isédé -

.

.words لغتلر .taramiz yoghoumouz all that we have واريز يوغيمز .lisan language لسان .a

'

I
.az less آز

.(keskin sharp
(

knife كسكين .kiamil sober , wise كامل .aghar bashla sedate

( man ) . a آغیر باشلى ,Sadiq Justin صادق .a

.Arslan Leon آرسلان :Proper Names

. Justus.

Exercise 30.

?

۲

تعليم ا آرسلان می كیفلیدر یوخسه برادری حسن می ! هانكیسی كيقلی در ? - آرسلان كندي قارداشی حندن كیفلی ایسه ده حسن بك كامل و آغیر باشلی بر چوجوقدر . ۲ واريز يوغیمز هپیسی درت غروشدر زیاده بر پاره مز يوقدر . 3 آرسلان قره ده ی حیواناك الك قوتلیسی ایسه ده ، پك ظالمدر . 4 بزم آتیمز بیاض آتيكزدن كنج ایسه ده ؛ اوندن قوتلی دکلدر. . هانكی لسان دها قولايدر ، تركجه می یوخسه انكیلیزجه می- تركجه انكیلیزجه قدر قولايدر اوندن زور دکلدر ؛ فقط روسجه چوق زور ایمش. 6 كاغداء يوغيسه بندن آل!

تشکر ایدرم ؛ کاغدم يوغيسه ده کیمسهدن آلمام. ۷ « پارهك وار ايسه هر کس دوستك ؛ يارهك يوغيسه هر کس دشمنك در». ۸ «دوست دوستی دوست ایسه دوست دشمني ده دشمن در . دشمنك دوستی دشمن در و دشمنك دشمنی دوست، در». کتابلر سزده میدر ? - كتا بلر بزده دکلرسه ده ؛ قلملر بزده در .

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8

. Turkish Conv.-Grammar.

.31

Translation ترجمه ۳۱

1. The apples are sweet; the pears are sweeter; the grapes are the sweetest. 2. Your maid servant is diligent, but I heard that] my neighbour (woman) is more diligent than she. 3. Though Mr. Justus is a rich man, yet (they say that] he has not a good name. 4. Miss Lucy is the handsomest girl in town, but she is sick. 5. The strength of the strongest man is far less than that of an elephant. 6. I am as tall as you, but my brother Leon is not so tall as you. fruit as fresh as ours? - Yes, Sir, it is as good as yours, but it is too little in quantity). 8. Your knife is as large as mine, but it is not as sharp as mine.

7. Is your

.Conversation مكالمه

يوقدر افندم ؛ وار ايسه ويريرم • سنده اكمك وار ایس، بر آز ویر!

واريز يوغیمز او نبش غروشدر . واریز یوغيكز قاچ غروشدر

باغچه ده ايمش . پدر افندی نره ده ايش ؟

اون سنه اول چوق زنكين ايش . آرسلان بك پك زنكين مي ايش ?

خیر اوستنده دکلدر . پیچاغك اوزر کده ایسه ویر!

اوده دكاسه باغده در . والده خانم اوده میدر ? .

خیر افندم قفسده ايش . قوش آغاجده دکل مي ايش ?

خسته ایدم ایسه ده کلدم . خسته دکلميديكز ؟

پك الي أفندم ! آتلرى يوغيسه ، بنمكني آل !

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§ 248. The Infinitive (or the Masdar) is the basis of the Turkish verb?. It ends either in öo -maq or Elo

1 The Turkish verb is the most highly organised part of the language, being most minutely subdivided, most extensively

-mék: -maq is peculiar to roots with hard and -mék to roots with soft vowels. When we remove the ending maq or mék we get the stem or the root of the verb, which is also the 2nd person sing. of the Imperative; as:

ölt almaq to take: JT al' take thou. Hoya vérmék' to give: ve vér' give thou.

§ 249. The Negative form of the verb is obtained by adding as -mé- to the root when it has soft vowel and to ma- when it has a hard vowel; as: zout almamaq not to take: adł or 'lT alma do not take.

.

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.erme do not give ویرمه :er'memek not to give ويرممك or ویرمه مك

Different kinds of verbs. $ 250. There are six kinds of verbs in Turkish: Transitive, Intransitive, Causal, Passive, Reciprocal and Reflexive,

$ 251. I. Transitive (or Active) verbs indicate such an action as cannot be completed without something else becoming directly affected thereby. They always require a direct object taking the nominatival form of the noun, if the object is indefinite and the full accusative form if the object is definite (SS 83 note, 291).

to yo sou ichmék to drink some water (indefinite). chals gas souyou ichmék to drink the water (definite). Checco jej yazmaq istémék to wish to write (indefinite).

$ 252. II. An Intransitive (or Neuter) verb indicates such an action of the agent as is complete in itself without directly affecting anything else. When an action is implied, an Intransitive verb requires an indirect object in the dative case, if motion is implied: if rest is denoted, it requires its indirect object to be in the locative (S237); as:

developed, and at the same time most simple and regular in its formation and in the modification of the signification of its various branches. It is a perfectly symmetrical system, through all the ramifications of which the eye or mind can run with ease.

Ghar ogi é-vé gitmék to go home (motion). jesebel ongi evde otourmaq to sit in the house (rest). ja aij yazmagha bashlamaq to begin to write (motion).

$ 253. III. Causal or Causative verbs. This form of the verb is not much used in English, but it is very common in Turkish. It implies an order or command from the speaker to a second or third person. The action is perforrned not by the agent or speaker but by the person to whom the order is given. These verbs are translated into English by adding to cause, to make, to have, to get, to allow and to let, to the simple verb according to the sense?; as:

év I cause the architect to build a house.

Qalfaya bir tv yapdirajaghim . I shall قاله به بر او با پدير ه جغم .Mektoubou Ohan'nese yazdarajagham مكتوبي اوحانسه یازدیره جنم .Artine bir chift goundoura , gapdardi آرتینه بر چیفت قوندوره با پدیردی

I shall get John to write the letter.

. Hegot Pascalto make a pair of shoes. 01 tasvirli kitabî chojouqlara bou gûn oqoudajaghim. I shall allow the boys to read that book full of pictures to-day.

Bénim ichin bir sétri yapdirabilir misin? Yarîn bir danésini getirdebilirim. Can you get (or have) a coat made for me? I shall have one brought to-morrow.

§ 254. IV. Passive verbs. The English and Turkish languages have this peculiarity, that they can form passive verbs from Intransitive, as well as from Transitive verbs; as: joil baqmaq to look at (intrans.): golib baqilmaq to be looked at. ött a'lmaq to take (trans.):

. S 255.

V. Reciprocal verbs express an action performed together with or against each other. They are translated by adding to the infinitive the words one another, each other, together; as:

than you sévishmék to love each other.

.alanmag to be taken آلينمق

| The meaning and use of the Causal verb are seen by comparing the verb raise with the verb rise, of which the former is the Causal, in English. So also we may call to set the causal of to sit, the former meaning to cause to sit. Similarly to lay is the causal of to lie, the former (to lay) meaning to cause to lie.

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