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.qoshoushsounlar let them run together قوشوشسونلر .vouroushajaqlar they will beat each other ووروشه جقلر

. S 256. VI. Reflexive verbs. When the action of a verb returns to the subject from which it proceedes, the verb is called Reflexive. These verbs are translated into English by the reflexive pronouns (8 145); as:

.

. pisailam yayganaja ghim I shall wash myself.

.tortunnel
:
to cover himself اورتونمك
.sogoundoular
'
they undressed themselves صو پوندیلر

I

.Reading Exercise تعليم قرائت

کدی ایله دوه حكا یه سی

The Story of the Cat and the Camel.

?

بركون دوه صیرتنده آغیر بر پولك ايله كيدركن ، کدی یه راست کلدی .کدی صیرتی قا نبورلادهرق دوه یه دیدی: کدی - اوغورلر اولسون؛ دوه قارداشلق ! نره یه بویله ! دوه - الله امانت اول ! اما بن ناصل سنك قارداشك ايمشيم !

سن زهده ? بن زهده ! کدی – اوکا شبهه يوقدر ! البته بن سبك قارداشیم . باق هله !

سنککی قدر ایری و بويوك قا نبودم يوقمیدر ? دوه - بلكه ! لكن عجبا بنمكی قدر ده قوتلی می کدی - وای ! نه بوش سوز ! شو دیرتکده يومروق قدر کوچوك

برشی وار ایسه عجبا سوزك اونك ایچون میدر ! دوه - اما ایو باق ! بو بوك سنك ایچون يك بويوك دکلمی ? کدی - بوش سوزلر سويله مه ! شوني بكا ویر ، تنبل هريف ! دوه - يك اعلا! براز بری کل ! هوپ بالا ! دمش و يوكني كدينك

صبرتينه يوكلتمش !

کدی - آمان ! آمان ! آمان ! نه آغير ايش ! ایشیم بیتدی ! وای !

وای ! وای ؟

اشته بلاکی بولدك !كيت بويوك سوز سويله مکی اوکرن ! قصه دن حده - بويوك لقمه یه بو يوك سوز سويله مه !

16

Talimi Qira'at.

Kédi ilé dévé Hikiayési. Bir gûn Dévé sîrtînda' aghîr bir yûk ilé gédérkén?, Kédiyé rast géldis. Kédi sîrtînî qambourladaraq* dévéyé dédis: Kédi Oughourlar olsouns, dévé qardashlíq?! néréyé

beõylé? Déré Allaha émanét ol! am ma ben na'sil senin

qardashiñ imishim? sén' nérédé? bén' nérédé ? Kedi Oĩa slab yogdoo: Elbét 10 bím senio

qardashîn îm. Baq héléll! séninki qadar iri

béəyúk qambouroum 12 yoq'mou dour? Dévé Belki 13! lakin ajeba 14 bénimki qadar da qouv'

vetli' mi? Kédi Vay! bosh séôz15! shou sîrtîñda youmrouq

qadar kúchúk bir shey'rar isa, ajaba séôzún

onous ichoun mou dour? Dévé Am'ma éyi baq! bou yúk séniñ ichin pék béôyúk

deyilmi? Kédi Bosh sözlér söylémé! Shounou baña vér! témbél

hérif17! Dévé Pék a'la! bir az béri 18 gél! hop'bala 19!

démishow, akan kedo sartana galciétmisho. Kédi Aman! aman! aman 22! ' aghîr imish! ishim

bitdi 23! vay! vay! vay24! Words. 1. on his back. 2. while going. 3. he met. 4. arching (making hunch-back). 5. said. 6..good speed! 7. half brother, good brother. 8. thank you! (I commit you to the charge of God). 9. there is no doubt about it. 10. of course. 11 look here! 12. hunch. 13. perhaps. 14. I wonder. 15. what a useless word. 16. as large as a fist. 17. villager, rude man (lazy fellow!). 18. nearer. 19. Heyday! (hoop po loo!) 20. he said. 21. he burdened, he placed (leaded). 22. O dear! O dear! 23, my work is finished, i. e. I am lost, it is all up with me. 24. Oh! Alas!

Ishté bélañi bouldous 25! git', béôyik söz séôyDévé léméyi côyrén' 26!

Béôyúk loqma-8yé, béôyúk Qis'sédén his'se27

séôz séôylémé! 25. you have got (found) your punishment. 26. go and learn the (calamity of) speaking conceited (haughty) words. 27. moral from the story. 28. morsel (of food).

.Conversation مكالمه و قرائت درسی نه درج

بر كوزل حكايه در. بو حكايه نك ماده سی نه در ? دوه ایله کدینك حكابه سی» در . دوه کیدرکن کیمه راست کلدی ? کدی یه راست کلادی . دوه نك صبرتینده نه وار ايش ? غایت آغير بر بوك وار ايش . دوه نه در ?

دوه ایری بر بوك حیوانی در. کدی می بويوك ? دوه می بویوك ? کدی دوه یه باقرق پك كوچوكدر. کدی دوه به نه دبدى ?

« اوغورلر اولسون قارداشلق» دیدی . اوغورلر اولسون كيملره دیرلر يولجيلره دیرلر افندم ! دوه نره په يولجي ايمش عجبا ? بلكه بغداده طوغرى بولجي ایدی . کدی دوه نك قارداشی می ایدی ? خیر افندم ! بوپك بوش بر سوز ایدی . کدی صوكره دوه به نه دیدی !

شو کو چوچك بوكی بكا وبر دیدی . بيور ! بو حكايه بي صوكنه قدر سویله ! بك اعلا افنديجكزم !

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$ 257. Simple or Primitive Verbs are those which have no letters or syllables inserted after the root: for instance jojb yazmaq to write, Elogu sévmék to love, cogögl oqoumaq to read, are simple verbs, because there

· Műjér réd Mézeedún feehi masdarlar.

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Vögl oqou.

-gaa اوقومق سويشمك - يازديمق But if I say

.258

8

,yazdar اوقون سویش یازدیر the new or secondary roots are

$ I

? dirmaq, sévishmék, oqounmaq: these are derivative verbs,

, sévish, oqoun. These are formed by inserting certain letters between the simple roots and the infinitive termination, and thus changing the meaning of the verb, more or less.

; :
Ghans gw sévishmék; View sévish to love each other.

: Vit yaz
yazdirmaq.

; V

:set to love سوseownek

; V سومك

سویشV
:yag to write یازyazmaq

:
V يازمق
.yazdin to cause to write یازدیر7 ;gazdarmag بازدیرمق
:ogou to read اوقوا ;ogoumaa اوقومق
.odount to be read اوقون ogourmag

;
V اوقومق

$ 259. The so-called servile letters are those letters, which, when added to the roots, change, more or less, the meaning of the verb. They are: ☺t, dir, ur", ün, Ji, u sh.

$ 260. These letters or syllables have each their own special signification when inserted to form a new root. Each alters the meaning of the verb in a regular manner. 1, 2, 3. ☺t, xa dir, , r have the power of making verbs Transitive, if the original root is Intransitive; and Causal, if the original verb is Transitive. 4,5. A verb is made either Reflexive or Passive by adding J 1 or ü n to the root of a primitive verb. 6. Reciprocal verbs are formed by adding a sh to the root of primitive verbs.

$ 261. There are six measures suje w bab, vézn), as they are called in Turkish, which serve as formulas to enable the student always to remember the addition and the changes of meaning caused by the insertion of the servile letters.

1. Oqoutmaq yol Transitive and Causal', .

$ 262. This form is obtained by adding t, lit, at, out to the stem (SS 52, 56).

The effect of the insertion of this letter is twofold:

1. If the original primitive form is intransitive, it is made transitive; as: jugbyl otourmaq to sit: jigbyl otourtmaq to make to sit, seat. : inneb baqitmaq to make to look, to

show, 2. If the original simple form be transitive, it changes to causal; as:

jogi gl oqoumaq to read: zs go gl oqoutmaq to cause to read. islen yayqamaq to wash : jbläni yay’qatmaq to cause to wash.

Note. This t is added, generally, when the root of the verb ends in a vowel, or in one of the semivowels Jl, Jr, jn.

اوطورمق :baqmaq to look باقمق

تعليم

Exercise 32.

Change the following verbs into the first measure and give their meanings.

Transitive verbs. 1. Elouby go séòylómék to speak. Elangs déoshémék to floor, to carpet. 2. öorė la chaghirmaq . . maq to dig, to engrave. Bolsī aramaq to seek. aqmaq to flow. Eloals bilémék to sharpen (a knife). 5. Etoals, yüklémék to load. Elouis diñlémék

Eloalkia dinlómék to listen.
Intransitive verbs.

sîchramaq jump. Eksyl érimék to be melted. 7. Elogiugt úshúmék to feel cold, shiver. Gogé go sovoumaq to become cold, cool. in zgü qoqmaq to smell, to have a smell. 8. ö...gl

غيرمق , -qasi قازيق .3 .lashlantaq to begin باشلامت

.mnaq to call آقمق .4

(بیله

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