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,dio دیر

ouyoumaq to sleep. zo leurs yashamaq to live. zostáł aghlamaq to cry, to weep.

2. Yazdarmaq zodj!, [Transitive and Causal).

§ 263. This measure is formed by adding dir, dür, dour) to the root (SS 52, 56).

The effect of this syllable on the root is just the same as that of the first measure:

1. If the primitive verb is intransitive, it is made transitive; as: Allg! éôlmék to die (intrans.): Elejalel còldürmék to kill (trans.).

Lösbagl ouyanmaq to awake (intrans.):

ilgl ouyandirmaq to awaken (trans.). 2. If the primitive verb be transitive, it is changed into a causal; as:

)

( . Note. This jo dîr is added generally to those verbs whose stem ends in a consonant other than those mentioned above. There are some exceptions:

,

to make to see, : .

(to show. :

.

.

.achdiranaq to cause to open آچدیرمق : (

.achmaq to open ( trans آچیق .yazdarmaq to cause to write یازدیر مق :( « ) yazmaq to write يازمق

geostermek , geordirmek كوردرمك، كوسترمك :geormek to see كورمك .getirmek to bring كتير مك :gelmel to come كلمك

: gitmek to go كيتمك .geoturmek to carry كوتورمك .qaldarmaq to raise , to lift up قالديرمق : qalamaq to rise قالقمق

.# 33

Exercise تعليم ۳۳

Exercise 33.

osannaq to become اوصانمق .2

.galatk to laugh كولمك - اینمك .3 .outanmaq to be ashamed اوتانمق .tired of أولنمك .4 .binmath ; to ride on بينمك

.math to come down چالیشمق

Change the following verbs to this measure and give the meanings. Intransitive verbs. 1. Elo;5 gézmék to walk.

. . . énmék . . évlénmék to marry. jandle chalishmaq to work.

بيلمك .boulmaq to find بولمق .5

.Transitive verbs

.kesmek to cut كسمك stomeh to love سومك

. . bilmék to know. 6. olī almaq to take. Eloy, vérmék to give. 7. sévmék

. 3. Ichirmék Slotel Transitive and Causal].

§ 264. This measure is formed by adding - (-ir-, -îrs, -our-, -ûr-) to the stem (S$ 52, 56).

It changes the Intransitive into Transitive and the Transitive into Causal; as: (.

birth. Learning pishmék to be cooked (intrans.): Choose pishirmék to cook. Gav ichmék to drink (trans.):

drink. Note. This form is a modification of the second form, losing the 3 d; therefore its derivatives are very limited, and almost all are here given.

doghourmaq to give طوغورمق :(.dogh'maq to be born ( intrans طوغمق

ichirmek to give to ايجار مك

تعليم 34

۳

Exercise 34.

.ouchalaq to fly اوچمق .1

شاشمق .dashnel to fall دوشمك .3

.batmaq to sink باتمق

dounia to hear دويق .5 qachnaq قاچمق .6

.dogmaq to become satiated طويق .of

Change the following verbs into the third measure and give the meanings. Intransitive verbs.

. Löb yatmaq to lie down. 2. ësī artmaq to be increased.

. shashmaq to miss one's way. 4. Elona bitmék to be finished: inneb tashmaq to overflow.

. . to flee. Een géchmék to pass. Kanne yitmék to be lost.

4. Taranmaq nily Lb (Reflexive, Passive).

§ 265. This measure is formed by adding ¿ n, (in, ún, oun) to the root of the verb (SS 52, 56).

It changes the Transitive into the Reflexive and Passive; as:

tortunmeh to be covered , to cover اورتونك :tortmek to cover اورتك

.oqounmaq to be read اوقومق :oqoumaq to read اوقومق

joly bb taramaq to comb: äily bb taranmaq to be combed, to comb

himself.

, oneself.

. öle boulmaq to find: össle boulounmaq to be found.

§ 266. In spelling there is no difference between the reflexive and the passive, as both are formed by adding j n. The difference is in the meaning. If the verb deals with the subject; it is reflexive; if the verb refers to the logical object, it is passive, because passive verbs have no grammatical object; as:

Effendi yâyqandi The Master washed himself (reflexive).
Qadéhlér yîyqandî The cups have been washed (passive).

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تعلیم

Exercise 35.

qalna قيلمق .4 .sonaq to undress , strip صويق .3

.heat

-day طيامق or دایامق .7

.stonel سومك

.baqmaq to look

Change the following verbs into the fourth measure.

1. öllo chalmaq to steal; to knock at (the door); to play (a tune). 2. ed es deộkmék to pour. déôymék to

. . to do, to perform. coléb tiqamaq to plug, stop. 5. Slo; gézmék to walk about. zolen yayqamaq to wash. 6. zob

. . 7. amaq to prop up. Eloads you seòylémék to speak.

5. Yazêlmaq inbjl [Passive). § 267. The measure is formed by the addition of J. 1, (il, ül, oul) to the root (S$ 52, 56). It changes the primitive verbs into passives; as:

سو

yazmaq : jobj yazêlmaq to be written. Lowo késmék to cut: talow késilmék to be cut.

Note. a. The passive of those verbs which end in a vowel, or liquid letter, is never formed according to this measure, but according to the fourth.

1

b. The passive form of the verbs all étmék, éylémék to do, perform is chats del édilmék.

تعليم 36

Exercise 36.

Change the following verbs into this measure and give the meanings.

2.

.

6

آچمق ، كيتمك .3 قيرمق ، وورمق 2 سومك ، ويومك .1 ، اوطورمق ، بينمك .5 .chaghiraaq to call چاغیرمق ‘ ایچمك .4 بویورمت .کورمك

.to plant دیكمك .6 باقمق

to

6. Görûshmék Elands, 5 (Reciprocal]. § 268. This measure is formed by adding a sh, (ish, oush, ish) to the root of the verb (SS 52, 56).

It changes the meaning of the verb into a reci. procal one; as: they görmék to see: josel vourmaq to beat: jning selvouroushmaq to fight with one

:کورمك .georashmek to see one another کوروشمك

another.

تعليم ۳۷

Exercise 37.

سومك .oynamaq to play اوینامق

.dartmek to poke دورتك

Change the following verbs into the sixth form.
Godtéī aghlamaq to cry, weep. Ell, gülmék to laugh.

. sivmék. öl

görjg. bozmaq to ruin, to disconcert.

labo Múta-la-at Remarks. § 269. a. The meaning of the Negative form is, of course, in general perfectly clear; but the negative form of the causal verbs, besides its ordinary signification, sometimes expresses a prohibition or prevention of the action being done. Thus oqout'mamaq means 'not to cause to read, but also 'to prevent some one from reading’; yazdir’mamaq not to cause to write', and also to prevent from writing

: oqoumaq to read اوقومق .oqoun maq to be read اوتوغق .oqounoulmaq to be read اوقوتلمق : qout maq to cause to readه اوقومق

:qoutdour maq to cause to cause to readه اوقوتدير مق .oqoutdourt maq to cause to cause to cause to read اوقوتديرتق

$ 270. b. A Transitive verb, or a verb which has been converted into one, according to the rules mentioned above, may become doubly, and even triply, transitive, causative, or passive; as:

:
: .

:

.

.Reading Exercise تعليم قرائت ممالک محروسه شاهانه نك تقسيملری .The Divisions of Turkey مالك محروسه شاهانه ولايتلره ولايتلر لوا یاخود سانجا قلره ساناقار

ناحیه لر دخی قریه لره تقسيم اولنور : قضاله قضالر ناحیه لره ولايتدن مسول اولان ذات والی، ساماندن مسؤل اولان متصرف ، تضادن مسؤول اولان قائممقام‘ ناحیه دن مسؤل اولان مدیر و قریه لردن مسول اولانثر اختيار محلسلري و مختارلر در .

ممالک محروسه شاهانه ۲۹ ولايته تقسيم اولنور . بوناردن آلتیسی آوروپاده يكرمی بری آسیاده بری آفریقاده و بری دخی آق دزده در .

2

Mémaliki Mahrouséyi Shahanenin taqsimléri.

Mémaliki Mahrouséyi 3ShahanéVilayétléré, Vilayétlér? Livas yakhod4 Sanjaqlara, Sanjaqlar: Qazulara, Qazalar 3. Nahiyéléré, Nahiyélér5 dakhi Qaryéléré sa taqsim -olounour 6. - Vilayétdén mé'soul? olan 8 zatsa valio, Sanjaqdan mé'soul olan Műtésar'rif 10, Qazadan mé'soul olan Qayim'magam, Nahiyedén soul olan Müdir.12. Qaryélérdén mésoul olanlar 13 Ikhtiyar méjlisléri 14 moukhtarlar 15' dir.

Words. 1. The Protected Countries of His Majesty (Royal). 2. province. 3. a county, arrondissement. ' 3a. a disirict, canton. 4.or. 5. a sub-district (parish or cominine). 5a. village. 6. are divided. 17. responsible. 8. who is (who governs). 8a. person. 9. governor general. 10. governor. 11. sub-governor. 12. a governor of a subdistrict, mûdir. 13. who are. 14. bailiff courts. 15. bailiffs.

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