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Translation ترجمه 4۸

1. I know Armenian. Thou knowest German. Does he know Greek? 2. Before you came here, you did not know us (assertive). 3. Before seeing the property (mal), I cannot give the money, but if I see and approve, I will give the money. - Well, Sir, if I can make you like it, then I hope you will pay.

4. At what o'clock do you go to bed? – I eat at 12 o'clock Turkish time, and lie down at 3 o'clock, in summer, but in winter I eat at one o'clock and go to bed at five. Sometimes, if I have guests, I sit up until six o'clock. 5. I do not do so! I eat early and I retire early. I rise early in the morning. While others are sleeping, I read and write my lesson. Sometimes in the fresh morning air I take a walk in the field. 6. Well done! my boy; you do well. 7. Can you ride on horseback? Yes, I can (ride), but you cannot ride.

. 8. What do they call this boy? They call him Néjib.

af Ko Conversation.

ميسين ?

بو کوبه بوياج كويي دیرلر.

[۱ مش ? بوکویه نه دیرلر ?

اون كونه قالماز كلير ايش . قوکشوكز حجازدن نه وقت كلير

كلمز دیپورلر. اون کوندن اول كلمز می ?

اون ليرادن آشاغی په ویره مزلر. شو آتي قاچه صراته بیلیرلر?

اوقورلر یازارلر درس ویریرلر. چوجوقلر مكتبده نه یا پارلر ? خدمتی کلبر کالمز بكا كونده ربر پك الى افندم ! کونده ریرم .

ايديكيز ? سز بو اوه کلمزدن نره ده اوطورور شو قارشیده کی اوده اوطورمقده ایدك .

.Reading Exercise تعليم قرائت .Voices of Animals حيوانارك سساری بوتون حیوانارك كندیلرینه مخصوصی سسلری وار در و اول سسی كوسترمك ایچون ده برر تعبیرلری وار در : مثلا



آت كيشنر، اشك آكيرير اينك بوكورور ‘ آرسلان كوموردر ، آیو خوموردار ‘ قورد اولور كويك حاولار، تیلکی اینجه بر سيكيلر ، قویون و کچی مهار ، کدی میاولر خروس اوتر) طارق غيداقلر پیليجلر و اوفاق قوشلر جیویلدر هند طاوغی غولوغولو ایدر با باغان لاقیدی ایدر ، كوكرجين دم چکر، بلبل شاقير اوردك واق واق ایدر .

Hayvanlarin sésléri. Bútún hayvanlarin kendilerine makh' sousi sesleri var dir, ol sési geostérmék ichin de birer ta'birléria var dir; Méséla. 3

At Kishnért, éshék añîrîr5, inék béoyûrûr 6, arslan géômûrdér ?, ayê khomaurdars, gourd oulouro, kéopék havlar 10, tilki injé bir séslé siñilérli, qoyoun kéchi mélér12, kédi miyavlar 15, khoros éôtér 14, tavouq gidaqlar 15, pilijlér oufaq qoushlar jivildér 16, hind tavoughou 17 goulou goulou édér 18, papaghan19 laqirdî édér20, geoyérjin21 dém chékéra2, bülbûl23 shaqîr.24, eòrdék vaq vaq édér25.

Words. . 1. Especial. 2. term. 3. for instance. 4. Kishnémék to whinny. 5. añîrmaq to bray. 6. béəyûrmék to moo. 7. géômûrdémék to roar. 8. Khomûrdamaq to growl. 9. ouloumaq to howl. 10. havlamaq to bark. 11. siñilémék to squeak. 12. lémék to bleat. 13. miyavlamaq to mew. 14. eotmek to crow. . 15. gidaqlamaq to cackle. 16. jivildémék to chirp. 17. turkey (Indian) hen. 18. to gobble. 19. parrot. 20. to chatter. 21. pigeon. 22. to coo. 23. nightingale. 24. shaqimaq to warble. 25. to quack.


Lesson درس ۲۳

.The Past Tenses ماضیلر

. § 341. There are two tenses denoting the Past.

$ 342. One is the Categorical Preterite called by the natives Maziyi shouhoudi "eye-witness past, which depicts the speaker as having been present or as having witnessed something with his own eyes, so as to know it for certain without any doubt. Hence it corresponds with the compound tense formed with the Past Participle and the auxiliary verb 'To have'. For instance yazdi, not only means he wrote (in the presence of the speaker), but also he has written.

It may also be translated by the English Past, formed with did; as: yazdi mi? Did he write? yazdi, he did write.

§ 343. The other is the Dubitative Past, Maziyi naqli implying or expressing doubt. The speaker is not sure about the matter, he may have heard it from others. This tense can be correctly used only when the truth of an assertion is not guaranteed, and when the speaker means to state that he believes what he says, but cannot vouch for it; as: yazmish 'he wrote (as others say) he has written (I believe), I am not sure about it. This tense is used in telling stories of the past or anecdotes which the speaker has heard from others or read in books.

. § 344. The characteristic sign or suffix of the Past tense is so -di, -di in the third person. For the first person plural it is sfs -dik for the soft vowels and öz -dîq for the hard ones.

, sévdim

ماضی شهودی .Indicative Past


I wrote, I did write,
I have written

I loved, etc.

,'yazdam یازدم ,'sevdim سودم

,'yazdan یازدك ,sevdin سودك

,'yaadd یازدی ,'seodi سودی

,'gazdaq یازدق ,'studil سودك ,sevdinia سوديكز ,gyazdinia بازديكز

.'studilen سود يلر .yazdilan بازدیلر ماضی اقتداری .Potential Past

,steebildin سوه بیلدم ,'sevebildil سوه بیلدك

,'statbildin سوه بیلدك ,sebebildinia سوه بیلديكز

.'sevebildiler سوه بیلدیلر

I was able to love ...

سومه دم

سوهمه دم

Negative and Interrogative. sév'médim I did not love.

sévé médim I was not able

to love. popujb yazdimmi? Did I write? ? s psom sevdim' mi? Did I love ? yaz'madîm mi? Did I not write? yaza'madim mi? Was I not able

to write? § 345. The Fourth Gerund. A A very common expression is formed by adding og -da, -de to the first person plural of the Past, thus indicating when an action is performed.

چان چالندقده هرکس اوطورسون

.yazdiqda when he wrote یازدقده

chan chalîndîqda hér kés otoursoun when the bell is rung every body must sit down.

$ 346. The Fifth Gerund. By adding da -jé, to the same person, another kind of gerund is made, which corresponds to in proportion as, the more -- the more:

. more I read the book the more I like it.

. The more you weare your dress the more you will like it.

§ 347. After with a Participle, is rendered in Turkish by the addition of o go is -dén sonra to the same person as:

kitabi oqoudougja sevigoroumn . The كتابي اوقودجه سوییورم

.escabina geydikje hoshlanajaqsian اثوابكی كید كجه خوشلانه جقسين

.ben toldakden sonra after my death بن اولد كدن صوكره

6 5 4 3 2 1 1 bén Jazdaqdan soũra after I wrote.

Méktoubou yazdi, ve yazdiqdan sonra méôhúrlédi. He wrote the letter, and after writing he sealed it.

$ 348. Further:
Eoyrénémédik gitdi. At last we were not able to learn.
Séoyledim gitdi. At last I have spoken.

حكاية ماضي شهودی .Assertive Past


$ 349. The Assertive Past, which is called in English the Pluperfect, is made in two ways, one by adding the Past tense of the Substantive Verb to the

Turkish Cony.-Grammar.


third person of the Past tense and the second by adding the third person of the Past of the Substantive Verb to the Past tense. ,



st! Sosem sévdiñiz idi,


I had loved (I am sure), Thou badst loved.
Note. The Narrative Mood is wanting.

,sevdim idi سودم ابدی ,sodin idi سودك ایدی

,studi idi سودی ابدی ,sevdik idi سود ایدی

سودیكز ,sevdiler idi سودیلر ایدی

,sevdi idim سودی ایدم
,sevdi dini سودی ايدك

,sevdi idi سودی ایدی
,sevdi adak سودی ايدك
,sevdi idilis سودی ايديكز
.sodi idiles سودی ایدیلر

ماضي شهودئ شرطی .Conditional Past


,yazdam ist یازدم ایسه
,yazdani ist یازدك ايسه
,wazda ise بازدی ایسیه

§ 350.

. It is made in two ways, as in the Assertive Mood. ! ,

isé, ,

! , ,

If I have written, If thou hast written ...

isédé I loved, but
osame! pahast alamadim isédé I was not able to take, but –.

whoever may have written.

,yaadiq as یازدق ايسه ,yazdinix ise بازديکز ایسه .yazdilar dise يازدیلر ایسه

Sevdim isede سودم ایسه ده

Kim yazda ise کیم بازدی ایسه ماضی نقلى

.The Dubitative Past

. § 351. The characteristic sign or suffix of this tense is no mêsh, -mêsh, mûsh, -moush, according to the dominant vowel. The formation of the persons is regular.

$ 352. 1. Indicative Dubitative. ayy la le
pie gar sévmi’shim,


سومشم ,seomish'san سومشسين

,stumishia سومشيز ,seomish sinis سومشسكز

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