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التزامي حكايه .The Assertive Optative

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action which takes place at the same time as that stated by the verb it accompanies:

Jonitor ante sjans gou sévinérék méktébé gidiyor. He is going to school joyously.

sus Daigi qosharaq géldi. He came running.

§ 372. The Ninth Gerund. This is obtained by the addition of

dow -si, or -8îja to the third person, and is used for cursing and blessing:

coolilococbgl ojaghî yanasî or yanasîja! May his hearth be alight! (i. e, may he be prosperous !)

de ambil cibel ojaghî batasīja! May his fireplace be sunk! (i. e. may his offspring 'be annihilated!) aqqal yl sy kéôr olasija! May he be blinded!

. $ 373. The Assertive Optative either expresses a wish that some action may take place, although one scarcely expects it, or indicates regret that some action has not taken place in the past:

,

: ,

, yazay'idi,

. That I might write! or That I had written!

$ 374. The Dubitative Past third person singular of any verb is compounded with the Assertive Optative of the verb olmaq isteyl to become”, to express just the same meaning:

, , yazmish ,

Ayol mejl yazmásh olayídilar. That I might write! That I had written!

blo Múta-la-at Remarks. $ 375. a. Words which express a wish require the verb which follows to be in the Optative: such words are:

,gazag idim بازه ایدم
,gazayadan بازه ايدك
,Mazaayadi بازه ایدی

,azagadiq بازه ايدك ,gazay dinia بازه ايديكنز .gazagadalar بازه ایدیلر

,yaamash olayidiq يازمش اولايدك ,yazmash olayidim يازمش اولایدم ,yaanish olavidinia يازمش او لايديكنز ,gaznish olayadin بازمش اولاندك

,yazmash olagadi يازمش اولایدی

!no

'
lagtda
!
Would that ( نه اوله ایدی ) نولايدى
!kaash ki vulg

.
lesn
'
ge
!
Would that it were go کاشکی .p

که !

ويرسون !الله

ويره

. so!

anni Allah' vérsîn ki! Allah véré ! God grant that!

ail Allah véré'yidi ! Would to God that!

! الله

ویریدی ده !

.Misal'ler Examples مثا للر

. sh'ki bourad'a olayîdi! Would that he had been here!

! Kiash'ki, or, no'layîdî véré'yidim! Would that I had given!

Allah vérsin'ki or Allah véréyidi , or Allah vérédé éyi bir yaghmour géléyidi! Would that God would grant a good rain!

8_376. b. Sometimes the meaning approaches

ويرمش : (379 8) much closer to that of the Suppositive Past

-termish olayadin or permish ol وی مش اولسیدیم اوله ایدیم

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sayîdîm are the same.

.words لغتدر

satin almaq to buy صاتون المق satma to sell صانمق

geonal heart کوکول mnertek post , beam مرتك

sanmaq to suppose , take صانمق izin permission اذن .a .beraber together برابر .p

afayet olsouk , or ola ! May that be health عافیت اولسون ! - اوله !

a. agido sadaqa alms

to you! [$ 490].

Exercise 53.

?

.9 Exercise تعليم کاشکی پارهم اولیدی ده ، شوقوناغی صا تون آلایدم ! ۲ هایدهك آرقه داشلر ! دیشاری کيده م ده درسلریزی برابر اوکره نه لم ‘ ایو اولمز می ؟ ۳يك كوزل اولور ! كيدهيم خواجه افنديدن اذن آلایم ده كله يم. ؛ وارایم شو فقيره بش اون پاره صداقه ویرهيم . كاشكی پارهم اولایدی ده بر قاچ باره زیاده ویره ایدم . اوجاغی یا ناسيجه پك بیچاره در ! : بن ده بر قاچ پاره اولسون (even) ويرمه یی ایستر ایدم ؛ لكن

۳

!

.

كوكولده وار الده يوق. 6 اكر سنك يكن اغا اوقومغى يازمغی بیلمش اولایدی ! شمدی به قدر چوق پاره قازانیر ایدی . فقط ایش کوتوسی شو درکه الني كورورسه مرتك صانیر بایی کورسه چاناق . ۷ بوکون چوت چالیشدم ؛ بازی پازه تازه اوماندم . ۸ دو می ایچدیكز ? عافیت اولسون ! - عمولی چوق اولسون افندم . 1 سویه سوينه مكتبه کیدییودم. ۱۰ اوقويه او قویه کوزم یورولدي .

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Translation ترجمه 54

54. 1. Shall I read it? what shall I say? 2. How shall I have patience? 3. May his hand be broken! 4. Since I began my lessons I have not missed a day. 5. O that I knew a little French! 6. Oh! that he might come. 7. It is well that I did not offer it to you, for if I had given it you would not have taken it. 8. Would that he had been here! 9. Shall we go to see the lion? It is hot now, I cannot go. 10. May God keep you in good health! 11. What shall I do now? - You cannot do anything now. Go to your room until I call you. 12. You must not go to your uncles' house, unless you are invited. 13. By asking continually you can find (the way to] Bagdad. studying continually you will learn fast.

14. By

al Ko Conversation.

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5

س) رباني دعايي بيليرميسكز ? اکر بیلیرسه کز سویله یكز! ممنون اوله جغم . ج) «ای سماواتده اولان پدريمز ! اسمك مقدسه اولسون ! پادشاهلفك كلسين ! ارادتكه سماواتده اولدیغ کی بر او زرنده دخی اجرا

... بو قدرینی بیلیرم . کاشکی هپیسینی ده بیله ایدم ده اولونسون

سویله به بیله ایدم . س) رباني دعايي اوكره نه لی نه قدر اولدی ?

6

vens.

Words. 1. Rab'bani douva Lord's Prayer. 2. sémavat hea.

3. mouqaddés holy. 4. iradét will. 5. oldoughou gibi as it (was). 6. ijra olounmaq to be done.

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ج) اوچ کون اولدی ؛ وقتم چوق يوقدر . اولا ایدی هپیسنی بردن

او کره نه بیلیر ایدم . س) ایشیتدم که قارداشکزه امر حق وقوع بولمش ؛ چوق اسف ایندم .

باشکز صاغ اولسون ! ج) تشکر ایدرم . سز صاغ اولك ! الله سیزلره اوزون عمرلر وبرسون ! الله

بزم برادرك عمرینی سزلره باغیشلاسين" ! س) احمد اوسته کیله کیدییورمیسین ? ج) سن بكا اولره کيتمه دییه لی اولرینه آیاق باصمادم .

سنه اولدی ?

قاچ س) سز مرذيفونه كله لي قا ج) افندم بن بوشهره كله لى اون سكر سنه اولدی . س) ددهك اوله لیدنبرو قاچ آی اولدی ? ج) آی دكل يكرمى طقوز سنه اولشدر . ينم عقلم يتمز

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7. emri haqq rouqou boulmaq the decree of the True one happened, he died. 8. éséf ét. to be sorry. 9. baghîshlamaq to grant. 10. aqlîm yétméz I cannot comprehend (my reason do not reach (so far) i. e. I was a child).

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Lesson درس ۲۹

The Suppositive Tense [Subjunctive]. § 377. The Conditional Optative, which is called by many Grammarians simply the Suppositive tense, is formed by adding the Conditional terminations to the o of the third person Singular of the Optative.

. j

حال فرضیه .Suppositive Present

.1 .8378

,gazsome بازسهم ,gazsaq بازسه ق

,gazsan بازسدك ,gaz'sant بازسه کز

,gazsd بازسه .gaz'salan بازسه لر

If I write, If I were to write, etc.

منفي حال فرضیه .Negative

بازمسهك ، يازمسهم or يازماسهم يازمسه

or

yaz'masam,

| If I do not write. yaz' masañ, yaz masa, etc. | If I were not to write.

$ 379. 2. Suppositive Past. des solo

The Suppositive Past states the condition on which, if something had happened, some other action would have taken place, or would still take place. It casts doubt on the performance of some condition.

sayîdîq, ,

,

. If I had written, etc. § 380. 3. Narrative Suppositive. dio je Bules imishim,

imishiz, I imishsin,

,

,gaz sayidam بازسه ایدم > بازسیدم ,gaz sayidin بازسه اید ، بازسيدك ,gaz saeidi بازسه ایدی بازسدی

,yazsagadiq يازسيدك ,yaz sayidinia یازسیدیكز .vaz sayadilar یازسیدیلر

,gaz sa inishini بازسه ايشم ,az sa imdishsin بازسه ایشسین

,gaz sa imish بازسه امش

,yaz'sa timishia یازسه امشيز ,yaz's amishsiniz یازسه ايشسكز .gaz'sa amishlen بازسه ايشلر

If I had written (as others say)

leber Múta-la-at: Remarks. § 381. a. The Conjunction p. STéyér' 'ifo, is, so to speak, included in the Suppositive Tense, as the characteristic sign of this tense aww -sé has the meaning if, but it can be and often is used together with it, especially for the sake of emphasis; as: Samonte le GT éyér chalishmasañ, or chalishmasañ If you do not try.

§ 382. b. If the Suppositive tenses are used with Kas kąski, they are regarded as Optative. If they are used with ŞT éyér, they become Suppositive; as:

Kíashki on ghouroushoum' olsa! O that I had ten piastres!
Eyér' on ghouroushoum olsa. If I had ten piastres.
Kíashki érkén' gélséyidim! O that I had come earlier!
Eyér érkén gélséyidim. If I had come earlier.

§ 383. C. The Optative of the auxiliary verb öl gl olmaq 'to become, to have' is used with the third person Dubitative and Future of any verb, to express the Suppositive; as:

Turkish Conv.-Grammar.

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