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اید. ۸ نه صا تون آلماليديلر ! - ایكی دیویت ، بر دسته کاغد و بر قوط و قورشون قلم صانون المالي ايديلر. ۹ دوستكزك ایدهجك بر ايثي وار می ? - يازه جق بر مكتوبلي وار در. ۱۰ صاته جق بر آتم وار . اوقويه جق بر غزته سی وار (408

۳۹۹

88).

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Translation ترجمه ۰۸

1 1. You must have come to us as soon as you

had heard this news. 2. What shall I do? – If you have not learnt your lesson, you should learn it now. 3. What had your wife to do? — She had to write a note. 4. Have they to go this way? No, Sir, they are to go the other way. 5. Who has to work all the day? The poor man has to work all the day. 6. Who had to give all his money. .

The baker had to give all his money. 7. What have you to do to-day? I have to write a letter. 8. What has the shoemaker to do? – The shoemaker has to mend my shoes. 9. Am I obliged to come here? Yes, you must come, your coming is necessary. 10. The teacher called the pupils, saying, Come.

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6

.Conversation مكالمه س) سويله باقالم ! قوشلر بهارين نه یا پالیدرلر? ج) قوشلر بهار موسمنده يووالرینی یا چالى ، يومورطه لرینی پومورطلا مالى ،

یاورولرینی چیقارمالی ، اونرى بسله مه لى و اوچورمالی درلر. س) عجبا همشیره کز خانم بنی کورسه طانيه جق میدر? ج) طانیمالیدر . کورمشم دیو چوق دفعه لاقیردیکزی ایدر . س) اثوابريمي كيم ديكه جك ? و چورا بلريمي كيم ياما لايه جقدر ? ج) بن یا پا جنم اما بیلمم که : چورا بارك پك اسكي در ؛ یامالامالیمي ?

یا مالامامالیمی ? ص ) بر تذكره يازه جق کاغديكز وار میدر ? ج) بويورك افندم ! بر تذكره لك دكل آ! ایشته سیزه اون تذكره لك كاغد ؛ کاغدم يوقدر دیو پازما مازلك ايتمهيكز (۲۹۰

8).

Reading Exercise.

2

.Reading Exercise تعليم قرائت .The Marriage of the Teacher خواجه نك اولنمه سی

نصر الدين خواجه افندينك باشی بوزولش ؛ ايكنجى دفعه اوله رق اولنمك آرزوسینه دوشمش. اسلاملر آراسینده عادتدن در که ارگکار قاريرك يوزلرینی کورمزلر . قاریار یابانی بر اركك كورورلرايسه ، چارچا يوق يوزلرینی اورترلر . خواجه نك دوستلری كنديسينه غایت چرکین برقاری بولهرق كوزل در دیو پوتدورمثمرة . قاری اوه کلير كلمز خواجه يوزيك اورتوسینى قالديرمش باقش که ؛ نه ديكه ! پك چیركين برشی ! عادتاه بر کومور ! جانی چوق ديقيلمش ايسه ده هیچ سس چیقارمامش .

ایرته سی کون بزم خواجه اودن چیقارن ، قاری در: «آمان خواجه افندی ! سن کیدییورسين سويله كيمه كورونه یم" ? كيمه كوروغه میما»

خواجه «بره قاری

14 ! جانیكی دیو بر ادا1 ايله سوال ایتمش . سورسه لكة1 ، بكا كورونه ده کیمه کورونو رسه ك كورون ! » دیش و كوجبلا ياقا يې قورتارمش

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Words. 1. bashi bouzoulmaq (to be put out of order) = to be a widower. 2. to be anxious. 3. adétden ol." to be usual. 4. yabanje stranger. 5. to veil. 6. to cause to swallow, to deceive. 7. éərtû veil. 8. dén! (what do you say) = what wonder! 9. adéta simply; really. 10. his soul was oppressed = he was angry. 11. to unveil (her face). 12. to veil. 13. éda arrogance. 14. bîré qarî now then, woman! 15. diniñi sévérsén if you love your soul = please! 16. he could scarcely get rid of her.

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Lesson درس ۲۸

.The Participles فرع فعل

8 395. There is no Relative Pronoun in Turkish corresponding to the English who, which, or that. These are always accompanied by a verb in English. In Turkish the Subjective and Objective Participles of the verb take the place of both the Relative and the verb.

§ 396. Note. This peculiarity is the most characteristic, and at the same time the most beautiful feature in the Turkish language, though foreigners and even natives of Turkey, whose mother-tongue is not Turkish, are often guilty of infringing it, and are frequently in utter ignorance of its value and meaning. For instance, béni sévén adém the me-loving man'; ot yéyén at 'the grass - eating horse': are equivalent to the man who loves me and the horse which eats grass'. The great number of Participles derived from the Turkish verb enables a very great degree of precision to be given to this construction.

$ 397. The only Relative Pronoun in Turkish ki, meaning 'who, which, that, what' is not Turkish in origin, it is Persian. This word, ki, is never used in correct Turkish, though employed in translated Persian and Arabic sentences. It is also used by foreigners.

§ 398. The Participles may be divided into two classes or moods: Subjective and Objective.

1. Subjective Mood. § 399. The Subjective Participles are those which are composed of the subject, (the nominative case of who, which, that, what) and the verb. They are derived both from active and from neuter or passive verbs. In the first case they are called Active Participle (Ismi Fayil) and in the second Passive Participle (Ismi Méfoul). The Active Participle corresponds to the Present Participle and the Passive Participle to the Past Participle of the English Grammar.

§ 400. The Subjective Active and the Subjective Passive Participles have seven tenses each:

§ 401. Subjective Active Participle. Jo lo pul Present: ülil yazan who writes, writer, writing (adjectival). Aorist:

one who writes, writing gsjų yazdîq one who wrote.

gazar بازار

Past:

yazmish يازمش

Dubitative:

.

one who has written. Pluperfect: Yglej yazmish olan one who had written. Future:

yaza

one who will write. Past Future: ¿Y el gzoj! yazajaq olan one who is (about) to

write.

yaaajao يازه جق

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aziland بازيلان

gazilar باز بایر gazaldiq بازلدق

yazalmesh يازلمش gazalinash olan بازمش اولان

gazalajaq یازیله جق gazalajaq olan بازيله جق اولان :Past Future

That which

has been

written.

Pluperfect:

had been Future:

will be :

is (about) to be The Negatives are: ublaj yazmayan, angm sévmeyen,

.sevilangen , etc سویلمه ین ,yazilmagan يازلمایان

lebo Mûta-la-at: Remarks. § 403. I. The Present Active Participle is applicable either to the present or to the past; as:

pot obil yazan adém, means either the writing man, the man who writes, the man who is writing', and 'the man who wrote'.

$ 404. II. The Aorist Participle means whose nature or business is to write' or 'who is willing to write'; as:

poły slib sojgi oqour yazar bir adém ‘a man who can read and write, a literary man’.

there is no se'sse géôrünür geörünmez shéylér things which can be seen and cannot be seen, i. e. visible and invisible things'.

§ 405. III. The Negative of the Past Participle is more used than the Affirmative:

éyi siñiz, sizi sévmédik kimsé yoq dour. You are a good man, there is nobody who does not love you.

sie eyi bir adem سز ایو بر ادم سكز، سزی سومهدك كيمسه يوقدر

§ 406. IV. Only the Present, the pluperfect and the Past Future tenses are used either as the subject or as the adjective qualifying the subject of a sentence. The remaining four tenses are always used as adjectives qualifying the subject (SS 71, 417, 423).

s méktoubou yazan, yazajaq olan, yazmish olan zat kim' dir? Who is

? stos Y el moju bou méktoubou yazan, yazajaq olan, yazmêsh olan kim dir? Who is the writer of this letter?

§ 407. V. Therefore, these three tenses, when used as subjects, are declined like substantives, either alone or with pronominal affixes. N. yazan

A.
L.

bou بومكتوبي بازان ، يازه جق اولان ، يازمش اولان ذات کيم در ? بو مكتوبی بازان ، بازه جق اولان ، the person who wrote this letter

?
or

gazan بازان gazanin of بازانك .G yazana to یازانه

yazani یازاني gazanda in بازانده yazandan from بازاندن .A

D.

بازانكز ، بازانز :Also

یازانلری

you, them.

The person writing, the writer.

The writer among us, yazanîmêz, yazanîñiz, yazanlari

§ 408. VI. In English, when the object of the verb falls between the verb 'to have and the Infinitive, it may be rendered into Turkish by the Future Participle ($ 393).

Meny Sortune yéyéjék ékméyi yoq dour. He has no bread to eat.

$ 409. VII. The Aorist, Past, Dubitative and Future Participles are the same in spelling and pronunciation with those of the Indicative Mood. It is very easy to distinguish them, and there is one absolute rule: If it is Indicative Mood, it must always stand at the end of the sentence, because verbs are always put at the end of the sentence. If it is a Participle, as a subject or a modifier of the subject, it must precede the verb in any case:

? jposobyl os glo? bou evde kim' otourajaq? Who will dwell in this house?

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