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ایدییورلر. بونلر نه در دیو صوردم ایسه سلطان مراد افنديمزك اوردوسی در عجم سفرينه كيدييورلر دیدیلر.»

بوقدر مبالغهلى" بر نقلیته هر كس كولكه باشلادی . لكن الك چوق كولن كونس چاوش ایدی - «جانم ! دیدی ؛ اویله بر یالان سویله که سالانه اويسونه . او توجه لحنه بيتمزه ، قوباز . هم او قوس قوجامان لحنه یی نه یا یه جقلر ایش» .

- «قوزوم كونس چاوش ! بر آز اول قیصری اووه سینده سنك كوردیكك قازان ایچینده پیشیروب‘ عسكره ویره جکلر» دیدی قوبور اوسته .

بو سوزك اوزرینه اوطه خلقی هپ بر آغیزدن اول قدر شدتلی كولدير که بعضیاری باید لديلر؟ قالديلر.

كونس چاوش ایسه بو پا تيرتينك14 آراسینده جوبرغيني آلدیغی کی سیویشی ویردی.

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(و. ا. ا.)

6. Ajém séféri the Persian expedition. Baghdad was then in the hands of the Persians. 7. mûba-laghalî exaggerated. 8. ouymaq to fit, to match. 9. bitmék to grow (plant). 10. qopmaq to pluck out. 11. qos qojaman very big, gigantic. 12. khalq people. 13. bayilmaq to faint. 14. See § 447. 15. sivishi vérmék to slip away quietly (§ 286).

.Khatam End ختام

.36

Lesson درس ۳۹

.Appendix علاوه

. . 8 481. The method in which to address and salute people always requires considerable attention. The Ottomans themselves are very careful about such matters, especially in writing. Every class of people has its especial title by which its members must be addressed.

Turkish Cony.-Grammar. .

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I. Salutation. Estosh Sélamlamaq.

$ 482. The Moslems salute one another with the address Sélamûn aléykúm 'peace be unto you', the answer is Vé aléykûm sélam ‘unto you be peace”. And when necessary to return the salutation, the one saluted says Mérhaba you are welcome!', to which is answered Eyvallah'‘Thank you'.

$ 483. Christians salute Christians and nonChristians, and Moslems Christians in the morning by saying Sabah'lar khayr olsoun! May the mornings be good' = ‘Good morning! At noon-time or in the middle of the day, Vaqtlar khayr olsoun! 'Good day'. In the evening they say: Akhshamlar khayr olsoun! ‘Good evening! When it is necessary to return the salute, the person saluted says: Khosh géldiñiz 'you are welcome'; or, Sabah'lar khayr olsoun, Vaqitlar khayr olsoun, Akhshamlar khayr olsoun, according to the time of day.

§ 484. At parting, Moslems and Christians say Qal sagh-liqla, Khoshja'qal; Qa'liñ saghliqla, Khoshja'qalin, all meaning "Good-bye’: the reply to which is Khosh' géldiñiz, séfa' géldiñiz 'you are welcome'.

§ 485. But at night when taking leave they say Géjélér khayr' olsoun 'Good night': to which the answer is Rhayra qarshi "Toward the good one (morning)' which extends the idea of the salutation to the morning light.

II. Congratulations. Ek Tébriktat.

$ 486. Returning after an absence, one is greeted with Khosh géldiniz 'Welcome!': to which he replies Khosh' géôrdûk! which may be rendered 'I am happy to see you'.

§ 487. If the new comer has entered the room in the absence of the person whom he comes to visit, the latter, on coming in, makes use of the same salutation, only substituting the Dubitative for the Past tense Khosh' gélmishsiniz.

$ 488. In the East it is considered polite, in meeting a person, to ask after the health of absent parents or friends. In answering such questions, it is necessary to consider the age of the person who asks:

a) If he is junior, the answer given is Choq sélamlar édér 'He offers you many salutations'. Then the younger man replies El’lérini còpérim, makhsous sélam seöyle 'I kiss his hands, give (him) my compliments'. If the person regarding whom he has asked is of high rank, much superior to his own, he says, Etéklérini còpérim, makhsous sélam söylé 'I kiss his skirts, many compliments'.

b) If the person who enquires about the health of the absent person is aged and of good position, it is customary to answer Ellériñizi copér 'He kisses your hands’, or with more formality Etéklérinizi éôpérlér "They (he) kiss your skirts'.

§ 489. The person who is to convey these greetings assumes the responsibility by saying Bash' ústúné 'on my head 'with pleasure! and acquits himself of it when he meets the person to whom the greetings are sent by saying Filan éfféndi chog' choq selamlar seöylédi, éllériñizi lõpér‘Mr. S. offers you many salutations and kisses your hands'. To which the other replies a) Téshek-kûr' édérim "Thanks!'; b) Sagh' olsoun May he be well!'; c) Gétirén géôndérén' sagh olsoun May he who brings and he who sends the selam be well!'; d) El còpén' sagh olsoun May he who kisses hands be well!' As we say, 'I am much obliged both to you and to him' (S$ 365, 375). § 490.

When somebody drinks something, or washes his hands or comes from the bath or shaves himself or is shaved by a barber, it is usual to say Afiyet olsoun! Health be to you!: to which the other replies Eomrúñ choq' olsoun! May your life be long!. Which may be rendered “Thank you! (§ 365.)

§ 491. At the beginning of the new year they say Yéni sénéñiz mubarék' olsoun! Salî jédidiñiz mübarés' olsoun! A happy new year to you!: the answer to which is Choq' sénéléré ‘For many years!' (365.)

§ 492. Among the Moslems on both their festivals (Ramazan and Qourban) the form of congratulation

is Bayraminiz mübarék' olsoun, or eediñiz sayid' olsoun May your festival be blessed'.

§ 493. Besides the above, which are for set times, there is a great variety of occasional salutations and congratulations, such as (8 365):

1. Geòzúñûz aydîn' olsoun! or more learnedly, Chéshmiñiz roushén' olsoun! May your eye be bright, addressed to one whose daughter or son have just married, to parents on the birth of a child, or to those who have just welcomed a new relative or dear friend from abroad, or even received a letter from a distant friend. The reply to this is: Aydinliq' ichinde ol! May you enjoy the light' or Darosou éviñizé olsoun! “The same (millet) to your house!' or if addressed to a bachelor. Darosou bashîñìza' olsoun! May your turn come next!

2. To one who enters a new dwelling the salutation is Saghlîjaq ile otourasîn! May you dwell in it in good health!'

3. To one who puts on a new garment Saghlijaq ilé géyinésiñ! May you wear it with health!'

4. To one who is commencing an enterprise Allah ish' achiqlighi vérsin! May God give you success!'

5. To one who is convalescent after an illness Géchmish' ola! May it be past and forgotten! (S 365).

6. To one who has lost a friend, or to imply the death of a friend enquired after Bashiñiz sagh' olsoun! ‘Life to you!: the answer is Allah sizé ouzoun éômûrlér' vérsiñ! God grant many years of life to you!'

7. When somebody receives any sum of money, he usually says, Bérékét vérsin! May God give you a blessing (blessed increase) Thank you!: the reply to which is Bérékétini' géôrésin! May you experience its increase!

8. Téshékkúr' édérim, Mémnoun'oum, are expressions in imitation of the European phrase, “Thank you!' and their usage

is confined to educated circles. The common people express the same meaning by such terms as: Saghol! Eliñé saghlîq'. When addressed to a child or an inferior "Thank you! is expressed by Choq yasha, A'férim oghloum! (Very good!, Well done my boy!) 9. When speaking of a disease from which the speaker has suffered in the past, he must add the expression Shéytan' qoulaghîna qourshoun! ‘Lead into Satan's ear'

‘May Satan's ears be stopped that he shall not hear what is now spoken!'

10. One who is obliged to use an impolite expression, or to name an unclean animal (as for instance the dog, donkey or pig which are considered unclean among the Moslems), he must add Séôzûm oña'! Seôzûm yabana'! Ha'sha houzourdan! My word to him! My word to the desert! Be it warded off from your honour'

Pardon the expression' or 'Excuse me for saying so!'

11. Inayét o-la! Allah vérsin! May God's favour be upon you! 'Let God give you': to the beggars, by way of refusing them alms (S 365).

12. When somebody is going on a journey, in bidding farewell he says Khoshja qaliñ!, Ailaha sîmarladiq!, Bizi douvada ounoutmayin!, 'Good bye! Remember us in your prayers!: to which the answer is Allaha émanét oloun!, Rab'bim bilénizjé olsoun! We command you to God!', 'The Lord be with you'; or Oughourlar olsoun! ‘God speed!, Good bye!, 'Good luck attend you!?

13. Ziyadé olsoun! May it be too much' = No, thank you! Formula used in declining an invitation to partake of food.

14. Pardon the omission', 'Don't pay attention to my shortcomings!' and 'I beg your pardons are rendered in Turkish by Qousoura qalmayin!, Afv édérsiniz!

III. Modes of Address. § 494. The word in sén 'thou' is not used except with reference to a child, an intimate friend, a servant or a pupil: at other times ju siz 'you' is used to one's equals, unless for politeness' sake one of the words now to be explained takes its place (§ 93).

§ 495. In addressing superiors, the words phöl' ishig';<ule als Efféndim, zatíñiz, or za'tî alîñiz are used meaning 'Sir', 'Your Honour', or 'Your Lordship’.

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