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V. Onomatopoeia. § 502. Is the term applied to words or phrases, the sound of which conveys some idea of or resemblance to the thing signified.

It is customary in common language to use some onomatopoic expressions. For instance, they say in Turkish:

Sou kharil kharil aqiyor. The water flows violently.
Taq taq qapouya courdou. Tap tap he knocked at the door.

Jombadaq (or jomb deyi) souya atildi. He threw himself suddenly (with noise into) the water.

These words kharil kharil, jomb are intended to represent the sound of the water when flowing or splashing, just as taq taq does that of knocking at the door.

Sa-at tiq tîq tîq ediyordou. The watch was ticking, 'going tick, tick'.

Kiliséniñ chañî dan doun côtúyordou. The church bell was ringing, ding-dong.

Ellérini shapour shoupour birbiriné vourdoular. They loudly clapped their hands.

Qoushlar jiviljivil eûtúyorlar. The birds are singing tweet tweet.

.Exa10 اذان .VI

. $ 503. Is the notification, announcement, call to divine worship, proclaimed from a minaret or any other place, five times a day, by the -éz'-zin (chanter). The following is the formula:

1. First of all Tail Allahou ékbér. "God is Most Great four times repeated, turning the face towards the four directions of the world.

2. al V NI Y il depur) Esh'-hédů én’né la ilahe illallah. I bear witness that (there is) not a god, save God (twice repeated).

3. il Jens idazo il tot Esh-he-énné Mouhammédén soul oullah. I bear witness that Mouhammed is the apostle of God (twice).

4. öghell sko - Hay'yé alés sélat. Hasten to divine worship [twice).

5. zyli co cz Hay'yé alér félah. Hasten to permanent blessedness (twice).

6. HTail Allahû ékbér. God is great (twice again repeated). 7. al XI all Y La ilahé illallah. (Once more repeated.]

The call chanted at daybreak has this addition after the fourth clause:

peall ise yi öghell Es sélatú khay'rûn min én' névm. Prayer is better than sleep.

In great and imperial mosques, the -éz'-zins sometimes make optional additions to the fifth clause; as:

الصلوة والسلام عليك يا حبيب الله ! يا نور عرش الله ! یا سید الاواين و الاخرين !

عبادت مسيحيه
.VII

.
The Christian Services

! i Jyors ! Es sélatû vésésélamú aléyk, ya Habee ballah! or Ya nooré arshillah! or Ya séy'yidül év'véleen vél a-khîreen! or Ya résoul oullah! May blessing and peace be upon thee, O Beloved one of God! or Ö Light of the throne of God! or O Prince of the former and later (prophets)! or 0 Prophet of God!

Inside the place of worship also, this call is uttered when worship begins; but then with this addition after the fifth clause:

öshelläol i Qad qamétis'salat. Divine worship has already been entered on (begun) (twice).

. $ 504. The Benediction:

Rabbimiz Hisous Kristosoun (or Isa-él- Mésihin) imagét, Pédér Allahômâeân mouhal bét Rouhoul Qoudsou%

. mûsharékéti jumléñiz ilé bérabér olsoun; Amin.

The Lesson:

Ogouyajaghim mahal Tékvee'núl Makhlouqat Kitabinin birinji babînîn birinji ayetindén 16înjë ayétiné qadar dîr.

Mat-téosoun tahreer éylédiyi Injiliñ altînjê babînîn iptidasîndan soñounadék oqouyajaghîm.

Pavlos Résouloun Romalilara yazdighî résaléniñ on ikinji babîndan oqouyajaghîm.

Onounjou Mézmourou oqouyajaghîm.

The Text:

Louqasîñ tahreer éylédiyi Injiliñ sekizinji babinin yirmi birinji ayéti haq'qinda mûta-la-a' édéjéyim.

Youhan'na Injilinin birinji bab yirmi doqouzounjou ayétinin ikinji qismî ûzériné vaz édéjéyim.

Esa'sî Kélamimiz Amali Rousoul Kitabînîñ déôrdúnjú bab on ikinji ayétindé boulounour or mévjoud dour.

The Hymn:

Maqam Kitabînîn altinji sahifesinde boulounan onikinji ilahiyi térén'-núm édélim.

Yüz otouz yédinji ilahiyi térén'-núm édélim.
Téshék'kûr ilahisini térénnúm édélim.

The Baptismal formula:

Laura Eupheme, séni Pédériñ, Oghoulouñ Rouhoul Qoudsous namina for bismil Eb vếi Ibn vél Rouhoul Qouds] vaftiz édérim.

The Ending of Prayers:

Rabb Khélaskíarimiz Hisous Krisdosoun ismi shérifindé dilériz, ih' san éylé, Ameen!

انتهای قسم اول

قسم ثاني

لسان رسمی و ادبی

الله الرحمن الرحيم

بسه

Second Part. The Elements of Arabic and Persian

Grammar

as

they are used in Ottoman-Turkish.

Introductory Remarks. § 503. The Arabic and Persian languages and literature have for many centuries exercised a very extensive influence upon the Ottoman. Therefore there are very many Arabic and Persian words and phrases used in Ottoman. In order to be able to understand and use them correctly, it is necessary to have an elementary knowledge of Arabic and Persian Grammar.

§ 506. The following points should be noted:

a. All such Arabic and Persian words taken singly are declined according to the grammatical system of the Turkish language.

b. All such Arabic words taken singly may be used in accordance with the rules of Persian Grammar. But genuine Turkish words cannot be treated in this way.

c. Only genuine Arabic words are used according to the Arabic grammatical system, Turkish and Persian words cannot be so dealt with.

$ 507. There are, however, some very much used Turkish and Persian words which are treated according to the rules of Arabic Grammar, because they are supposed to be Arabic. Such words are called belo osepüre ghalata'tî mésh'houré 'barbarisms' or 'manifest errors' (8 583).

Note. There are some orthographic signs which are peculiar to Arabic; but as mention has been made of these in the Introduction, they do not require to be dealt with again here (S$ 35-48).

.37

Lesson درس ۳۷

فارسی

nerd a man مرد barader a brother برادر

sheer a lion شیر

.nerdan men مردان .biraderan brothers برادران

.sheeran lions شیران

The Persian Plural.

? § 508. In the Persian language there are only two numbers: the Singular and the Plural.

$ 509. Persian plurals are formed in two ways:

a. If the noun be the name of an animate being, it may form its plural by taking the termination 3l-an; as: a

. a

.

. h. If the Persian noun be the name of an inanimate object, it becomes plural by the addition of L -ha; as:

a

sea § 510. If the animate nouns end in a vowel (-a, -é), their plural is made by changing that letter into sf giaf (-9-) and adding ül -an; as: otis béndé a seryant ,

. a. aalb talébé student

. § 511. The following nouns, though denoting inanimate objects, may form their plurals in öl -an; as: cüsl akh'tér a star

, . a

.

sala year سال derya a set دریا

.salha years سالها .deryaha seas دریاها

khaje , khoja a teacher خواجه

.bendegian servants بند كان .khajestan teachers خواجكان .talebegaan students طلبكان

.akhteran stars اختران .hezaran thousands هزاران

hezar a thousand هزار

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