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Reading Exercise.

.Reading Exercise تعليم قرائت

اسامی فضائله وتنبيهات

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A list of Moral Maxims (= Franklin's Principles).

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حكيم مشهور فرانقلينك تنظيم حركات و اصلاح نفسه ضمننده اتخاذ ایلدیکی اون ایکی قاعده له1 :

ریاضت 14 : - آغيرلانه جقه صورتده يمه ! سرسام (سرسم ) 16 اوله جق قدر ده ایچمه !

سكوت 17:-کندیگه و باشقه سنه بر فائده يي مفيدة أولما یه جق سوزی سویله مه !

خانه ده هر شيئك برینی و هر بر ایشان وقتني انتظام 1 : تعيين 29 ایله !

یا نه مجبور اولديغاث 21 شینی قرارلاشدیر تخصيص مقصد :و بلا قصوری اجرا ابله !

امر تصرف 27:- کندیكه و يا آخره لزوم 29 حقیقیسی اولان شیدن ماعداسنه بر اقيه صرف ايتمه !

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Words. 1. é-sa'mee names, lists. 2. fézayil virtues. 3. ténbeehat (commands), maxims. 4. hakeem a philosopher. 5. mésh' hour celebrated. 6. Benjamin Franklin. 7. tanzeem to put in order. 8. haréktát acts, conducts. 9. islah'ét.” reforming. 10. néfs life; self, personality. 11. zimnînda for, regarding. 12. ittikhaz ét." to adopt. 13. qayidé a rule. 14. riyazét ascetic discipline. 15. to be heavy. 16. sérsém stupified. 17. sükût silence. 18. mûfeed profitable. 19. intizam order, regularity. 20. tayeen ét.” to fix, appoint. 21. takhsees to assign or specially appropriate. 22. maqséd an aim, endeavor. 23. méjbour ol." to be obliged. 24. to decide, to settle. 25. bila without. 26. qousour defect (=perfect, complete). 27. emri tesarrouf frugality, economy (émr work). 28. akhér other (people). 29. louzoum necessity. 30. haqiqi real. 31. ma-a-da except. 32. sarf ét." to spend.

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سعی و عملة :- وقتگی ضایع ایتمه و دائما فائدهلی بر شیله مشغول اول 35 !

( معلم ناجی)

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33. say ou amél labour and work. 34. zay ét." to waste. 35. méshghoul ol." to be busy.

,Conversation مكالمه .Ders hagganda stuallal درس حقنده سؤالر س) بنیامین فرانقلين كيم در? - آمريقالی مشهور بر فیلوسوفدر . س) فرانقلين هاني عصرك فيلوسوفلرندن در? - اون سكزنجي عصرك . س) فيلوسوف نه ديك و حكيم نه ديمك ? بونلرك آراسنده نه فرق وار ?

- فرق يوقدر . ايكيسیده بر معناده . فقط حكيم اكرچه hekim اوقونورسه ؛

طبيب ديمكدر .

.39 Lesson درس ۳۹ .Persian Compound Adjectives تركيب وصيفى

al آل ,siyah ' black سیاه :are much used in Turkish

; as .sefid white سفید ,led bad بد ,red

§ 524. The simple adjectives of the Persian language

; : , , ',

$ 525. The compound adjectives of the Persian language are formed in two ways: either by the addition of particles, or by joining two words together. A. The Derivative Adjective, formed by the addition

of particles to nouns. $ 526. The most common derivative adjectives used in Turkish are made by the addition of the following particles to Arabic or Persian nouns (SS 149, 579):

§ 527. I. The letter s (), signifies relation. If the word ends in the vowels 1' S'o (-a; -1; -é, -a), they are changed into 9 (-v-), and afterwards the yé is added:

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anglia Englishman انكليز ,inglizi English انكلیزی

.efrenji European افرنجی

.agli mental عقلی

efrenja European افرنج

aql mind عقل .a chin China چین dangya world دنیا .a

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isang chini chinaware.

.dunyati worldly دنیوی

§ 528. II. ail -ané signifies relation and resemblance. If the word ends in the vowel he (-ė), this is changed into sf (-9-): and if it ends in , vowel (-ou) a s (-y-), is inserted between the word and particle; as:

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8 529. III. The terminations jb ulg' sb-ban, -van, -kíar, -giar form nouns denoting ‘doer, keeper', etc. lch bagh-ban keeper of vineyard. Kindi khidmétkiar a servant.

Bigla khúdavéndigíar the sovereign, the Sultan. 083197përverdigiar the Nourisher (God), Providence.

Boli yadgiar, yadigiar a remembrance, memento.

$ 530. IV. The prefixes li na-, bi- mean without', and denote the absence of something; na- is used with adjectives, bi- with nouns:

polarli namaʻlům unknown. l napak unclean.
oyle bicharé unfortunate. Longóli nakhosh unpleasant.

693 bivéfa inconstant (friend), unreliable. olgáliolg: khah'nakhah willingly or unwillingly.

§ 531. V. hém- prefixed to a noun expresses companionship.

s ypatingo hémshéh'ri fellow-citizen. umirem hémjins' homogeneous. ovo hémsheeré who sucks the same milk, a sister.

§ 532. VI. Adjectives are also formed by the

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,asd , esh- وار or ور “ نالك ‘ مند ‘ين وش آسا addition of

.atesheen fiery آتشین .ferahi nah cheerful فرحناك .ghamnak sorrowful غمناك...a .ammidvar hopeful امیدوار .huinearer , hunermend skilful هنرمند هنرور

, -vésh, -een, -ménd, -nak, -vér or -var. wil hen' nisa-asa womanlike. Liigpe méh’vesh like the moon = bright.

disanas his'séménd partaker. . .

. gils janvér (wild) animal. ' hûnérvér, .

$ 533. VII. By doubling some words and inserting an elif between them, fulness or multifariousness may be expressed:

ile beraber breast to breast; together; equal. JW J6/6s lébaléb, malamal (lip to lip) brimful.

, névanév in hue, variegated.

rengiareng , ganagan , netanet varied نوعانوع كوناکون، رنکارنك

B. Compound Adjectives composed of two words.

§ 534. The compound adjectives obtained by the union of two words are generally formed either: 1. of a noun and a participle, or the root of a verb, 2. of an adjective and a noun, or, 3. of two nouns.

They may consist of two Persian words, or of an Arabic and a Persian word, or of two Arabic words.

$ 535. a. Adjectives formed of a noun and a participle or the root of a verb.

, x. bér take, captivate: Ws dilbér enchanting. sto médéd help, wy rés arrive: co . time, dilshikésté broken hearted. See also: $ 556. § 536.

b. Adjectives formed of an adjective and a noun.

bou odour Jungs khosh'bou sweet scented, odorous. op téhi empty endaji téhidést empty-handed, deprived.

§ 537. c. Adjectives formed from two nouns. got ahou gazelle : pano got ahouchéshm gazelle - eyed, attractive.

,dil heart دل ,مدد

.mededres helper مددرس

:sheer lion شیر

.nizam

' name , qamount name a code of laws قانوننامه ، نظامنامه

: Js i sheerdil lion-hearted. (ulic a. + Solid gúlazar rosy-cheeked; Rose (pr. name).

§ 538. Many such compound words lose their meaning as an adjective and are considered as compound nouns:

annab güldésté a bunch of flowers, a bouquet.
Sans you séraskér head of the army, a commander-in-chief.
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The Degrees of Comparison. § 539. The Comparative is obtained by the addition of-tér to the simple form of the adjective, and the Superlative by adding en -téreen: to bed bad: ut béd'tér worse:

. yų bala bigh: vyu balatér higher: ix. 3 V! balatéreen highest.

.bedtereen worst بدترین

Exercise 87.

sharq شرق .turk . a ترك

.freng European فرنك .527

Haleb حلب

.yaban the wilderness يابان .Fransa فرانسه

AV ]
Change the following nouns into adjectives:

. the east. Bypa yéhoud (Judah) Jew. aiyal Edirné Adrianople.

. Aleppo. Alls khak earth. a. Lalo salib a cross. god deev a demon. Jyo mérd man.

. dost. a. ali khalis sincere. a.;.\ ajiz humble. Je pédér.

. deliverance. ada w sakhté false. wb pas watch (at night).

. . je) rouz day. jó door. pt pen, graver.

528.

درست

khelas خلاص .guinah . A کناه .baghche باغچه .529

.sandouq , saudig a cofer صندوق صنديق

.kaar profit کار

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