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قرال فردیناندك بر ضیافتنده وقوع بوحكايه نره ده وقوع بولدى ?
مومي اليهك قرال طرفندن مظهر اولدیغی وحكايه به سببیت ویرن خصوص نه
لطف و إكرامدن طولايي حضاردن ایدی ?
بر پرنس حد ائتمه سیندن نشأت
اینم شدر. بو پرنس قرسطوفك همتنى استصغار قرستوف قولومبوسدن ماعداسی دخی
بر جدیدی کشف ایده بیله جكنى ايتمك ضمننده نه سویله دی ?
سويله دی . قرستوف حضارك حيرت ومراقي اوت افندم ! بر يوم ورطه يي سیوری
طرفنده طوردیره بیلن آدم آمریقایی جلب ایده جك صورتده برشی
كشفه مقتدر اولدیغنی جوابا بيان تكليف ايدى من ?
ايله دی .
عطوفتلو ابو الضيا توفيق بك حضرتلری . بوحكايه بي كيم ترجمه ایتمشدر ?
خير افندم ! دها ما بعدی وار در. بوحكايه ختام بولدیمی ?
Lesson درس 45
The Arabic Infinitive (Masdar).
§ 584. There is no limit to the number of words which the Ottoman language borrows from the Arabic. The number of Arabic words to be learnt would thus involve a great deal of study, if they were not derived from certain roots which are, of course, very much less numerous.
. If the student can master the system by which Arabic derivatives are derived from their roots (mad'dé, mad'déyi asliyé), his labour will be vastly diminished. After learning a certain number of roots, he will at once recognize and remember a large number of words formed from them. The Arabic system of derivation is extremely regular, logical and beautiful; although at first it appears somewhat complicated.
Almost every word in Arabic may be referred to a significant root, consisting of either three or four letters, the triliterals being by far the more common.
In European languages, significant roots are irregular in form, and the grammar of those languages treats only of prefixes and affixes, by which the meaning of the word is modified. Thus in English we add the termination -er to express the agent of a verb, and -ing to express the Present Participle Active or the Gerund; as: make, maker, making. In Arabic, however, such modifications are obtained not only by prefixing or affixing, but by inserting letters between those of the root. The root les façl signifying action, is taken as the typical root for exhibiting these modifications, and the formulae thus obtained are called the measures of words'. For instance, the insertion of an élif between the first and second radical, and the punctuation of the later with an ésré, give the sense of the Agent or Active participle: thus les façl becomes Isls fa-gil 'one who does' and this word is the measure upon which all other "agents” of this kind are formed. It is in fact, a mere formula, like the letters used in Algebra; for as (a + b + c) may represent (2 + 3 + 4), (5 + 6 + 7), or any
; , may substitute any other triliteral root and obtain the same modification of meaning; as: :
. pale gilm wisdom:
we ,فاعل in فعل other number
: qatl to kill قتل .qatil a murderer قا تل
;alim wiseع عالم of the فاعل are said to be the عالم and قاتل where
triliteral roots to which they respectively belong.
The Arab grammarians use this word Jes as a paradigm, and every change in and addition to the root is made on this model. But as the utterance of the second radical (e) is very difficult for Europeans, therefore we adapt the word hög faql as its equivalent, since it is easier to pronounce; using the 'measures of las also when necessary:
jś harf letter is of the measure faqı, that is to say it is measured, weighed or balanced on the word höga faqı, having the same quantity of letters and the same vowel.
$ 585a. The root lie in Arabic is pointed with three ústúns, as: cö faqala, which means 'he fanned', this being the third person singular Past tense; but for shortness' sake we always render it into English by the Infinitive or Verbal Noun 1 (S$ 272, 614).
$ 585 b. The Arabic Infinitives (= Masdar) are divisible, in respect of their origin, into two classes: Primitive or Simple and Derivative or Augmented.
$ 586. The Primitive Infinitives are those which have no servile letters in them, or even if they have the serviles do not change the meaning of the word; as:
nazar to look; js dakhl “to enter are simple or primitive forms, because there is no augment or
ܢܵܩܵܝ دخول ,regardt to look نظرت servile letter in them
.دل and نظر they are only different forms of
doukhoul or se dékhalét to enter' also are called Primitives; because although there are servile letters (l'o'y), yet they do not change the meaning:
. $ 587. The Servile Letters are (sa güp was ☺ !), which are also called 'changers or letters of augmentation, because they change or add to the meaning of the word.
$ 588. The Derivative Infinitives are those infinitives which have servile letters inserted in them,
1 The second vowel of the third person Sing. Past tense is sometimes i = Jös fagila, sometinies ou = lös faqoula, instead of being as here a = las faqala: but this does not concern the student of Ottoman.
which change the meaning of the word more or less. For instance the word jijl intizar to look after, to wait; JISS! idkhal 'to cause to enter, to insert”, are derivatives; because their ground forms les
nazar and los dakl mean ‘to look and to enter respectively, and the augmentative letters "I* have changed the meaning (SS 259, 613).
A. The Primitive Triliterals. 1533
§ 589. There are a great number of Verbal Nouns or Infinitives which are derived directly from the triliteral roots. Those that are most frequently used in Turkish belong to one of 23 "measures". The root hög is taken as the 'measure' or formula (= ujg vézn), and we shall assume that all these 23 forms can be derived from it; although they are not all in use. Every root is supposed to have the power of producing all these derivatives, though, in fact, sometimes only a few such are actually formed from a given root.
b. Múta-la-at Remarks.
= فناء ، جزا = جزاء are changed into بنای ، ا = بناء ا بنی، فنی، جزی1
the roots being ,دعا = دعاء
If the third radical is , or s, in the measures 15, 16 and 17 it is changed into (-) at the end, which is often omitted ($ 705 d); as: stessi je sloo
= cis . = , $ 591. Those letters which have the mark of reduplication, are written twice in the root, without the mark (); as:
các slid-đét severity, root Vé shídédé. $ 592. The feminine letters and a 'ä are substituted for each other in the termination of nouns: