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OTTOMAN-TURKISH
CONVERSATION-GRAMMAR

A PRACTICAL METHOD OF LEARNING
THE OTTOMAN-TURKISH LANGUAGE.

BY

V. H. HAGOPIAN, M. A.

PROFESSOR OF THE TURKISH, ARABIC AND PERSIAN LANGUAGES

IN ANATOLIA COLLEGE, MERZIFOUN, TURKEY;
AUTHOR OF ENGLISH - ARMENIAN DICTIONARY etc.

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(غاسپهی - اوتو- زاوور) اصولنه تطبيقة تألیف و ترتیت ایدیلن آثاری موقع انتشاره وضع ايتمك حقوقی واضع الامضایه مختص و منحصر اولوب ، مومى اليه آثار مذكوره نك درجه كماله ايصالنه از هر جهت چالیشمنده در . اصول مذکوره به توفيق تألیف ایدیلن آثارك بالجمله حقوقی محفوظ اولدیغندن ، وقوع بوله جق هر نوع تقليد و ترجمه قانون ممنوعدر . خصوصات مذکوره به متعلق معلومات اعطاسنه همت ایدنلره مومي اليه تشكر ایدر

هايدلبرغ صاحب و ناشري : جوليوس غروس

The Gaspey-Otto-Sauer Method has become my sole property by right of purchase. These books are continually revised. All rights, especially those of adaptation and translation into any language, are reserved. Imitations and copies are forbidden by law. Suitable communications always thankfully received.

Julius Groos. Heidelberg.

مقدمہ

Preface.

The Turkish language is of Tartar origin, as the Turks came from Central Asia, and is consequently quite distinct from Arabic and Persian, although it is true that in modern times the Arabic characters have been adopted for all three languages, and that the Turkish language is now half filled with Arabic and Persian words. Yet these words have been incorporated without affecting the nature or framework of the Turkish, which is as different from Arabic and Persian as AngloSaxon dialects are from Hebrew or Hungarian. In fact pure Turkish is Turanian, while Arabic is Semitic and Persian Aryan, and the resulting modern Ottoman-Turkish is compounded not only of three languages but of representatives of the three great families of languages. The original Turkish tongue, which is called Chaghata (Jagatai), was somewhat barbarous, but extremely forcible and concise when spoken. The adoption of Arabic and Persian words is arbitrary. To master the language it is necessary to have at least an elementary knowledge of the Arabic and Persian languages.

It is an extraordinary and lamentable fact that the language of the Turks has hitherto received little or no attention in England, although it is spoken by millions of people belonging to a vast empire with which we are closely connected by mutual vital interests, and is more or less used, in official circles, from Tunis in Africa to the walls of China. It is the court language of Persia, and in many provinces of that country, of South Russia and Afghanistan is spoken as much

as Persian. It is difficult to account for the absolute neglect of the study of such an important language, considering that it is used by a people who once influenced half the world, who overturned and established empires, who have possessed the thrones of Persia, Greece, Egypt and Arabia; whose power was once dreaded by Italy, Germany and France, and to whom our proud Queen Elizabeth applied for aid against the Spanish Armada. The Turkish has always been of the greatest consequence to us, owing to the importance of our political and conmercial relations with the Ottoman Empire, and the complete ignorance of it on the part of our countrymen has greatly impeded proper communication and intercourse between the two nations and given rise to most serious misunderstandings and difficulties both in the diplomatic and commercial world. (Dr. Ch. Wells.]

Besides, not a small body of earnest men from the great Anglo-Saxon republic of the Trans-Atlantic continent have long been established in Constantinople and in the provinces of Turkey, labouring to unfold the treasures of modern science, temporal and spiritual, to the people of Turkey; losing no opportunity to place themselves in friendly communication both with the governing Ottoman element and with the numerous races and religious denominations subject to the Imperial sway.

To meet the need of the representatives of these two great nationalities in Turkey, there arose the necessity for conversation-books, grammars and lexicons. There have appeared a number of Turkish grammars and other books in the English language, but they seem little fitted to acquaint the learner fully with Turkish, chiefly because they are not sufficiently practical in the strict sense of the word, or they are composed only of rules. The appearance of a new Ottoman-Turkish Grammar which combines in itself the theoretical and the practical elements of the language, it is expected will be cheerfully welcomed.

The so-called Conversation-method, originated by Drs. Gaspey and Otto, is now applied for the first time by the writer of this present book to the Ottoman-Turkish language also. It is his mother tongue and besides for more than 20 years he has practised this method in teaching the language in an important American institution to the natives of Turkey and to Englishspeaking foreigners. Therefore his own experience enables him to speak with some little authority on this subject. He thinks he has introduced a new element too in the Gaspey-Otto conversation-method, by inserting the word exercises which appear on pp. 121–125, 215, 256 etc.

The First Part of this work is devoted to conversational language and in it all the peculiarities of the language are given in a very easy and comprehensive way. The study of the First Part being finished it will soon be seen that Turkish is a very regular language, and that it is far more easy than is generally thought.

In the Second Part the elements of the Persian and Arabic languages are treated of as they are used in Ottoman-Turkish, and all the difficulties of both languages are explained, in a concise way. This is the Literary and Official language. There are then added some very valuable matters and a vocabulary.

As to the Exercises and Reading Lessons for translation, most of them are on subjects referring to Turkey and Turkish literature. Many characteristic specimens of poetry and prose illustrative of the literature and of the country, especially in modern phraseology, are given, so that the learner will feel himself in Turkey, and will have a glimpse into the geography, the history and the manners and customs of the country.

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