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NEW PATENTS.

N. B.-The first Date annexed to each Patent, is that on which it was sealed and granted; the

second, that on or before which the Specification must be delivered and enrolled.

JANUARY

improvements in the machinery and are 1, JAMES CHAMPION, of Salford, Lancash.

rangements for the use of propelling

vessels and other floating bodies, as also machine-maker; for certain improvements in machinery for spinning, twist

carriages and other vehicles on rail

roads, as well as on common roads, part ing, and doubling cotton and other

of which machinery is also applicable fibrous substances. Jan. 6.—July 6. 2. John RAMSBOTTOM, of Todmorden, Lan- 12. ROBERT Bowie, of Bishopsgate-street

to other purposes. Jan. 19.—July 19. cash., mechanist; for certain improvements in machinery for roving, spinning,

within, London, surgeon; for certain and doubling cotton and other fibrous

improvements in distillation and decoc- ,

tion, which improvements are more or substances. Jan. 6.-July 6. 3. WILLIAM HARTER, of Manchester, silk

less applicable to the heating of fluids of

all descriptions; as also to the purificamanufacturer; for certain improve

tion of oleaginous bodies, both animal ments in machinery for winding, cleaning, drawing, and doubling hard and 13. JOHN FERRABEE, of the Thrup, Stroud,

and vegetable. Jan. 21.-July 21. soft silk. Jan. 8.—July 8. 4. FRANCIS BREWIN, Kent-road, Surrey,

Gloucestersh., engineer, and RICHARD tanner; for certain new and improved

CLYBURN, of the same place, engineer;

for certain improvements in powerprocesses of tanning. Jan. 11. -July

looms. Jan. 21.-July 21. 11. 5. J. Tilton Slade, of Fitzroy-square,

14. WILLIAM Burch, Borough-road, Surrey,

calico and silk printer; for certain imMiddx., gent., for certain new and improved machinery for raising earth

provements in machinery for printing

silk and cotton net, or lace. Jan. 23. and for other useful purposes. Jan.

-July 23. 11.-July 11. 6. John WARD HIGHAM, of Tavistock-st.,

15. Julius JEFFREYS, of Osnaburgh-street,

Regent's Park, Middx., esq. ; for Middx., for an improved tablet for sharpening of razors, penknives, sur

improvements in curing or relieving disorders of the lungs.

Jan. 23.gical instruments, chisels, plane-irons,

July 23. and other steel instruments which are

16. HENRY Booth, of Liverpool, Lancapable of being sharpened by what are

cash., gent. ; for improvements applicommonly called hones, Turkey-stones,

cable to locomotive steam-engines and or Welch-stones. Jan. 11.-Mar. 11. 7. John Burns SMITH, of Salford, Lan- 17. HENRY Pickworth, the younger,

railway-carriages. Jan. 23.—Mar. 23. cash., cotton-spinner, and John SMITH, of Halifax, York, dyer; for certain

Sipson, Middx., gent. ; for certain methods of tentering, stretching, or

improvements in machinery for prokeeping out cloth to its width, made

pelling vessels and other floating bodies, either of cotton, silk, wool, or any

moved by steam or other power. Jan. other fibrous substances, by machinery. 18. John FilmORE KINGSTON, of Islington,

26.—July 26. Jan, 14.-July 14.

Devonsh.; for a new rotary engine. 8. Moses Poole, of Lincoln's-inn, Middx., gent, for improvements in Jacquard 19. William BoulNois, the younger, of

Jan. 28.-July 28. looms: being a communication from a

Gower-street, London; for an improved foreigner residing abroad Jan. 19.

combination or arrangement of springs July 19. 9. CHARLES BRANDT, of Upper Belgrave

for carriages. Jan. 30.—July 30. place, Middx., mechanist; for certain improvements in heating, evaporating, and cooling fluids. Jan. 19.-20. STEPHEN REED, Newcastle-on-Tyne, July 19.

gent.; for two hooks and an improved 10. FRANCIS Moll, of Grove-lane-terrace, bow for corves, baskets, buckets, &c.,

Camberwell, Surrey, esq., for improve- which are conveyed, either loaded or ments in preserving certain vegetable empty, from one level to another, by substances from decay. Jan. 19.- being let down or drawn up, in mines, July 19.

pits, and in other works ; and in ships 11. CHARLES HARSLEBEN, of Bold-street, and other vessels, where cranes, &c.,

Liverpool, Lancash., esq. ; for certain are now used. Feb. 1.-April 1.

FEBRUARY.

21, John BARING, of Bishopsgate-street, neer; for certain improvements in

London, merchant; for certain im- engines for driving machinery, and for provements in machinery for dressing raising and lowering heavy bodies. wool; being a communication from a Feb. 12.-Aug. 12. foreigner residing abroad. Feb. 3.-30. CHARLES SŅAFHANTH, of Sheffield, Aug. 3.

Yorksh., gent.; for an improved steam22. FREDERICK EDWARD HARVEY, mecha- generator. Feb. 16.—Aug. 16.

nical draughtsman, and JEREMIAH 31. JOSHUA PROCTER WESTHEAD, of ManBROWN, roll-turner, of Tipton, Staf- chester, Lancash., small ware manufordsh.; for certain improvements in facturer; for an improved method of the process and machinery for making cutting India rubber, leather, hides, metallic tubes, and for forging or rol- &c. Feb. 16.-Aug. 16.

ling metal. Feb. 3.-Aug. 3. 32. MICHAEL HODGE SIMPSON, of Ludgate23. EDMUND ASHWORTH, cotton-spinner, hill, London, merchant; for certain

and JAMES GREENOUGH, overlooker, of improvements in machinery for dressEgerton, Lancash. ; for certain im- ing hemp, fax, tow, &c., and also provements in machinery for preparing waste silk; being a communication and spinning cotton, silk, wool, &c. from a foreigner residing abroad. Feb. Feb. 5.-Aug. 5.

17.-Aug. 17. 24. HENRY ADCOCK, of Stamford-street, 33. JOSEPH LIDEL, of Arundel-street, Pan

Blackfriars, Surrey, civil-engineer; for ton-square, Middx., professor of music; certain improvements in the loading for certain improvements in pianoand unloading of ships, &c., especially fortes; being a communication from a applicable to those called colliers, and foreigner residing abroad. Feb. 17.which discharge in the Pool. Feb. 5. Aug. 17. -Aug. 5.

34. William BUCKNALL, of Crutched25. ALEXANDER MASSIE and ROBERT MOR- friars, London, cork-merchant; for im

Ton, of Wapping, Middx., engineers, provements in machinery for propelling and WILLIAM RANWELL, coal-merchant, vessels, and for water-wheels. Feb. and EBENEZER RANWELL, miller, both 17.--Aug. 17. of Woolwich, Kent; for certain im- 35. FREDERICK CHAPLIN, of Bishops' Stortprovements in the construction of pad- ford, Herts, tanner; for an improvedle-wheels for propelling vessels: which ment in tanning hides of certain deare also applicable to water-wheels for scriptions. Feb. 18.—Aug. 18. Mills. Feb. 9.-Aug. 9.

36. HENRY MARTINSON ROBINSON, of the 26. FREDERICK HERBERT MABERLY, of Minories, London, varnish manufac

Bourne, Cambridgesh., clerk; for im- turer; for improvements in certain deproved machinery for cleaning roads or scriptions of lamps. Feb. 18.-Aug. 18. streets. Feb. 10.-Aug. 10.

37. John BARSHAM, of Stepney Causeway, 27. SAMUEL FENTON, of Fishguard, Pem- Middx., oxalic acid manufacturer ;

brokesh., S. W., clerk; for an im- for improvements in the manufacture provement in the construction of locks of oxalic acids and salacetecella. Feb. and latches for doors, gates, &c. Feb. 20.-Aug. 20. 10.-Aug. 10.

38. François Peyre, junior, of St. Etienne, 28. John HOWARD KYAN, of Twickenham, France, now residing at the White

Middx., esq.; for a new mode of pre- Hart Inn, Southwark, Surrey, dyer ; serving certain vegetable substances for improvements in economizing fuel from decay,—to extend only to our in ships' hearths, &c., and of obtaincolonies and plantations abroad. Feb. ing distilled water from sea water, and 11.- April 11.

which apply to generating steam; being 29. ANDREW SMITH, of Princes-street, St. a communication from a foreigner re

Martin's in the Fields, Middx., engi- siding abroad. Feb. 23.-Aug. 23.

Lunation.

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METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL FOR JANUARY, 1836; KEPT AT BLACKHEATH ROAD. Baron.

Direction of wind

Wind.

WEATHER, &c. Var. | Temp. 0-10 10-6

A.M. PM.
Friday, 1 39.450 43° 30.525 43° 26°7 | 32° 0 5.3 29°3 24° 10 | 10 | 3 3.2

Small driving snow and sleet; fine night. (at night.
Satur. 2 39.782 38 30.750 39 12.6 27.0 14.4 19.8 9 010 0 0.1

Intense frost; clear A. M.; cloudy P. M.; light snow
SUNDAY, 3 30.600 40 30•551 43 27.5 40•4 12.9 33.9 27 10 92 2 w.s.w. W.S.W. A perfect thaw; scud and cirro-cum. ; Small rain.
Monday, 4 30:348 44 30-320 48 36.9 48.7 11.8 42.832 10 10 3 3 w. bs.

Gale of wind with soud; high temperature.
Tuesday,5 30•362 49 30.370 54 43.5 50.9 7.447.241 5

1

Mild; clouds light and broken.
8
4.5 45.243 10 10 0 0.11

8.S.E. Cloudy; drizzling rain.
Thurs. 7 i 30•100 54 39.059 53 32:1 39.0 6.9 35.5 29 | 10 | 101

S.E.

Do.

do.
Friday, 8 30.104 53 30.140 53 36.0 | 41.9 5.9 39.0 3310 51 1 S.S.E.

8. E.
Do.

evening misty, with scud. Satur. 9 30.119 49 30.052 49 26.7 33.4 6.7 | 30.025 8 10 1

Frosty; misty; a little sleet at evening.
Sun.
10 29.768 45 29.521 | 45 29:1 | 32.0 2.9 30.529 9 10 2 3:1)

Snow early A. M.; P. M. a heavy snow.
Mon. 11 29.412 45 29.425 46 29.5 36.5 7.0 33.0 29 7 10 1 Calm. E. S.W. Snow 4 inches deep; heavy rain from 7 to 11 P. M.
Tues. 12 29.560 45 29.600 45 25•7 35•5 9.8 30.625 2 3 1 S.W. S.W. Sharp frost; fine.
Wed. 13 29.958 44 ' 30.001 45 26.5 39.0 12.5 32.723 1

2 W.S.W. S.W.

Cirro-cum. ; fine.
Thurs. 14 30.050 48 29.952 49 37.5 48.5 11.0 43.0 34 7 3 4.5 w.s.w. W.8.W. Strong wind; cirro-stratus; scud; stormy night.
Friday, 15 29.601 ' 49 29.630 50 46.0 47.0 1:0 46.5 40 7

3 w. b N.

High wind; cumuli; air sharp and cold.
Satur. 16 30.235 48 30.340 48 30•4 35:1 4•732 727

NW. NW. Hoar-frost; cloudless, with haze.
SUN. 17 30.396 45 30.435 48 26.2 38.0 11.8 32.122

Do.

strong ground-frost. Mon. 18 30.377 45 30.189 47 28.6 44.6 16.0 36.6 24 9

3 w.s. w. W.S.W. Windy. Tues. 1930.375 46 30•450 47 32.0 37.6 5.6 34.8 28 2 5

N.E.

Air frosty; cirro-cum, in flocks.
Wed. 20 30•400 46 30.315 48 25.2 42.0 16.833.6 22 10 10 2 S.W.

Raw damp air; cirro-cum, in flocks; scud.
Thurs. 21 30.018 48 29.905 48 32.0 40.0

s. b E.

Cirro-cům. ; scud; hollow wind.
Friday, 22 29.700 49 29.736 49 38.1 49.1 11:043•6 35 10 9 3 S.S.W. S.S.W. Cirro-stratus ; wind.
Satur. 23 29.592 52 29.750 | 54 43.2 53.6 10•4 48:4 41 6 2 2 4 W.S. W. W.S.W.

Rain and wind A. M.
Sun. 24 30.182 54 30.165 54 42.9 48.2 5.3 45.5 39 2 43 1 w. b s. w. b s. Windy; scud; but very fine.
Mon. 25 30.475 53 30 495 55 38.0 45.0 700 | 41.5 | 35 | 10 40 1 S.W. S. W.S. Cirro-cum. ; stratus; open weather.
26 30.381 | 52 30.290 52 34:145.4 11.3 39.8 30 8 91 2 s. b w. s. s.w.

Cirro-cum.
Wed. 27 30200 53 30.102 53 37.0 44.5 7.5 40.732 10 5 1 2 W. S.W. Rainy A.M.; afternoon fine; wind very high at night.
Thurs. 28 29.905 53 29.774 | 54 39.6 49:1 9.5 44.335 4 72 2:3 s.w.

sw. bw Fair A. M. ; a violent squall of hail and rain at mid-
Friday, 29 29.650 50 29.501 51 34.0 41.5 7.5 37.7 318 5 10 3 1 w. b s. S.W. Air sharp; evening rain and snow. (night.
Satur. 30 29.292 48 29.425 50 30.8 43.3 12.5 37:1 29 9 22 | 3 W. N. W.

Snow and sleet A, M.
Sun. 31 29.601 | 48 | 29.400 / 50 30.5 47.5 17.0 39.0 28 10 5 2 3 s. b w. w.s.w. Rain till 2 P. M.; clouds broken.
Mean 30.078 48 30.054 49 32.82 41.92 9:07

Mean Barom. 30°

066. Mean Ther. 41° 2. Bar. Max. 30.782 on the 2d. Mean height at 9 A.M. 30.078 M. Press. Ther. Max. 53°6 on the 23d. Mean Tem. Lowest point of Rad. 9, on the 2d. Bar. Min. 29.040

29th. Mean do. at 3 P.M. 30.054 | 30.066|| Ther. Min. 1206 2d. S 37037. Solar var. 9°07. Rain and snow fallen 2:03.

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Tber.

Barom. Ther. Thermometer Solar | Daily Clouds Day of Mouth

Rad. 3 P.M. attch. Min. | Max. 9.4 V. attch.

8.0 36.0 28 710

Tues.

MAGAZINE OF POPULAR SCIENCE,

AND

JOURNAL OF THE USEFUL ARTS.

RECENT RESEARCHES ON HEAT.

In endeavouring to give our readers slight sketches of the recent progress and present condition of different leading branches of physical science, we are of necessity led to take somewhat of a retrospective view, were it only for the purpose of making our descriptions generally intelligible. The explanation of the terms employed, is, generally speaking, best attained by looking back to the researches which gave birth to them. But this almost unavoidably carries our discussions to some length. In the present instance, we fear the subject itself may be imagined of too abstruse and dry a character, to render such length endurable. Yet we must bespeak our readers' patience in the outset; and only trust we may, in the course of our account, so far engage their interest in a very beautiful department of experimental inquiry, as to afford some apology for the details on which we must enter, or run the risk of being unintelligible. With this preliminary remark, then, we will advance to the subject of heat; a very small portion of whose effects have as yet received such an examination, as to lead to anything like wellestablished laws.

M. MELLONI'S RESEARCHES. Though the "thermo-multiplier" of M. Melloni has now been for several

years before the scientific world, it is not yet perhaps so generally known to experimenters as it deserves to be. We shall deem it, therefore, not inappropriate to the nature of this article, to state briefly its principle.

The essential part of it consists in a great number of pairs of small slips of antimony and bismuth soldered together, and combined in one case, so as to have their galvanic action excited by the application of heat. This thermo-electric effect is indicated and measured by its influence on a magnetic needle, placed below, and arranged as a galvanometer, by having many coils of wire passed round it, the wires communicating with the thermo-electric combination ; the effect is increased in proportion to the number of pairs of plates. Thus the galvanic action on the needle is the measure of the amount of heat affecting the metallic combination ; and the important and valuable part of the contrivance is, that degrees of heat, so small as to be quite insensible to the most delicate thermometers, are multiplied, as it were, by the multiplication of the number of pairs of metal plates, and thus produce a sensible effect on the galvanometer needle. The skill of artists has been exerVOL. I.

M

3

cised in reducing them to small dimensions. M. Gourjon of Paris has succeeded in bringing them into so small a compass, that the end of the case which is exposed to the heat, is not greater than the section of the bulb of an ordinary thermometer.

An instrument so far surpassing all formerly known in the sensibility of its indications, has, in the hands of its distinguished inventor, led to a series of results equally new and remarkable. A brief summary of some of the chief of them is as follows:

Radiant heat passes directly, in greater or less quantity, through certain kinds of solid and liquid bodies. This class of bodies does not precisely include those which are transparent, since some which are opaque, or very little transparent, are the most “diathermal*,” that is, transparent, as it were, to heat. This term is one which M. Melloni has introduced, as descriptive of the characteristic in question, and which we shall continue to use.

He concludes, in general, that there exist different species of heating rays; and at all these different kinds are emitted simultaneously from luminous hot bodies, though in different proportions from different sources, certain of them are entirely wanting in non-luminous hot bodies.

Rock-salt, cut into plates, and successively exposed to the radiations from different sources, transmits in all cases the same proportion of heat. Plates of any other diathermal substance, under the same circumstances, transmit a less proportion of heat as the temperature of the source is less elevated; but the differences between one substance and another in this respect, diminish as the plate is of less thickness; whence it follows (according to M. Melloni) that the calorific rays from different sources are intercepted in a greater or less degree, not at the surface, or in virtue of an absorbing power which varies with the intensity, but in the interior of the plate, by a peculiar absorptive force, which is analogous to that of coloured media for particular rays of light.

M. Melloni advances several theoretical views in support o this analogy. He remarks in general that there is but one substance (viz. rock-salt) of all he has tried, which is transparent and uncoloured, and acts really in the same manner both on the rays of light and of heat. All others, though they allow all rays of light to pass indifferently, yet absorb certain rays of heat and transmit others. We thus recognise, by means of these bodies, a true distinction in heat corresponding to that of colour in light.

The colouring matter of transparent media always diminishes more or less their diathermal properties, but gives them no peculiar property of stopping by preference any particular species of heating rays. operates upon the transmission of radiant heat, as brown colouring matter (a smoked glass for instance) does upon light; that is, has only a general diminishing power on the intensity. There seems to be, however, an exception in regard to certain glasses coloured with green and opaque black; but these two kinds of colouring matter only appear to act in modifying the quality of the diathermal property.

• From the Greek, dix, through; and Depueos, hot.

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