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NEW PATENTS. 1836.

ENGLISH.

N. B.-The first Date annexed to each Patent, is that on which it was sealed and granted; the sccond,

that on or before which the Specification must be delivered and evrolled. The abbreviation For. Comm., signifies that the intention, &c., is “a communication from a foreigner residing abroad."

GRANTS,
MARCH contd.

cable to the working of mines and other 73. William Gossage, Stoke Prior, Worc., 82. John Holmes, Birmingham, Warw.,

useful purposes. Apr. 7.-Oct. 7. Chemist, and EDWARD WHITE BENSON,

Engineer; for certain improvements Wichbold, Worc., Chemist; for im

in the construction of boilers for provements in the process of making

steam-engines. Apr. 7.-Oct. 7. or manufacturing ceruse or white-lead.

83. THOMAS RIDGWAY BRIDson, Great Mar. 29.-Sep. 29. 74. JAMES Noble the Elder, Mill-place,

Bolton, Lanc., Bleacher; for certain Commercial-road, Middx., Wool

improvements to facilitate and expecomber; for certain improvements in

dite the bleaching of linen and other the combing of wool and other fibrous 84. Robert Copland, Brunswick-crescent,

vegetable fibres. Apr. 7.-Oct. 7. substances. Mar. 29.-Sep. 29. -75. CHARLES DE BERGUE, Clapham-rise,

Camberwell, Surr., Esq. ; for im Surr., Engineer; for certain improve

provements upon patents already ob

tained by him for combinations of ments in machinery used for spinning and doubling yarn or thread, manu

apparatus for gaining power. Apr. 9. factured from cotton or other fibrous 85. Miles Berry, Chancery-lane, Middx.,

-Sep. 9. material. Mar. 29.-Sep. 29. 76. WILLIAM BRINDLEY, Caroline-st., Bir

Civil-engineer; for new or improved

apparatus or mechanism for marking mingham, Warw., Paper-maker; for

down or registering the notes played improvements in the manufacture of

on the keys of piano-fortes, organs, or tea-trays, and other japanned ware,

such other keyed musical instruments. and in the board or material used therein, and for other purposes. Mar.

Apr. 12.-Oct. 12. For. Comm. 29.-Sep. 29.

86. JACOB Perkins, Fleet-st., Lond., En77. THOMAS COCKERELL HOGAN, Castle

gineer; for certain improvements in st., Holborn, Middx., Light Hat-manu

steam-engines, and in generating facturer; for certain improvements

steam, and evaporating and boiling

fluids for certain purposes. Apr. 12. in hats, caps, and bonnets. Mar. 29.

-Oct. 12. -Sep. 29. 78. ANDREW PARKINSON, Low Moor, Lanc.,

87. JAMES LEMAN, Lincoln's-inn-Fields, Overlooker of power-looms; for an

Middx., Gent. ; for improvements in

making and manufacturing soap. Apr. improved stretcher to be used in, or with hand- or power-looms. Mar. 29. 88. THOMAS Hodgson Leighton, Blyth,

12.- Oct 12. For. Comm. Sep. 29. For. Comm. 79. Samuel PARLOUR, Addiscombe-road,

Northumb., Chemist; for certain inCroydon, Surr., Gent. ; for certain

provements in the converting sulphate

of soda into the sub-carbonate of soda, improvements applicable to sketching,

or mineral alkali. Apr. 12.-Oct. 12. drawing, or delineating. Mar. 31. –

89. Joshua BATES, Bishopsgate-st., Lond.,

Merchant; for certain improvements Total, MARCH...36.

in machinery for cleaning and pre-
paring wool. Apr. 16.-Oct. 16. For.

Comm.
APRIL

90. John PARKINSON, Rose Bank, Bury, 80. JOHN JEREMIAH RUBERY, Birming- Lanc., Calico-printer; for certain im

ham, Warw., Umbrella and Parasol. provements in the art of block printing. furniture manufacturer; for certain im- Apr. 19.-Oct. 19. provements in the making or manufac- 91. JAMES PEDDER, Radford, Nott., Laceturing umbrella and parasol stretches. maker ; for certain improvements in April. 7.-Oct. 7.

certain machinery, for making by 81. JOHN SPURGIN, Guilford-st., Russell- means of such inprovements, figured

sq., Middx., M.D.; for a new or im- or ornamented bobbin-net-lace. Apr. proved ladder, or machinery appli- 21.-Oct. 21.

Sep. 30.

92. HENRY WILLIAM NUNN, Newport, Lanc., Watch-maker; for improve

Isle of Wight, Lace-manufacturer; ments in railway and other locomotive
for certain improvements in manufac- carriages. Apr. 23.-Oct. 23.
turing or producing certain kinds of 98. SAMPSON MORDAN, Castle-st. Fins.
embroidered lace, parts of which im. bury-sq., Middx., Mechanist; for an
provements are applicable to other improvement in making or manu.
purposes. Apr. 21.-Oct 21.

facturing triple-pointed pens. Apr. 93. HAMER STANSFIELD, Leeds, York, 23.-Oct. 23.

Merchant; for machinery for a method 99. WILLIAM TAYLOR, Smethwick, Staff., of generating power applicable to Engineer, and HENRY DAVIES, Stoke various useful purposes. Apr. 23.- Prior, Worc., Engineer; for certain Oct. 23. For. Comm.

improvements in machinery or appa94. EDWARD JOHN DENT, Strand, Middx., ratus for introducing water or other Chronometer maker; for an iniprove

fluids into steam-boilers, or evaponient of the balance-springs, and their rating vessels, also for obtaining meadjustments of chronometers and other chanical power by the aid of steam,

time-keepers. Apr. 23.-Oct. 23. and for communicating motion to 95. JAMES FINDON, Black Horse Yard, vessels floating in water. Apr. 25.

High Holborn, Middx., Coach-smith; Sep. 25.
for improvements in apparatus for 100. THOMAS AITKEN, Edenfield, Bury,
supplying water to water-closets. Apr. Spinner and Manufacturer; for cer-
23.-Oct. 23.

1

tain improvements in the preparation 96. George Augustus KOLLMAN, Organ- of cotton and other fibrous substances,

ist; for improvements in railways and and in the conveyance of the same to in locomotive carriages. Apr. 23. — roving-frames, mules, throstles, or any Oct. 23.

other

spinning or doubling machinery. 97. EDWARD JOHN MASSEY, Liverpool, Apr. 25.-Sep. 25.

ENROLMENTS of GRANTS in 1836.
28. KYAN, Prevention of Vegetable Decay. March 17.

SCOTCH.

N.B. The number in () is that of the English Patent in this Magazine granted for the same Invention

GRANTS.

ing, drawing, and doubling hard and soft JANUARY

silk; which improvements are also ap1. ELIJAH GALLOWAY, Westmoreland- plicable to machinery for winding,

place, City-road, Middx., Engineer; for cleaning, and doubling thread or yarn certain improvements in steam-engines, manufactured from cotton or other which improvements are applicable to fibrous materials. Jan. 15.—May 15.

other purposes. Jan. 8.—May 8. 6. THOMAS JEvons, Liverpool, Lanc.; for 2. JAMES BULLOUGH, Blackburn, Lanc., certain iinproved machinery to be used

Mechanic; for certain improvements in in manufacturing bars or wrought-iron hand-looms and power-looms. Jan. 8. into shoes for horses, and also into - May 8.

shapes for other purposes. For. Comm. 3. JOHN MALAM, Kingston-upon-Hull, Jan. 15.-May 15.

York, Civil-engineer; for certain im- 7. THOMAS GREIG, Rose Bank, Bury, provements in gas-ineters, and in the Lanc., Calico-printer; for a mode of apparatus for generating gas for illu- embossing and printing, at one and mination. Jan. 11.—May 11.

the same time, by means of a cylinder 4. JOSEPH WHITWORTH, Manchester, or roller, on goods or fabrics made of

Lanc., Engineer; for certain improve- or from cotton, silk, flax, hemp, and ments in machinery for spinning, twist- wool, or any one or more of those maing, and doubling cotton, flax, wool, and terials, or on paper. Jan. 18.--May 18. other fibrous substances. Jan. 14. 8. ANDREW SMITH, Princes-st., HaymarMay 14.

ket, Middx., Engineer; for a new stand5. (3.) WILLIAM HARTER, Manchester, ing rigging for ships and vessels, and a

Silk-manufacturer; for certain improve- new method of fitting and using it. ments in machinery for winding, clean- Jan. 19.--May 19.

9. JOHN Day, York-terrace, Peckham, provements in curing or relieving dis

Surr., Gent. ; for an improved wheel orders of the lungs. Feb. 18.- June 18. for carriages of different descriptions. 20. (19.) WILLIAM BOULNois, Jun., Gower. Jan. 20.--May 20.

st., Middx., Esq.; for an improved TOTAL, JANUARY...9.

combination or arrangement of springs

for carriages. Feb. 27.-June 27.

21. ROBERT Griffith, Birmingham, WarFEBRUARY

wick, Machine-maker; for improve10. (8.) MOSES POOLE, · Patent Office, nents in machinery for making rivetts,

Middx., Gent.; for improvements in screw-blanks, and bolts. Feb. 27.Jacquard looms. Feb. 1.-June 1.

June 27. For. Comm.

TUTAL, FEBRUARY...12. 11. John COOPER DOUGLAS, Great Ormond St., Middx., Esq.; for certain im

MARCH. provements in making vinegar from various materials, and in making useful 22. WILLIAM WAINWRIGHT Ports, Bursarticles from the refuse of such mate- lem, Staff., China and Earthenware rials, and also in apparatus for applying manufacturer; for an improved method and conducting heat to liquids to be or process of producing patterns in one used in the manufacture of vinegar and or more colours, to be transferred to other purposes. Feb. 1.-June 1.

earthenware, porcelain, china, glass, 12. Lightly SIMPson, Manchester, Lanc., and other similar substances. Mar. 1.

Alchymist; for certain improvements -July 1. in the preparation of certain colours to | 23. John BAILLIE, Great Suffolk-st., Southbe used for printing cotton and other wark, Surr., Engineer; for improvefabrics. Feb. 3.-June 3.

ments in propelling of vessels and other 13. JOHN GEORGE BODMER, Bolton-le- floating bodies, by means of steam or Moors, Lanc., Engineer; for certain

other power,

Mar. 1.—July 1. improvements in machinery for pre- 24. MILES BERRY, Chancery-lane, Middx., paring, roving, and spinning cotton and Civil-engineer; for certain improvewool. Feb. 3.-June 3.

ments in power-looms for weaving. 14. James Brown, Esk Mill, Pennycuick, Mar. 4.-July 4. For. Comm.

Edinb., N. B.; for certain improve- 25. WILLIAM Wilson, Glasgow, N. B., ments in the making or manufacturing Manufacturer; for a method of making Feb. 4.—June 4.

chains of wire. Mar. 7.-July 7. 15, John Hewitt, Kinezie, Cornw., Gent. ; | 26. (45.) CHARLES SCHAFHAUTL, Sheffield,

for a combination of certain materials York., Gent. ; for improved gear for or matters, which being combined or obtaining a continuous rotary action, mixed together, will form a valuable Mar. 8.—July 8. substance or compound, and may be 27. (30.) CHARLES SCHAFHAUTL, Sheffield, used with or as a substitute for soap. York., Gent.; for an improved steamFeb. 4.-June 4.

generator. Mar. 8.—July 8. 16. JAMES Kean, Johnston, Renfr., N.B., 28. (37.) John BARSHAM, Stepney Cause

Machine-maker and Engineer; for an way, Middx., Oxalic acid manufacimproved throstle flyer, or a substitute turer; for improvements in the manufor an ordinary flyer, employed in spin- facture of oxalic and salacetecella. ning cotton, flax, hemp, wool, silk, and Mar. 8.-July 8. other fibrous substances. Feb. 12.-29. (39.) CLINTON GRAY Gilroy, ArgyleJune 12.

st., New Road, St. Pancras, Middx., 17. (23.) EDMUND ASHWORTH, Egerton, Engineer; for certain improvements in

Lanc., Cotton-spinner, and JAMES machinery for weaving plain and figured GREENOUGH, of the same place, Over- fabrics. Mar. 15.—July 15. looker; for certain improvements in 30. (4.) FRANCIS BREWIN, Kent Road, the machinery used in preparing and Surr., Esq.; for a certain new and im spinning cotton, silk, wool, and other proved process of tanning. Mar. 18.

fibrous materials. Feb. 18,- June 18. July 18. 18. (10.) Franz Moll, Grove Lane Ter- 31. (47.) JAMES MORISON, Paisley, N.B.,

race, Camberwell, Surr., Esq.; for Manufacturer; for improvements on improvements in preserving certain the jacquard machine, and on what is vegetable substances from decay. Feb. called the ten box lay, and on the 18.-June 18.

reading and stamping machines used in 19. (15.) JULIUS JEFFREYS, Osnaburgh-st., making shawls and other figured work.

Regent's Park, Middx., Esq.; for im- Mar. 18.-July 18.

of paper.

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ONNON

METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL FOR MARCH, 1836; KEPT AT BLACKHEATH Road.
Barom.
Barom. Ther. Thermometer Daily Solar

Clouds.
Day of Moath

Rad.

Wind. Direction of wind Luna9 A.M. attch. 3 P.M. attch. Min. Max.

WEATAER, &c.
Temp

Var. A.M.P.M.A.M.P.M A.M. P.M. tion.
Tuesday,1 29.326 48° 29. 155 48° 33°2 46°9 40'0 13.731° 10 9 2 4 S.S.E. S.S.W. Overcast; a violent shower of hail P.M., and a heavy
Wednes. 2 29.558 50 29.650 52 39.0 49.644.3 10.6 38 2 73 2 w.sw. s.sw. Fair; “ cirrus and cirro-stratus. Igale of wind.
Thurs. 3 29.750 52 29.835 53 40:1 49.9 45.0 9.8 38 10 81

W. W.SW. Cloudy with light rain; fine evening.
Friday, 4 29.841 | 53 29.800 53 37.9 49.5 43.7 11.635 7 511 8. S.W.

Fine evening; lowering; wind and rain at night.
Satur. 5 29.604 52 29.521 54 38.2 50.644•4 | 12.436 5 8 2 3 S.S.W. S.W. Squally; a storm of hail, wind, and rain at 5 P. M. ;
SUN. 6 29.435 53 29.305 54 34:149.0 41.5 14.9 30 9 8

S.S.E.
Rainy; fine night.

[fine night.
Mon. 7 29.540 53 29.528 55 32.0 50.8 41.4 18.8 29 3 711

S.E.S.

s. bw. Fine with cumuli.
8 29.502 53 29.536 54 33.9 39.6 36.8 5•7 | 30 | 10 | 10 | 1 1 N.nw. N.n.w. Rainy; overcast throughout the day.
Wed.

9 29.600 51 29.446 | 52 30:1 47.5 38.8 | 17.4 29 1 9 2 S.W. S.S.E. Hoar frost; cirro-stratus ; afternoon and eve. rainy.
Thurs. 10 29.508 52 29.484 53 37.6 51:044:3 | 13:4 35 9 10 2 2 S.W. S.W. ( Cloudy; rainy evening.
Friday, 11 29.241 53 29.275 54 40.2 51.4 45.8 | 11.239 5 5 3 3

S.E.
S.E. bE,

Squalls of wind and rain; high wind at night.
Satur. 12 29.400 53 29.459 54 40.0 51.345.7 | 11:3 138 6 6 3.4 S.W. W.S.W. Do.

do.

do.
Sun. 13 29.715 53 29 770 55 38.7 30.6 44.6 11.9 37 2 3

2 2:4 s.w. W.S.W. Fine; stormy indications again at night.
Mon. 14 29.351 54 29.400 55 43.0 50.0 46.5 7.0 40 10 10 3 2 S.W. W.5.W. Tempestuous A.M. rain till 4 P.M.; fine evening.
Tues. 15 29.200 54 29.459 | 54 37.8 50:143.9 | 12.3 38 4 4 3 W. w. b n. Strong wind, very high.
Wed. 16 29.875 52 29.982 53 34.2 45.6 39.9 11:4 32

6
W.S.W. W.

Largo cumuli; air drier; clear evening.
Thurs. 17 30100 | 54 30.100 54 35.2 51.5 43:4 | 163 34 10 10

W.S.W.W.S.W. Cloudy, with high winds and scud.
Friday, 18 30.415 55 30.471 58 47:1 61:4 | 54.3 14.3 45 10 7

W.8.

Fine warm weather; cirro-cumuli and cumuli.
Satur. 19 30.394 58 30.276 61 43.6 63.9 53.8 20.3 38 0 0

Stratus A.M.; fine clear weather, and very warm.
Sun. 20 30•302 60 30-303 64 41:9 65.4 | 53.6 23.5 37 0 1

W. W. Perfectly fine and serene; stratus at night.
Mon.
21 30.250 60 30.14260 44.6 55.5 50.6 11.9 43 | 10 | 10

S.W. S.W. Stratus with mist; cloudy throughout.
22 30.050 58 30.000 58 45.9 52.949.4 7.0 43 10 10 1 S.W. S.W.N. Small rain; overcast.
Wed.
23 29.884 57 29.721 57 35.3 52.5 43.9 17.2 34 9 10 1 2

S.S. W. Cloudy and lowering with small rain.
Thurs. 24 29.672 55 29.670 | 56 38.2 50.0 44•1 | 11.8 36 5 5 3 3 W. W.

Fine A.m.; hail at noon; stormy indications at night.
Friday, 25 29.100 | 55 29 · 152 55 37.6 50.9 44.2 13:3 36 10 4 2.4 3 s. b w. N.W. ) Rain till noon; wind very high.
Satur. 26 29.369 | 52 | 29.488 52 34.3 47.0 40•4 12:7 32 8 84

W.
w.bn.

Stormy, with nimbi discharging rain, sleet, and snow.
Sun. 27 29.700 51 29.627 52 28.0 50.1 39.1 22:125 1 61 | 2

Fine; cirrus; overcast at 11 P.M.
28 28.835 | 52 28.816 53 35.9 46.8 41:4 10.9 35 10 10 2 3 E.S.E. N.E. Rain; Cirro-stratus and scud; wind high at night.
Tues. 29 29.685 51 29.750 52 34.0 48.0 41.0 | 14:0 33 5

5 3 2 w.s.w. W.

Squally; evening fine.
Wed. 30 29.840 52 29.485 53 40.2 53.2 46.7 | 13:0 36 10 8 | 3 4 S.S.W. W.S, W.

Rain and wind.
Thurs. 31 29.806 | 54 29.950 55 42:1 50.046:0 7.940 3 54 4

High winds with nimbi.
Mean | 29.673 | 54 | 29.665 | 55 37.86 51:09 44.47 13.23

W.

E.

S.

Tues.

S.W.

S.

Mon.

W.

w.bn.

Bar: Max. 38:560 on the 28th. I Mean height at 3 2.M. 29:673 || Ther

: Max. 28 d on the 29th. ) Mear Tem. 11 Gowest point of rad. 25. no father 37 413 MAGAZINE OF POPULAR SCIENCE,

AND

JOURNAL OF THE USEFUL ARTS.

ON THE

GENERAL PRINCIPLES ON WHICH THE CLASSIFICATION

OF NATURAL OBJECTS IS FOUNDED.

THE necessity for a classification of a multitude of any objects, as a preliminary to the study of them, is too obvious to require insisting on; it might be even assumed that no knowledge could be obtained without this previous arrangement, since that knowledge is primarily grounded on a series of comparisons, made by bringing those objects before our minds into juxtaposition, which possess certain analogies of form, structure, or qualities.

The facility of making a systematic arrangement depends on the precision with which each group of objects admits of definition, or on its possessing few and unvarying characters, which do not pass into one another by insensible gradations; thus, for the purpose of illustration, if we desired to classify the forms of space or extension, which are made the objects of geometrical reasoning, our arrangement would be perfect and immutable, for form being the sole character essential to the existence of each group, variations in that form, admitting of the most rigid definition, must constitute its basis. But when the characters distinguishing the objects are numerous, and not clearly definable, as is the case with all those of the material world, it is only by repeated tentative arrangements that we can arrive at one which will fulfil the requisite conditions. There

appear to be two principal purposes to which classification is applicable;–First, to furnish an arrangement which may enable a learner to ascertain the name under which a species, new to him, is described, and to serve as an aid to his memory in recalling the information he subsequently obtains; and, Secondly, to present a general and comprehensive view of that portion of creation to which the arrangement is applied in all its various relations. We shall confine ourselves, however, to the principles as applicable to the organic world only; and if we can succeed in elucidating the subject in this, its more complicated bearing, the application of those principles, on other occasions, will be readily conceived.

To understand the difficulties which must be overcome in our endeavour to attain either or both of these ends, we must constantly bear in mind that Nature affords us no assistance towards any arrangement beyond that into species, with which her classifications begin and end. Species are the aggregates of those individuals which possess perfect identity in all the details of their organization and of the faculties derived from it; and we are furnished with an unerring test of nearly VOL. I.

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