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at an obtuse angle; these, after being well softened by annealing, are then subjected to the action of another pair of dies, by which their rims are turned

up still more; they are then again annealed, and pressed between another pair of dies, which brings their rims into nearly a cylindrical shape ; and then, after again annealing, they are pressed by the action of other dies into a perfectly cylindrical form. The next process is, by means of a circular bed and punch, to cut out the entire flat piece of metal, and thus to leave a cylindrical ring only, like a ferrule; this is then placed, after being again well annealed, in a pair of concave dies in the screw-press, in an upright position; and the effect of the dies upon it is, to contract each end of the cylindrical ring a little inwardly; another pair of dies succeeds to these, which still more contract the ends, -and again another pair, and so on, observing to anneal them well between each operation; until, at length, a globular, or oval hollow bead is thus made, having merely small holes in its ends, which are necessary to its use. And thus, and without any joint or seam, is a regularly shaped hollow body formed out of a plate or sheet of steel !

The facets are formed upon the surfaces of the steel studs and beads, either by filing them whilst in the soft state, and in which mode the more expensive kinds are prepared, -as well, also, as others; or, after they are hardened, by grinding upon flat pewter laps, with the assistance of coarse emery and water, in which way the more numerous and cheaper kinds are cut. Their appearance will either be similar to that represented in fig. 2, which are round and oval studs, viewed in plan and edgeways;

or like those shown in fig. 3, which are holFig. 2.

low beads, having two holes in each and a Fig. 3.

wire passed through them. The filed studs and beads being case-hardened, as well, also, as those which were cut after hardening them,

are now in the state in which the marks left in them by the file, and those caused by the coarse emery, must be removed by the application of finer sifted, or washed emery, either mixed with water or oil; in the former case, by the use of hard flat brushes, continually rubbed over them backwards and forwards, when cemented upon a broad and extended flat surface; or in the latter employment of oil and emery, by holding them against cylindrical brushes, mounted upon square spindles, 'conically pointed at their ends, and turned in the lathe, either by the foot of the workman,—the longwheel, as it is termed,-or in mills, on large scale, by the powers of water or steam. When this process has been performed for a sufficient length of time, or until the coarse file or emery marks are removed, then a still finer kind of washed or flour emery must be employed, mixed with oil, and applied upon an entirely distinct brush or brushes from those used in the last operation; and this process must also be continued until the finer marks, left by the last emery employed, are likewise in their turn completely obliterated; and the articles will then be fitted to receive their ultimate black polish and lustre. Instead of mounting the beads upon cement-blocks, they may

be strung upon wires, when applying emery and oil to them; and thus save the trouble of repeatedly mounting, and again remounting them on the

cement-block, in a different position to the former ones, in order to receive the effect of the emery over their entire surfaces.

The last finish, or polishing, can only be properly given to the steel studs or beads by employing putty, or the combined oxides of lead and tin, finely ground,-and either with water, or, which is better, with a mixture of alcohol and water, or proof-spirit, applied upon the soft skin of the palms and inner sides of the fingers of the hands of women! Nothing equal to this process having hitherto been discovered in practice, to give the steel its black polish or lustre.

Having thus generally described the processes employed in the manufacture of polished steel studs and beads, we may here remark, by the way, that the very same method of soldering with brass, employed in fixing the wire stems in the studs, is likewise used by the locksmith, in soldering the delicate wards of his locks; and also by the vice-maker, who thus firmly combines the threads of the hollow screws in his vices with their surrounding boxes, and their other adjoining parts, instead of cutting them, by means of taps, out of the solid metal in the ordinary way; and yet so firmly are they thus united, that an instance of the thread of the screw stripping or quitting its place in the box, by the utmost power applied in using the vice, is a very rare occurrence, and, indeed, scarcely to be met with!

[To be continued.]

JOINT-STOCK COMPANIES OF 1835. We have extracted a list of the projects which were laid before the public in 1835, and recommended by their several patrons, as eligible means of investing capital. If the list were quite complete, it is supposed the amount of capital proposed to be raised, would equal that of the too-celebrated year of speculation, 1825. Whatever may be the fate of these schemes, it is impossible not to regard without deep interest, the enormous sum of energy, talent, skill, and money, which even the steps necessary for their mere announcement, have put into motion.


Capital. Agricultural and Commercial Bank of Ireland

£ 1,000,000 Bank of South Africa


£ 1,150,000

British and American Intercourse Company (sea part)
British and American Steam Navigation Company
British and Foreign Steam Navigation Company
Canterbury, Dover, and London Steam Packet Company
Equitable Steam Packet Company
India and London Steam Navigation Company
Leghorn Steam Navigation Company
Mediterranean and Levant Steam Packet Company
Patent Paddle-Wheels Steam Towing Company
Steam Carriages on Turnpike Roads


500,000 200,000

15,000 120,000 120,000

28,000 100,000 30,000 20,000

£ 1,889,000


European Gas Company
Greenwich and London Railway Gas Company
Marylebone Gaslight and Coke Company

[blocks in formation]

Baldhu and Wheal Tregothnau (Tin and Copper)
Bissoe-bridge (Tin and Copper)
Combmartin (Lead, Silver, and Copper)
Chilton Coal Company
Copiapo (Copper and Silver)
Carn Grey (Tin)
East Cornwall (Silver) .
Enterprise Mining Company
Equitable Mexican Association (Gold)
Hayle Consols (Copper)
Kelleweris (Copper)
Kerrow (Tin)
New South Hooe
New Crinis (Tin and Copper)
New Granada (Silver)
North Cornwall (Silver, Lead, and Tin)
Polbreen (Tin and Copper)
Perran Consols
Pike Silver Mining Company
Redruth (Tin and Copper)
Roche Rock (Tin)
Royal Copper Mines of Cobre
Relistian Mining Company
St. Hilary (Copper)
St. Geny's (Copper)
South Polgooth (Tin and Copper)
Sierra Mining Company (Gold and Silver)
Treleigh Consolidated (Copper)
Towan Consolidated (Tin and Copper)
Terra Putina (Gold)
Tavistock (Copper)
Trevorgus (Silver, Copper, and Lead)
West Tresaveau (Tin and Copper)
Wendron Royal (Tin)
West Cork Mining Company
Wheal Brothers (Copper, Tin, Lead, and Silver)
Wheal Gilbert (T'in and Copper)
Wrexham Iron and Coal Company
Wheals Harmony and Montague (Copper and T'in)

£ 15,000

20,000 200,000 30,000 50,000 200,000

2,500 50,000 20,000 50,000 30,000 60,000 10,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 40,000 30,000 30,000 112,500 100,000

30,000 480,000 30,000 20,000 19,200 20,000 120,000 25,000 30,000 500,000 25,000 30,000 25,000 60,000 16,000 220,000 110,000 15,000 60,000

50,000 £3,006,200

Altona, Hamburgh, and Lubeck
Birmingham and Gloucester
Bristol and Exeter
Birmingham, Bristol, and Thames Junction
Brighton and London (Palmer's)
Brighton and London (Gibb's)
Brighton and London (Stevenson's)
Brighton and London (Cundy's)
British and American Intercourse (land part)
Blackwall and London
Blackwall Commercial
Calcutta and Saugor
Croydon and London
Dover and London
Eastern Counties


750,000 1,500,000

150,000 2,100,000

900,000 1,000,000

700,000 1,244,000 400,000 600,000 500,000

140,000 1,000,000 1,500,000


Capital, Gravesend and London

600,000 Great Western

3,000,000 Grand Atlantic

3,000,000 Grand Surrey Canal and Junction

600,000 Great Northern

3,000,000 Grand Northern

4,000,000 Hull and Selby

270,000 La Loire

140,000 Llanelly

200,000 London Grand Junction

600,000 National Pneumatic

200,000 North Midland

1,250,000 North of England

1,000,000 Preston and Wyre

130,000 South Eastern

1,400,000 Southampton

1,000,000 South Durham

150,000 South-West Durham Junction

50,000 Southend and Hole Haven

300,000 Tower of London

1,000,000 Thames Haven

450,000 Windsor and London


£35,424,000 MISCELLANEOUS. Anti Dry Rot Company

£250,000 Bognor Improvement Company

200,000 British Agricultural Loan Company

2,100,000 Cornwall Royal Tin Smelting Company

100,000 Deptford Pier and Improvement Company

50,000 Danube and Mayne Canal Company

833,000 Equitable Discount Society

100,000 Equitable Society

210,000 Equitable Reversionary Interest Society

300,000 Eastern Metropolitan, Surrey, Kent, and Sussex Society

150,000 Gravesend River Thames Floating Bath Company

20,000 Hastings Improvement Company

200,000 Imperial Anglo-Brazilian Canal, Road, Bridge, and Land Im

500,000 provement Company London Reversionary Interest Society

400,000 Licensed Victuallers’ Fire and Life Insurance

150,000 Mexican and South American Company

100,000 Metropolis Pure Soft Spring Water Company

300,000 National Provident Institution Norwood Park Estate

20,000 Pennsylvania Coal, Land, and Timber Company

135,000 Prospective Endowment Association

1,000,000 Patent White Lead Company

100,000 Rio De Anori Gold Stream-works Company

25,000 Shetland Fishery Association

100,000 South London Market Company

250,000 South of England Reversionary Interest Association

50,000 South Australian Company

500,000 United Investment Company


£ 8,193,000 SUMMARY. Banks

£ 1,150,000 Steam

1,889,000 Gas

295,000 Mines

3,006,200 Railways

35,424,000 Miscellaneous




£ 49,957,200



The vast extension of the manufactures of Great Britain, and the facilities of communication, with other advantages, arising from the application of steam, cannot fail to render a description of any further improvements in that powerful agent interesting to our readers.

The following are the advantages which result from a new modification of the circulating steam patent, granted to me in 1832:

1. Absolute removal of all the danger from explosion.
2. Great economy in fuel.
3. Much reduction of boiler-room, as well as of weight.
4. Not one third of the water in the boiler now used, being necessary.

5. There being no possibility of any deposit of foreign matter in the generators.

6. No furring-up of the boiler, as all the deposit will of itself collect in a place provided for it, and be blown off at will.

7. The generators always being kept at the evaporating point.

8. The impossibility of burning any part of the boiler or generators by the most intense heat.

9. The boiler and generators not being in the least injured by expansion and contraction, owing to the peculiar arrangement of the tubes or generators.

10. The perfect and simple method of separating the steam from the water and foreign matter.

11. The getting up of the steam in less than half the time hitherto required.

12. The simplicity of the construction of the boiler, and the ready means of repair.

13. The power introduced of using Anthracite coal with good effect.

The above facts can be demonstrated not only theoretically but practically. An operating model of this boiler may be seen daily at present (afterwards occasionally), at the Gallery of Practical Science, AdelaideStreet, between the hours of twelve and two.

Explanation of the first-mentioned Advantage. The great drawback upon the important invention of steam-navigation has been the disastrous effects caused by the explosion of steam-boilers. The great importance of a perfect remedy will readily be admitted. The many experiments which I have made within the last ten years, go to prove that if the steam be generated in tubular boilers, no danger can result from explosion; but there are many almost insurmountable objections to tubular boilers as hitherto constructed, particularly for steamnavigation. The boiler now about to be described, possesses apparently all the properties required. To show the reason why this boiler is free from explosions, the causes (of which there are at least three) must be described.

The first and most common cause is from the pressure of common steam. What is meant by common or pure steam, is such as has not

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