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of peace, are dangerous to liberty, and shall not be kept up; and the military shall be in strict subordination to the civil power.

SEC. 5. The right of trial by jury shall be inviolate.

Sec. 6. There shall be no slavery in this state, nor involuntary servitude unless for the punishment of crime.

SEC. 7. All men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own conscience. No person shall be compelled to attend, erect, or support any place of worship or maintain any form of worship, against his consent; and no preference shall be given, by law, to any religious society; nor shall any interference with the rights of conscience be permitted. No religious test shall be required as a qualification for office, nor shall any person be incompetent to be a witness on account of his religious belief; but nothing herein shall be construed to dispense with oaths and affirmations. Religion, morality, and knowledge, however, being essential to good government, it shall be the duty of the General Assembly to pass suitable laws to protect every religious denomination in the peaceable enjoyment of its own mode of public worship, and to encourage schools, and the means of instruction.

SEC. 8. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety requires it.

SEC. 9. All persons shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, except for capital offenses where the proof is evident, or the presumption great. Excessive bail shall not be required; nor excessive fines imposed; nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted.

SEC. 10. Except in cases of impeachment, and cases arising in the army and navy, or in the militia when in actual service in time of war or public danger, in cases of petit larceny and other inferior offenses, no person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on presentment or indictment of a grand jury. In any trial, in any court, the

party accused shall be allowed to appear and defend in person and with counsel; to demand the nature and cause of the accusation against him, and to have a copy thereof; be the witnesses face to face, and to have compulsory process to procure the attendance of witnesses in his behalf, and a speedy public trial by an impartial jury of the county or district in which the offense is alleged to have been committed; nor shall any person be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself, or be twice put in jeopardy for the same offense.

SEC. 11. Every citizen may freely speak, write and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of the right; and no law shall be passed to restrain or abridge the liberty of speech, or of the press. In all criminal prosecutions for libel, the truth may be given in evidence to the jury, and if it shall appear to the jury that the matter as charged as libelous is true, and was published with good motives, and for justifiable ends, the party shall be acquitted.

SEC. 12. No person shall be transported out of the state, for any offense committed within the same; and no conviction shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture of estate. SEC. 13. No soldier shall, in time of peace,


quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner; nor, in time of war, except in the manner prescribed by law.

SEC. 14. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and possessions, against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be violated; and no warrant shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, particularly describing the place to be searched and the person and things to be seized.

SEC. 15. No person shall be imprisoned for debt in any civil action, on mesne or final process, unless in cases of fraud.

SEC. 16. All courts shall be open, and every person, for an injury, done him in his land, goods, person, or reputation, shall have remedy by due course of law, and justice administered without denial or delay.

SEC. 17. No hereditary emoluments, honors, or privileges, shall ever be granted or conferred by this state.

SEC. 18. No power of suspending laws shall ever be exercised, except by the General Assembly.

SEC. 19. Private property shall ever be held inviolate, but subservient to the public welfare. When taken in time of war, or other public exigency, imperatively requiring its immediate seizure, or for the purpose of making or repairing roads, which shall be open to the public, without charge, a compensation shall be made to the owner, in money, and in all other cases where private property shall be taken for public use, a compensation therefor shall first be made in money, or first secured by a deposit of money, and such compensation shall be assessed by a jury, without deduction for benefits to any property of the owner.

SEC. 20. This enumeration of rights shall not be construed to impair or deny others retained by the people; and all powers, not herein delegated, remain with the people.

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ARTICLE II – LEGISLATIVE SECTION 1. The legislative power of this state shall be vested in a General Assembly, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

SEC. 2. Senators and Representatives shall be elected biennially, by the electors in the respective counties or districts, on the second Tuesday of October; their term of office shall commence on the first day of January next thereafter, and continue two years.

SEC. 3. Senators and representatives shall have resided in their respective counties or districts one year next preceding their election, unless they shall have been absent on the public business of the United States or of this state.

SEC. 4. No person holding office under the authority of the United States, or any lucrative office under the authority of this state, shall be eligible to or have a seat in the General Assembly; but this provision shall not extend to township officers, justices of the peace, notaries public, or officers of the militia.

SEC. 5. No person hereafter convicted of an embezzlement of the public funds shall hold any office in this state; nor shall any person holding public money for disbursement or otherwise, have a seat in the General Assembly until he shall have accounted for and paid such money into the treasury.

SEC. 6. Each house shall be judge of the election returns, and qualifications of its own members; a majority of all the members elected to each house shall be a quorum to do business; but a less number may adjourn from day to day, and compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner and under such penalties as shall be prescribed by law.

10 Amended Oct. 13, 1885; Laws of Ohio, vol. Ixxxii, 446. See page 254.- ED

SEC. 7. The mode of organizing the house of representatives, at the commencement of each regular session, shall be prescribed by law.

SEC. 8. Each house, except as otherwise provided in this Constitution, shall choose its own officers, may determine its own rules of proceeding, punish its members for disorderly conduct; and with the concurrence of two-thirds expel a member, but not the second time for the same cause; and shall have all other powers necessary to provide for its safety, and the undisturbed transaction of its business.

SEC. 9. Each house shall keep a correct journal of its proceedings, which shall be published. At the desire of any two members, the yeas and nays shall be entered upon the journal; and, on the passage of every bill, in either house, the vote shall be taken by yeas and nays, and entered upon the journal; and no law shall be passed in either house without the concurrence of a majority of all the members elected thereto.

SEC. 10. Any member of either house shall have the right to protest against any act or resolution thereof; and such protest, and the reasons therefor, shall, without alteration, commitment, or delay, be entered upon the journal.

SEC. 11. All vacancies which may happen in either house shall, for the unexpired term, be filled by election, as shall be directed by law.

SEC. 12. Senators and Representatives, during the session of the General Assembly, and in going to and returning from the same, shall be privileged from arrest in all cases except treason, felony, or breach of the

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