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Further Notes on the Milling Qualities of

different varieties of Wheat.

By F. B. GUTHRIE AND E. H. GURNEY.

obtainabilired, the for detailed tural models of Whication of the and hary

The following notes on ihirty-three samples of wheat grown and harvested by Mr. W. Farrer, of Queanbeyan, are in continuation of a similar investi. gation already conducted by us, the results of which were published in the March number of the Agricultural Gazette for 1895. For an explanation of the figures, and for detailed account of the manner in which the results are obtained, the reader is referred to the article in question, which is obtainable in pamphlet form on application to the Department.

These wheats, like the previous batch, were grown and harvested by Mr. Farrer from pure seed. They wore harvested late in 1894, the previous batch representing the harvest of 1893. One peculiarity was at once apparent, namely, that the gluten-content was throughout much lower than with the older batch. Indian A, for example, which was examined in both seasons, showed a gluten-content of 11:5 last year, whereas the sample under examination only yielded 8:15.

The many gaps in the columns showing the properties of the flour are due to the fact that the flour was devoured by rats before it could be tested.

Glass-stoppered bottles had been relied upon to protect the flour from these animals, but they had actually forced the stoppers out by wedging themselves between the shoulder of the bottle and the stopper.

In no case, unfortunately, was there enough grain to mill a second quan. tity. On this account, and also because some of the grain had been attacked by weevils, the results are, on the whole, not quite so satisfactory as those obtained last year, though there are many suggestive points brought out in this case also.

The figures obtained from milling grain that had been harvested after heavy rain are instructive when compared with the same grain harvested before rain.

This is especially shown in Nos. 8 and 9 and in Nos. 24 and 25. No. 26 was also cut before the rain, though it is not strictly comparable with 24, having been subjected to different treatment during its growth.

In general it appears that, as we would perhaps expect, wheat cut after heavy rain possesses the milling qualities of a soft wheat. The weight is considerably diminished, and the colour of the flour is not so good. Unfortunately a comparison of the gluten-content and strength was not possible in the case of these wheats.

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Easy to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra; semolina white and

soft ; rather much flour from breaks ; flour clings to bran; bran

not very clean ; pollard clean,
54: | Fair to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra ; semolina slightly

yellow tinge and soft; flour clings to bran; fair amount of flour

from breaks ; bran not clean ; pollard clean (a).
46. Fair to mill. 6 breaks, 4 reductions (too little semolina for 5th re-

duction); semolina pale yellowish pink, and slightly gritty; flour
clings slightly ; bran not very clean ; pollard clean ; wheat grinds
easily, but very difficult to sieve, being damp and sticky; this

may be due to water in weevil holes on washing (b).
49'0 Easy to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra ; much flour from

breaks ; semolina white and soft; flour clings; bran not clean :

pollard clean; very little semolina after the third reduction (c).
Fair to mill. 6 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra ; semolina pale yellow

tinge and gritty ; flour clings to bran; bran not very clean; pol

lard clean.
4808 Fair to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 2 extra; fair amount of flour

from breaks; semolina very slightly yellow and slightly gritty;

bran fairly clean; pollard clean.
48.0 Fair to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra ; flour clings slightly

to bran; little flour from breaks ; semolina slightly yellow and

slightly gritty ; bran not very clean; pollard fairly clean (d).
53.8 Rather difficult to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 4 extra reductions ;

fair amount of flour from breaks ; semolina pinkish tinge, slightly

yritty ; bran fairly clean; pollard clean (@).
Rather difficult to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 4 extra reductions:

a little more flour from breaks than with No. 8, semolina pinkish
tinge, a little softer than No. 8; bran not clean; pollard clean ;

flour tendency to cling, more than No. 8 (e).
46'4 | Easy to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra ; fair amount of flour

from breaks; semolina rich yellow tinge and slightly grittty ; bran

and pollard clean (d). .
46'8 | Fair to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra; flour clings to bran;

semolina yellowish and gritty ; bran not clean ; pollard clean.
Fair to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra; flour clings to bran;

semolina slightly pinkish and soft; bran not clean; pollard

fairly clean
50.0 Fair to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra; flour very difficult to

separate from bran; fair amount of flour from breaks; semolinn

solt and white; bran not clean; pollard clean. 46-8 Fair to mil. 6 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra; flour clings very

persistently to bran; semolina soft and white; bran not clean; pollard clean.

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.. Plump, transl., hard .. 61.0

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breaks, o recuotione, 2 axtra fair amount of flour 16. Kius'a Jubilee Brodium, white, hard.. 00 00-S 10.5

Hasy to mill. 10.7

from breaka; semolina pale yellow and slightly gritty ; bran very (Indian A.)

oloan pollard olen), 16. Blockhead.. Plump, white, soft

48'6 (Toby x Blount

Voir to miti, 6 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra, semolina slight yellow Small, dark transl., hard

tinge and solt: bran fairly clean
17. Go-ahend

pollard clean,
488 Rather dificult to mill. 6 breaks, 5 reductions, 4 extra ; little Hour

from breaks; somolina rich yollow tluge and granular ; bran and
18. Hornblendo
Medium, dark transl., 643

pollard fairly clean : shade oleaner than No. 28. (x Summer Club.) "1 hard.

62.0 | Rather dificult to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 1 extra; little flour

fairly clean,

from breaks; semolina slight yellow and gritty ; bran and pollard
19. Blount's Lambrigy

Smallish, dark, transl., *
(x Hornblende, x Hornblende, hard,

52-01 Fair to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra ; not much flour from
x Bladette Puylaurens.)

clean; pollard clean,

breaks : semolina yellowish tinge and gritty ; bran not very 20. King's Jubilee ..Small, transl., medium.

10-51 516 Fair to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra ; fair amount of flour (x Improve

from breaks : semolina pale yellowish, very slightly gritty : flour

inclined to cling to bran; bran fairly clean; pollard clean. 21. Hornblende

52.6 | Easy to mill. 5 breaks, 6 reductions, 2 extra; good amount of flour

from breaks ; semolina very slight yellow tinge; slightly gritty;

bran and pollard fairly clean.
22. Improved Fite
Medium, dull, medium..

52:4 Fair to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra ; semolina slightly
(x Crépi.)
23. Clarke's R.R. ..
Medium, white, hard .. 608 710 18:11 10

1.41 Fair to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra; flour parts easily from

bran ; semolina yellow tingo and gritty ; bran clean ; pollard

fairly clean.
Lambrigs
24. Blount's Lambrigg

..
Medium, transl., medium

Easy to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 2 extra pollard reductions ; (cut before rain.)

little flour from breaks ; semolina slightly yellow and gritty;

bran small and clean (9). 25. Blount's Lambrigy

)4 Medium, white, soft .. 60-4 730 227

Easy to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 2 extra reductions ; little (cut after rain.)

more flour from break than with No. 24; semolina slightly yellow,

and less gritty than No. 24 ; bran clean; pollard clean (h). 26. Blount's Lambrigs .. ..Small, plump, transl., 65.2

Easy to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 4 extra ; flour parts easily hard.

from bran; semolina yellowish tinge and granular; bran very

clean; pollard clean ).
27. Hornblende
Small, plump, white, 60-9 80:0 10:

4 9:6 04 9:84 564 | Easy to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra (last was unnecessary,
(x Hornblende, x Ward's Whitc.) medium.

but there seemed a fair amount of flour remaining); semolina
slightly yellow and gritty ; flour leaves bran very easily ; bran

very clean ; pollard clean ; flour heavy.
28. Sicilian square-headed red Medium, wh ite, medium 5907 .7 11.1 182

566 Fair to mill. 6 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra ; flour clings slightly
(x Hornblende, x Ward's White.)

to bran; little flour from breaks ; semolina white and slightly

gritty ; bran not very clean ; pollard clean,
29. Improved Fife
Medium, transl., hard.. 618 76•0

Easy to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra; flour parts easily from
(x Blount's Lambrigg.)

bran ; semolina slightly yellow and gritty; bran and pollard clean,
.. Medium, transl., hard.. 65-3
30. Indian F. ..

700 11.0 190

Difficult to mill. 6 breaks, 5 reductions, 4 extra; flour parts very

easily and cleanly from bran; semolina rich yellowish tinge and

gritty ; bran very clean; pollard fairly clean.
31. Fife's Indian

Medium, transl., hard.. 63:3
633 710 16.4 12.6

Fair to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra ; semolina rich yellow

and gritty ; bran clean ; pollard not very clean, 32. Indian Club .. .. .. Small, white, medium.. 64.2 66.0 20.2 13.8

8 Fair to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra; fair amount of flour

from breaks; semolina rich yellow tinge and gritty ; bran clean;

pollard fairly clean.
33. Indian A. .. .. .. .. Medium, transl., hardish| 63-6 | 73.0 | 137 | 13:3 ci | 8:15 | 474 Fair to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra ; not much flour from

breaks; semolina yellowish and gritty ; bran and pollard fairly clean.
* Insutficient grain. (a) Grain slightly attacked by weevils. (6) Badly attacked by weevil. (c) Badly attacked by weevil and sprouted. (d) Queensland wheat.
(e) Washing of this grain seemed to make it sticky on the break rollers. () Badly attacked by weevil ; sour smell. (9) Bran milled too hard. () This wheat milled
like soft whent, whereas No. 34 milled like a hard one. () Three extra reductions would be amply sufficient; the pollard would not be so clean, but the quality of the

flour does not seem to have been affected; this is a splendid milling wheat,

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In those cases in which the same variety was compared under these con. ditions it was found that though the original wheat may have been hard the grain cut after the heavy rain milled like a soft wheat, yielded a soft semolina, and the flour clung to the bran. The weight per bushel is also considerably less in those samples which had been harvested after rain, a fact of great importance.

Of the cross-bred wheats those with the Fife blood show the strongest flour, though not necessarily the highest gluten-contents, a fact which was to be anticipated from the previous results obtained with the Fife wheats.

One of the best, if not the very best, all-round wheat in this series is Blount's Lambrigg, the characteristics of which may be summed up as follows:- Easy to mill, readily yielding a high percentage of four without detriment to colour, gluten-content, or strength, remarkably high weight per bushel, flour strong, colour good, gluten-content high.

It will be seen that the sample No. 26 was milled to yield over 80 per cent. flour. Though the treatment was not in any sense severe, nevertheless, the colour is undoubtedly slightly affected, having a somewhat yellower tinge than is in favour. A sacrifice of 2 or 3 per cent. of flour would undoubtedly bring the colour up to the highest standard. It is in fact one of the easiest of wheats to manipulate and is in every respect a splendid milling wheat.

The following notes are by Mr. Farrer :-"Nos. 4, 16, 27, and 28, had been exposed to protracted rain before they were harvested and had been spoiled for milling purposes, -that is to say, the quality of the flour had been affected. The same remarks apply to one sample of Fl and Blount's Lambrigg respectively. No. 23 (Clarke's RR) had been grown in a former year (1893) when all wheats were much stronger in gluten than they were in 1894. The best sample of Blount's Lambrigg (No. 26) was taken from plants which had been cut down after they had begun to inount up. The effect of this treatment was expected to be that the grain would be smaller and poorer in gluten. The grain was smaller, but owing to an accident the comparative examination which was to be made with the object of seeing whether the gluten content had been diminished could not be made."

Agricultural Machinery Exhibits at the

World's Fair.

BY J. MARTIN

HAFING given a short bistory of the development of harvesting machinery (Vol. VI, p. 553) we can better appreciate the exhibits in this section of the Agricultural Annex at the Columbian World's Fair.

The opinions formed of this department varied according to the expectations of the visitor. Those who expected to see a large number of new departures from the present day system of harvesting hay and grain will have been disappointed, as there was no distinctly new type of harvesting machine, the manufacturers being satisfied to claim special merits in changes and improvements of detail.

Visitors from foreign countries were surprised that a much larger space was not devoted to agricultural machinery generally, and those who have a knowledge of the leading manufacturers of the United States will have missed many whose goods have a world wide reputation.

The explanation is that, with every desire to meet the wishes of intending exhibitors, the World's Fair Commissioners found it impossible to increase the area of the building, and many well-known manufacturers being unable to secure a space large enough to enable them to make a representative display of the goods they manufactured, preferred to stay away rather than make a show in the limited space offered.

But the greatest defect, from the foreign visitors' point of view, was the lack in many departments of foreign exhibits which prevented a comparison being made of the manufactures of different countries; for instance, there was not a single exbibit of importance in the department now under notice,-i.e., harvesting machinery—from England, France, or Germany, all, or nearly all, in this section, with the notable exception of Canada, being manufactured in the United States.

This lack of means for comparing the manufactures of the different countries was generally admitted to be the weak point of the Agricultural Department; but the United States and Canadian exhibits that were there are worthy of all praise, and perhaps illustrated as clearly as could be the wonderful energy, perseverance, and skill of the manufacturers in those two countries.

Some persons found fault with the elaborate finish on a few of the mowers, reapers, and binders, as they were in parts plated with gold and silver, and the woodwork of one binder was adorned with mother-o'-pearl. This extra finish is what is known as an "advertising point," and is put on the machines, so that all persons interested will take special notice of the machine, and not only recollect it, but talk about it, and explain its beautiful finish, &c., thus fulfilling one of the special aims of an exhibitor, i.e., “ securing attention and ensuring his exhibit being well talked about.”

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