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Further Notes on the Milling Qualities of
different varieties of Wheat.
By F. B. GUTHRIE AND E. H. GURNEY.
obtainabilired, the for detailed tural models of Whication of the and hary
The following notes on ihirty-three samples of wheat grown and harvested by Mr. W. Farrer, of Queanbeyan, are in continuation of a similar investi. gation already conducted by us, the results of which were published in the March number of the Agricultural Gazette for 1895. For an explanation of the figures, and for detailed account of the manner in which the results are obtained, the reader is referred to the article in question, which is obtainable in pamphlet form on application to the Department.
These wheats, like the previous batch, were grown and harvested by Mr. Farrer from pure seed. They wore harvested late in 1894, the previous batch representing the harvest of 1893. One peculiarity was at once apparent, namely, that the gluten-content was throughout much lower than with the older batch. Indian A, for example, which was examined in both seasons, showed a gluten-content of 11:5 last year, whereas the sample under examination only yielded 8:15.
The many gaps in the columns showing the properties of the flour are due to the fact that the flour was devoured by rats before it could be tested.
Glass-stoppered bottles had been relied upon to protect the flour from these animals, but they had actually forced the stoppers out by wedging themselves between the shoulder of the bottle and the stopper.
In no case, unfortunately, was there enough grain to mill a second quan. tity. On this account, and also because some of the grain had been attacked by weevils, the results are, on the whole, not quite so satisfactory as those obtained last year, though there are many suggestive points brought out in this case also.
The figures obtained from milling grain that had been harvested after heavy rain are instructive when compared with the same grain harvested before rain.
This is especially shown in Nos. 8 and 9 and in Nos. 24 and 25. No. 26 was also cut before the rain, though it is not strictly comparable with 24, having been subjected to different treatment during its growth.
In general it appears that, as we would perhaps expect, wheat cut after heavy rain possesses the milling qualities of a soft wheat. The weight is considerably diminished, and the colour of the flour is not so good. Unfortunately a comparison of the gluten-content and strength was not possible in the case of these wheats.
Easy to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra; semolina white and
soft ; rather much flour from breaks ; flour clings to bran; bran
not very clean ; pollard clean,
yellow tinge and soft; flour clings to bran; fair amount of flour
from breaks ; bran not clean ; pollard clean (a).
duction); semolina pale yellowish pink, and slightly gritty; flour
may be due to water in weevil holes on washing (b).
breaks ; semolina white and soft; flour clings; bran not clean :
pollard clean; very little semolina after the third reduction (c).
tinge and gritty ; flour clings to bran; bran not very clean; pol
from breaks; semolina very slightly yellow and slightly gritty;
bran fairly clean; pollard clean.
to bran; little flour from breaks ; semolina slightly yellow and
slightly gritty ; bran not very clean; pollard fairly clean (d).
fair amount of flour from breaks ; semolina pinkish tinge, slightly
yritty ; bran fairly clean; pollard clean (@).
a little more flour from breaks than with No. 8, semolina pinkish
flour tendency to cling, more than No. 8 (e).
from breaks; semolina rich yellow tinge and slightly grittty ; bran
and pollard clean (d). .
semolina yellowish and gritty ; bran not clean ; pollard clean.
semolina slightly pinkish and soft; bran not clean; pollard
separate from bran; fair amount of flour from breaks; semolinn
solt and white; bran not clean; pollard clean. 46-8 Fair to mil. 6 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra; flour clings very
persistently to bran; semolina soft and white; bran not clean; pollard clean.
.. Plump, transl., hard .. 61.0
breaks, o recuotione, 2 axtra fair amount of flour 16. Kius'a Jubilee Brodium, white, hard.. 00 00-S 10.5
Hasy to mill. 10.7
from breaka; semolina pale yellow and slightly gritty ; bran very (Indian A.)
oloan pollard olen), 16. Blockhead.. Plump, white, soft
48'6 (Toby x Blount
Voir to miti, 6 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra, semolina slight yellow Small, dark transl., hard
tinge and solt: bran fairly clean
from breaks; somolina rich yollow tluge and granular ; bran and
pollard fairly clean : shade oleaner than No. 28. (x Summer Club.) "1 hard.
62.0 | Rather dificult to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 1 extra; little flour
from breaks; semolina slight yellow and gritty ; bran and pollard
Smallish, dark, transl., *
52-01 Fair to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra ; not much flour from
clean; pollard clean,
breaks : semolina yellowish tinge and gritty ; bran not very 20. King's Jubilee ..Small, transl., medium.
10-51 516 Fair to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra ; fair amount of flour (x Improve
from breaks : semolina pale yellowish, very slightly gritty : flour
inclined to cling to bran; bran fairly clean; pollard clean. 21. Hornblende
52.6 | Easy to mill. 5 breaks, 6 reductions, 2 extra; good amount of flour
from breaks ; semolina very slight yellow tinge; slightly gritty;
bran and pollard fairly clean.
52:4 Fair to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra ; semolina slightly
1.41 Fair to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra; flour parts easily from
bran ; semolina yellow tingo and gritty ; bran clean ; pollard
Easy to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 2 extra pollard reductions ; (cut before rain.)
little flour from breaks ; semolina slightly yellow and gritty;
bran small and clean (9). 25. Blount's Lambrigy
)4 Medium, white, soft .. 60-4 730 227
Easy to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 2 extra reductions ; little (cut after rain.)
more flour from break than with No. 24; semolina slightly yellow,
and less gritty than No. 24 ; bran clean; pollard clean (h). 26. Blount's Lambrigs .. ..Small, plump, transl., 65.2
Easy to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 4 extra ; flour parts easily hard.
from bran; semolina yellowish tinge and granular; bran very
clean; pollard clean ).
4 9:6 04 9:84 564 | Easy to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra (last was unnecessary,
but there seemed a fair amount of flour remaining); semolina
very clean ; pollard clean ; flour heavy.
566 Fair to mill. 6 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra ; flour clings slightly
to bran; little flour from breaks ; semolina white and slightly
gritty ; bran not very clean ; pollard clean,
Easy to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra; flour parts easily from
bran ; semolina slightly yellow and gritty; bran and pollard clean,
700 11.0 190
Difficult to mill. 6 breaks, 5 reductions, 4 extra; flour parts very
easily and cleanly from bran; semolina rich yellowish tinge and
gritty ; bran very clean; pollard fairly clean.
Medium, transl., hard.. 63:3
Fair to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra ; semolina rich yellow
and gritty ; bran clean ; pollard not very clean, 32. Indian Club .. .. .. Small, white, medium.. 64.2 66.0 20.2 13.8
8 Fair to mill. 5 breaks, 5 reductions, 3 extra; fair amount of flour
from breaks; semolina rich yellow tinge and gritty ; bran clean;
pollard fairly clean.
breaks; semolina yellowish and gritty ; bran and pollard fairly clean.
flour does not seem to have been affected; this is a splendid milling wheat,
In those cases in which the same variety was compared under these con. ditions it was found that though the original wheat may have been hard the grain cut after the heavy rain milled like a soft wheat, yielded a soft semolina, and the flour clung to the bran. The weight per bushel is also considerably less in those samples which had been harvested after rain, a fact of great importance.
Of the cross-bred wheats those with the Fife blood show the strongest flour, though not necessarily the highest gluten-contents, a fact which was to be anticipated from the previous results obtained with the Fife wheats.
One of the best, if not the very best, all-round wheat in this series is Blount's Lambrigg, the characteristics of which may be summed up as follows:- Easy to mill, readily yielding a high percentage of four without detriment to colour, gluten-content, or strength, remarkably high weight per bushel, flour strong, colour good, gluten-content high.
It will be seen that the sample No. 26 was milled to yield over 80 per cent. flour. Though the treatment was not in any sense severe, nevertheless, the colour is undoubtedly slightly affected, having a somewhat yellower tinge than is in favour. A sacrifice of 2 or 3 per cent. of flour would undoubtedly bring the colour up to the highest standard. It is in fact one of the easiest of wheats to manipulate and is in every respect a splendid milling wheat.
The following notes are by Mr. Farrer :-"Nos. 4, 16, 27, and 28, had been exposed to protracted rain before they were harvested and had been spoiled for milling purposes, -that is to say, the quality of the flour had been affected. The same remarks apply to one sample of Fl and Blount's Lambrigg respectively. No. 23 (Clarke's RR) had been grown in a former year (1893) when all wheats were much stronger in gluten than they were in 1894. The best sample of Blount's Lambrigg (No. 26) was taken from plants which had been cut down after they had begun to inount up. The effect of this treatment was expected to be that the grain would be smaller and poorer in gluten. The grain was smaller, but owing to an accident the comparative examination which was to be made with the object of seeing whether the gluten content had been diminished could not be made."
Agricultural Machinery Exhibits at the
BY J. MARTIN
HAFING given a short bistory of the development of harvesting machinery (Vol. VI, p. 553) we can better appreciate the exhibits in this section of the Agricultural Annex at the Columbian World's Fair.
The opinions formed of this department varied according to the expectations of the visitor. Those who expected to see a large number of new departures from the present day system of harvesting hay and grain will have been disappointed, as there was no distinctly new type of harvesting machine, the manufacturers being satisfied to claim special merits in changes and improvements of detail.
Visitors from foreign countries were surprised that a much larger space was not devoted to agricultural machinery generally, and those who have a knowledge of the leading manufacturers of the United States will have missed many whose goods have a world wide reputation.
The explanation is that, with every desire to meet the wishes of intending exhibitors, the World's Fair Commissioners found it impossible to increase the area of the building, and many well-known manufacturers being unable to secure a space large enough to enable them to make a representative display of the goods they manufactured, preferred to stay away rather than make a show in the limited space offered.
But the greatest defect, from the foreign visitors' point of view, was the lack in many departments of foreign exhibits which prevented a comparison being made of the manufactures of different countries; for instance, there was not a single exbibit of importance in the department now under notice,-i.e., harvesting machinery—from England, France, or Germany, all, or nearly all, in this section, with the notable exception of Canada, being manufactured in the United States.
This lack of means for comparing the manufactures of the different countries was generally admitted to be the weak point of the Agricultural Department; but the United States and Canadian exhibits that were there are worthy of all praise, and perhaps illustrated as clearly as could be the wonderful energy, perseverance, and skill of the manufacturers in those two countries.
Some persons found fault with the elaborate finish on a few of the mowers, reapers, and binders, as they were in parts plated with gold and silver, and the woodwork of one binder was adorned with mother-o'-pearl. This extra finish is what is known as an "advertising point," and is put on the machines, so that all persons interested will take special notice of the machine, and not only recollect it, but talk about it, and explain its beautiful finish, &c., thus fulfilling one of the special aims of an exhibitor, i.e., “ securing attention and ensuring his exhibit being well talked about.”