Imágenes de páginas
PDF
EPUB

easily, because his machinery enables him to catch the wheat in the nick of time before it can shell out, while another, with few machines and small team, prefers a wheat that will stand a long time without shelling, no matter if it does strip or thresh with difficulty.

In the following notes, therefore, I have confined myself to facts, and these are such that growers of every shade of opinion will have an interest in them.

Table showing the ease or difficulty with which the different varieties of ukeat groun at the Wagga Experiment Farm, since 1893, were threshed :

1.-WHEATS THAT THRESH VERY Easily.
Allora Spring

Pringle's Vermont
Crate

Red Nott
Egyptian

Sapphire
Emerald

Sardonyx

Bailey

II. - WHEATS THAT THRESH EASILY.
Adamant

Martin's Amber
Amethyst

Mediterranean
Anglo-Australian

Mediterranean Hybrid
Australian Amber

Miami Valley
Autumn Saumur

Mould's Red
Barbu á Gros Grain

Nimitybelle

Noé
Basalt

Odessa
Beal

Opal
Bearded Hérisson

Pool
Bearded Monarch

Prince Albert
Bestehorn's Dividend

Rattling Jack
Canada Club

Red Bordeaux
Canadian Velvet Chaff

Red Lorraine
Carter's C.

Red Russian
Champlain

Rieti
Chiddam's White Spring

Rivett or Cone
China Spring

R.N.Y. Rye Wheat
China Tea

Rousselin
Crepi

Ruby
Currell

Rye Wheat
Democrat

Saratow
Early Japanese

Saskatchewan
Eclipse

Scotch Fife
Fluorspar

Sherman
Frumente ferrareuse

Smooth Red Spring
German Beardless March

Soft Algerian
German Emperor

Steinwedel
Golden Prolific

Summer Club
Hindustan

Tall Bearded Neapolitan
Hornblende

Tasmanian
Improved Fife

Thomas' R.R.
Improved Rice

Thuiss
Jaspar
Johnson

Velvet Pearl
Landreth's Hard Winter

White Essex
Long Berry

White Fife
Majorica Carusa

Winter Nigger

Trap

III.-WHEATS THAT THREsh Rather Easily.
Anderson's R. R.

Bearded Club
Australian Wonder

Bearded Velvet Chaff
Bordier

Belotourka
Bearded Red Autumn

Beryl
Bearded Champion

Bladette Paylaureuse

WHEATS THAT THRESH RATHER EASILY -continued. Blount's Fife

Large Purple Straw Blount's Lambrigg

Lehigh Blount's R. R.

Leak's Defiance Buckby's R. R.

Leak's R. R. Carter's A.

Lazistan Carter's H.

Mammoth Carter's 43

Missogen Carter's 81

Mouton
Carter's 103

Niagara
Carter's 107
Chiddam

Odessa sans barbes
Clawson

Old French Velvet Darblay's Hungarian

Ontario Wonder Defiance

Pearl or Velvet Diche Mediterranean

Pringle's No. 5 Dominion

Porcelaine Dwarf Humboldts'

Port M'Donnell Early Baart

Red Altkirche Early Bearded (French)

Red Provence Finley

Rio Grande Fort Collins

Rudy Fulcaster

Russian Fultz

Salvator Gallician Saumur.

Sardius Gharat

Saumur de Mars Gore's Indian No. 2

Scholey's Square Head Green Mountain

Scotch Red Hallett's Pedigree

Small's 0. K. Indian y

Sorrell Indian a

Stewart Inglis' R. R.

Tuscan Island Ironclad

Ultuna Red Beard Jock

Velvet Chaff Bearded Red Clawson

Willett's New Red Wonder

White Flanders King's R. R.

White Lammas Ladoga

White Naples Laidley

White Russian Langfeldt's

I'right's R. R.

WHEATS THAT THRESH RATHER HARD.

Carter's 87 African

Champlain Hybrid Agate

Chrysolite Algerian

Clarke's R. R. Atlanti

Count Waldersdorff American Purple Straw

Cretan Andriola Amber

Cythere White Australian Glory

Dallas Australian Poulard

Defiance (Pringle's) Australiau R. R.

Deitz Australian Talavera

Dutoits Banater

Early Para Bancroft

Egyptian A. 105 Banham's Browick

Egyptian A. 106 Bega

Egyptian C. Blue Stem

Egyptian E. Brigg's R. R.

Egyptian G. Brogan's Red and White

Forella Californian Chili

Fillbag Californian Genesee

Farmer's Friend Carter's F.

Fountain Carter's New Hybrid

Frames' Early Carter's K.

Frampton

Wheats THAT THRESH RATHER HARD-continued.
Golden Drop

Pringle's No. 6
Goldsmith's Pedigree

Purple Straw Tuscan
Hebron

Red Chaff Square Head
Hedgerow

Red Straw
Hercules

Red Tuscan
High Grade

Reliable
Hudson's Early Purple Straw

Rimpan
Hunter's White

Robin's R. R.
Icdian D.

Russian
Indian Fife

Schilf
Jacinth

Sicilian Baart
Kaiser

Sicilian Square-headed Red
Little Wonder

Snowball
M.Ghee's White

Spaulding's Prolific
Manitoba

Soft Portuguese
Marshall's 5

Talavera de Bellevue
Marshall's s

Tardent's Blue
Medeah

The Blount

Trump
Murray River

Tuscan Essex
Northern Champion

Velvet New Zealand
Oakshott's Champion

Venning's
Oregon Big White Club

Webb's Challenge
Paros

Webb's King Red
Penguin Island

White Chaff Red
Pictet

White Tuscan
Poland

White Tuscan, Lake Bathurst
Pride of Barossa

White Velvet
Prince Edward Island

Zealand.

Mica

WHEATS THAT TURESH HARD.
Andros

Jones' Winter Fife
Archer's Prolific

King's Jubilee
Australian Bearded, Port Germain

Leak's R. R.
Battlefield

Little Club
Berseler's Club

Marshall's 2
Blé à épi carré

Marshall's 3
Canning Downs

Marshall's 10
Carter's B.

Pride of Butte
Carter's D.

Pringle's R. R.
Carter's E.

Propi
Carter's G.

Quartz
Egyptian B.

Rattling Tom
Egyptian D.

Steer's Early Purple Straw
4-rowed Sheriff

Uncle Tommy
Gore's Indian No. 1

Urtoba
Gneiss

Velvet Chaff
Indian Club

Ward's Prolific
Indian 8

Ward's White
Indian e

White-eared Mummy
Inglis's Success

Zimmerman
Italian Tuscan Purple Straw

WHEATS THAT THRESH VERY HARD.
Brown-eared Mummy

Indian Z.
District

Soft Australian
Indian Early

Young's Bearded

If, now, we group these wheats around certain well-known sorts, such as Talavera, White Velvet, Defiance, we shall arrive at certain general conclusions of greater value than knowledge concerning any one variety. Below I have attempted this in the case of the soft wheats, i.e., the ones generally cultivated for flour.

[ocr errors]

:::::::::::::::::

Table showing the relative ease or difficulty with which different groups or "families " of soft wheat (T. sativum) can be threshed.

Beardless Soft Wheats. 1. Allora Spring group

... Very easy to thresh. 2. Steinwedel group

... Easy to thresh. 3. Essex group ...

Rather easy to rather hard to thresh. 4. Fife group

Easy to rather easy to thresh. 5. Noé group

Rather easy to easy to thresh. 6. Red Provence group ...

Easy to rather hard to thresh. 7. Beardless Rye Wheat group ... 8. Square Head group

Rather easy to hard to thresh. 9. Defiance group ...

Rather easy to rather hard to thresh. 10. Lammas and Talavera group ... 11. Tuscan group ... 12. Purple Straw group 13. White Velvet group ...

... Rather hard to thresh. 14. Chili group ... 15. Golden Drop group 16. Ward's Prolific group ...

... Hard to rather hard to thresh. 17. Jubilee or Indian group

Hard to thresh.

Bearded Soft Wheats. 1. Bearded Hérisson group

... Easy to thresh. 2. Early Japanese group ... 3. Lazistan and Cythen group

Easy or rather easy to thresh. 4. Ladoga and Anglo-Australian group

Rather easy or easy to thresh. 5. Baart group ... ...

*** | Rather hard to thresh. 6. Bearded Velvet Chaff group ... 7. Port Germain group ...

" Hard to thresh. 8. Bearded Indian group ...

We may also derive from the tables of varieties threshed the following conclusions :1. The bard wheats, or macaroni wheats, of which Medeah and Belo

tourka may be taken as the type, are harder to thresh than the soft

wheats. 2. The Poulard wheats, of which Algerian and Mummy may be taken as

types, also thresh with greater difficulty than the soft wheats. 3. Weak straw is of no value as an indication of ease in threshing. 4. Earliness or lateness in ripening is no criterion as to ease of thresbing. 5. Velvet-chaffed wheats, whether they be bearded or beardless, thresh

harder than the corresponding smooth chaffed sorts. 6. Wheats with crowded heads are generally harder to thresh, other

things being equal. 7. Red-chaffed wheats, with few exceptions, are easier to thresh than

white-chaffed sorts. 8. Bearded wheats, other things being equal, are easier to thresh than

beardless sorts. This conclusion refers, however, only to the ease with which the grain can be parted from the chaff, and does not refer to the well-known fact that the beards tend to clog up the

threshing machine. In this connection I appeal to the inventors and manufucturers of strippers and threshers to give special attention to constructing machines that will handle bearded wheat. I am convinced that machines can be made that will thresh bearded wheats as perfectly and as conveniently as beardless tbeats. Such machines would meet a ready sale, because they would enable farmers to grow certain bearded wheats which are eminently suited to Australian climates, and in many ways more suitable than the sorts now grown.

Forest Insects.

SOME GALL-MAKING COCCIDS.

BY CLAUDE FULLER.

The Coccidide are better known by such popular terms as Scale-insects Bark-lice, and Mealy-bugs. They are classified by entomologists under the great order Hemiptera, the members of which are easily distinguished froin other insects by their beak-like mouths. On account of this peculiar formation of the mouth, they are essentially suctorial in their habits, nourishing themselves upon the juices of plants and animals.

The order is dividel into two distinct divisions—the Heteroptera, which includes the true bugs, and the Homoptera, which embraces Cicadide, Aphides, and Seale-insects. The differences between these two sections are well-defined. The true bugs hare the beak springing from the front of the head, and the upper or first pair of wings are one-half thick and the other half thin—that is, the basal half is thick and leathery, whilst the tips, which overlap each other, are thin and membranous. In the Homoptera the beak

in being of the same consistency throughout, and usually carried in a sloping

The family Coccidida is in itself regarded as an anomalous group, its members departing widely from the original type of the order. It is not, therefore, surprising that in such a land of anomalies as Australia the greatest irregularities are found to exist. Such an irregularity is the genus Brachyscelis, the members of which live exclusively upon trees and shrubs of the order Eucalyptus. These insects cause woody-galls of many interesting shapes to grow upon the tree, in the heart of which they live; in the case of the females till death, and of the males until the adult stage is reached.

The popular name “Gall-maker," as with the terms Scale-insect and Mealy-bug, has its origin in the external character exhibited by the insects, but the gall-growth differs from the "meal” of the Mealy-bug and the "scale" of the Bark-louse, insomuch that it is brought into existence at the actual and direct expense of the tissue of the plants, whilst the scales and meal are products of the animals themselves being secreted through pores or openings in the body.

The Male Insect. Upon issuing from the gall, in which it has undergone its transformations, the male resembles a fly having two white wings. It has very long antenna and legs, which give it quite a spidery appearance. The antenna are hairy, and consist of about ten joints; the basal joints are short, and, with the exception of the terminal, the others are rather long and constricted. The legs are bairy, and hear several spines, a pair of distinct upper digitules, and are furnished with simple claws. The abdomen is long and cylindrical, the

« AnteriorContinuar »