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easily, because his machinery enables him to catch the wheat in the nick of time before it can shell out, while another, with few machines and small team, prefers a wheat that will stand a long time without shelling, no matter if it does strip or thresh with difficulty.
In the following notes, therefore, I have confined myself to facts, and these are such that growers of every shade of opinion will have an interest in them.
Table showing the ease or difficulty with which the different varieties of ukeat groun at the Wagga Experiment Farm, since 1893, were threshed :
1.-WHEATS THAT THRESH VERY Easily.
II. - WHEATS THAT THRESH EASILY.
Rivett or Cone
R.N.Y. Rye Wheat
Smooth Red Spring
Tall Bearded Neapolitan
III.-WHEATS THAT THREsh Rather Easily.
Bearded Velvet Chaff
WHEATS THAT THRESH RATHER EASILY -continued. Blount's Fife
Large Purple Straw Blount's Lambrigg
Lehigh Blount's R. R.
Leak's Defiance Buckby's R. R.
Leak's R. R. Carter's A.
Lazistan Carter's H.
Mammoth Carter's 43
Missogen Carter's 81
Odessa sans barbes
Old French Velvet Darblay's Hungarian
Ontario Wonder Defiance
Pearl or Velvet Diche Mediterranean
Pringle's No. 5 Dominion
Porcelaine Dwarf Humboldts'
Port M'Donnell Early Baart
Red Altkirche Early Bearded (French)
Red Provence Finley
Rio Grande Fort Collins
Salvator Gallician Saumur.
Saumur de Mars Gore's Indian No. 2
Scholey's Square Head Green Mountain
Scotch Red Hallett's Pedigree
Small's 0. K. Indian y
Sorrell Indian a
Stewart Inglis' R. R.
Tuscan Island Ironclad
Ultuna Red Beard Jock
Velvet Chaff Bearded Red Clawson
Willett's New Red Wonder
White Flanders King's R. R.
White Lammas Ladoga
White Naples Laidley
White Russian Langfeldt's
I'right's R. R.
WHEATS THAT THRESH RATHER HARD.
Carter's 87 African
Champlain Hybrid Agate
Clarke's R. R. Atlanti
Count Waldersdorff American Purple Straw
Cretan Andriola Amber
Cythere White Australian Glory
Dallas Australian Poulard
Defiance (Pringle's) Australiau R. R.
Deitz Australian Talavera
Early Para Bancroft
Egyptian A. 105 Banham's Browick
Egyptian A. 106 Bega
Egyptian C. Blue Stem
Egyptian E. Brigg's R. R.
Egyptian G. Brogan's Red and White
Forella Californian Chili
Fillbag Californian Genesee
Farmer's Friend Carter's F.
Fountain Carter's New Hybrid
Frames' Early Carter's K.
Wheats THAT THRESH RATHER HARD-continued.
Pringle's No. 6
Purple Straw Tuscan
Red Chaff Square Head
Robin's R. R.
Sicilian Square-headed Red
Talavera de Bellevue
Velvet New Zealand
Webb's King Red
White Chaff Red
White Tuscan, Lake Bathurst
WHEATS THAT TURESH HARD.
Jones' Winter Fife
Leak's R. R.
Pride of Butte
Pringle's R. R.
Steer's Early Purple Straw
WHEATS THAT THRESH VERY HARD.
If, now, we group these wheats around certain well-known sorts, such as Talavera, White Velvet, Defiance, we shall arrive at certain general conclusions of greater value than knowledge concerning any one variety. Below I have attempted this in the case of the soft wheats, i.e., the ones generally cultivated for flour.
Table showing the relative ease or difficulty with which different groups or "families " of soft wheat (T. sativum) can be threshed.
Beardless Soft Wheats. 1. Allora Spring group
... Very easy to thresh. 2. Steinwedel group
... Easy to thresh. 3. Essex group ...
Rather easy to rather hard to thresh. 4. Fife group
Easy to rather easy to thresh. 5. Noé group
Rather easy to easy to thresh. 6. Red Provence group ...
Easy to rather hard to thresh. 7. Beardless Rye Wheat group ... 8. Square Head group
Rather easy to hard to thresh. 9. Defiance group ...
Rather easy to rather hard to thresh. 10. Lammas and Talavera group ... 11. Tuscan group ... 12. Purple Straw group 13. White Velvet group ...
... Rather hard to thresh. 14. Chili group ... 15. Golden Drop group 16. Ward's Prolific group ...
... Hard to rather hard to thresh. 17. Jubilee or Indian group
Hard to thresh.
Bearded Soft Wheats. 1. Bearded Hérisson group
... Easy to thresh. 2. Early Japanese group ... 3. Lazistan and Cythen group
Easy or rather easy to thresh. 4. Ladoga and Anglo-Australian group
Rather easy or easy to thresh. 5. Baart group ... ...
*** | Rather hard to thresh. 6. Bearded Velvet Chaff group ... 7. Port Germain group ...
" Hard to thresh. 8. Bearded Indian group ...
We may also derive from the tables of varieties threshed the following conclusions :1. The bard wheats, or macaroni wheats, of which Medeah and Belo
tourka may be taken as the type, are harder to thresh than the soft
wheats. 2. The Poulard wheats, of which Algerian and Mummy may be taken as
types, also thresh with greater difficulty than the soft wheats. 3. Weak straw is of no value as an indication of ease in threshing. 4. Earliness or lateness in ripening is no criterion as to ease of thresbing. 5. Velvet-chaffed wheats, whether they be bearded or beardless, thresh
harder than the corresponding smooth chaffed sorts. 6. Wheats with crowded heads are generally harder to thresh, other
things being equal. 7. Red-chaffed wheats, with few exceptions, are easier to thresh than
white-chaffed sorts. 8. Bearded wheats, other things being equal, are easier to thresh than
beardless sorts. This conclusion refers, however, only to the ease with which the grain can be parted from the chaff, and does not refer to the well-known fact that the beards tend to clog up the
threshing machine. In this connection I appeal to the inventors and manufucturers of strippers and threshers to give special attention to constructing machines that will handle bearded wheat. I am convinced that machines can be made that will thresh bearded wheats as perfectly and as conveniently as beardless tbeats. Such machines would meet a ready sale, because they would enable farmers to grow certain bearded wheats which are eminently suited to Australian climates, and in many ways more suitable than the sorts now grown.
SOME GALL-MAKING COCCIDS.
BY CLAUDE FULLER.
The Coccidide are better known by such popular terms as Scale-insects Bark-lice, and Mealy-bugs. They are classified by entomologists under the great order Hemiptera, the members of which are easily distinguished froin other insects by their beak-like mouths. On account of this peculiar formation of the mouth, they are essentially suctorial in their habits, nourishing themselves upon the juices of plants and animals.
The order is dividel into two distinct divisions—the Heteroptera, which includes the true bugs, and the Homoptera, which embraces Cicadide, Aphides, and Seale-insects. The differences between these two sections are well-defined. The true bugs hare the beak springing from the front of the head, and the upper or first pair of wings are one-half thick and the other half thin—that is, the basal half is thick and leathery, whilst the tips, which overlap each other, are thin and membranous. In the Homoptera the beak
in being of the same consistency throughout, and usually carried in a sloping
The family Coccidida is in itself regarded as an anomalous group, its members departing widely from the original type of the order. It is not, therefore, surprising that in such a land of anomalies as Australia the greatest irregularities are found to exist. Such an irregularity is the genus Brachyscelis, the members of which live exclusively upon trees and shrubs of the order Eucalyptus. These insects cause woody-galls of many interesting shapes to grow upon the tree, in the heart of which they live; in the case of the females till death, and of the males until the adult stage is reached.
The popular name “Gall-maker," as with the terms Scale-insect and Mealy-bug, has its origin in the external character exhibited by the insects, but the gall-growth differs from the "meal” of the Mealy-bug and the "scale" of the Bark-louse, insomuch that it is brought into existence at the actual and direct expense of the tissue of the plants, whilst the scales and meal are products of the animals themselves being secreted through pores or openings in the body.
The Male Insect. Upon issuing from the gall, in which it has undergone its transformations, the male resembles a fly having two white wings. It has very long antenna and legs, which give it quite a spidery appearance. The antenna are hairy, and consist of about ten joints; the basal joints are short, and, with the exception of the terminal, the others are rather long and constricted. The legs are bairy, and hear several spines, a pair of distinct upper digitules, and are furnished with simple claws. The abdomen is long and cylindrical, the