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seeds of tender annuals may be sown, as well as hardy annuals, if the latter were not previously sown. The following annuals and perennials are well worth growing:-Amaranthus of varieties, beautiful ornamental-leaved annuals, Anagallis, Anterrhinum (snap dragon) of varieties, Columbine of varieties, Armeria or thrift, Asters of varieties, rather tender, Auriculas for cold districts, Browellia alata, Calandrina, Coreopsis of varieties, Campanula (Canterbury bell) of varieties, Candytuft of varieties, Carnations of varieties, Celosia or Cockscomb, Cornflower, (Centaurea), sweet Sultan (Centaurea moschata), Chrysanthemum (Marguerite), Clarkia elegans, Cobæa scandens, a useful, strong-growing creeper, Cosmos of varieties, Čowslip, Daisy, Dahlia, Datura, Delphinum or Larkspur, Dianthus, Garden Pinks of varieties, Digitalis or foxgloves, Eschscholtzia of varieties, Everlasting Pea, Gaillardia, Gomphrena or Globe Amaranthus, Godetia of varieties, Papsy, Helichrysum (everlasting) of varieties, Sunflower of varieties, Hollyhock of varieties, Honesty, Iponopsis elegans, Sweet Pea of varieties, Linum coccineum, Scarlet Flax, Lobelia of varieties, Lupins of varieties, Marigold, French and African, maurandia alba and rosea (climbers), Mignonette, Myosotis (forgetme-not), Nasturtium of varieties, Nemophila, Nigella damascena (love in a mist), Poppy of varieties, Pentstemon, Phlox drummondii, Picotees, Polyanthus, Stocks of varieties, Scabiosa, Verbena, Virginian stock, and Wallflowers. If these are sown in the cool districts they will need protection from frosts. If no means of protection are available the sowing had better be delayed.

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Orchard Notes for July

THE Orchard Notes for June cover a large part of the July work, as orchard work during July is simply a continuation of the June work. Where pruning has not been completed it should be done now as soon as possible, the prunings being gathered and burnt, as previously recommended. Winter spraying should always follow winter pruning, as at no time can you give the trees a more thorough dressing, or a dressing that will be of such allround value. Spraying can be done quicker and better now, and at a less cost, on account of the small amount of materials required, than at any other time of the year. If you can only afford one spraying a year, then let that spraying be with the sulphur, lime, and salt remedy, applied to the trees as soon as they are pruned. No progressive fruitgrower can afford to negleet spraying. It is as necessary for the health of his trees and for the production of sound fruit, free from disease, as is the manuring of the orchard or the pruning of the trees. Prune early and prune thoroughly, especially in the case of young trees. Do not be afraid to use the knife, but remember that the harder you cut back the stronger your next season's growth will be. If you want strong, symmetrical, well-grown trees, that will carry a crop of fruit and mature it without breaking apart by the weight of the fruit, then you must prune severely for the first few years. The pruning of old orchards consists more in the removal of broken or superfluous limbs and the shortening in of straggling or excessive growths than in the shaping of the tree, as if the tree is badly pruned when young it is a very difficult job to keep it in a good shape when in full bearing.

After pruning and spraying, plough the orcbard so as to bury all trash and weeds that may have accumulated whilst the orchard has been pruned and sprayed. Plough as deeply as you can, so as to thoroughly sweeten the land and to allow of deep summer cultivation, but do not plough so deeply as to injure the roots to any extent, especially if the soil is shallow. Where there is a good depth of soil and good natural drainage the ploughing may be deeper, as in the warmer districts especially it is not desirable to have any roots too near the surface, as surface roots are always the first to suffer during a spell of dry weather. These remarks refer to deciduous (summer) fruits, not to citrus. In the case of citrus fruits, unless there is a good depth of soil and thorough drainage, it is a mistake to plough at all deep, as the roots of citrus-trees in shallow, cold soils should be kept near the surface, the moisture in the soil being retained by proper mulching and surface cultivation. In ploughing the orchard use short-breasted American ploughs. They are handier, lighter, easier to draw, do more work, can be turned in less ground, and leave the land in a better state, as they turn it right over and leave it more open and lighter than any of the long-beamed and longbreasted ploughs often met with in our orchards—ploughs that no American orchardist would use at any price. Plough the whole of the land. You cannot afford hand labour in an orchard, as if you are going to grow fruit .

for the markets of the world you must produce it at the least possible cost, and to do this you must do everything you can by horse labour and use labour-saving machinery wherever possible. Planting should be continued during the month where not completed, the same care being taken to have the land in proper order, and the trees well planted and cut back when planted, as advised in the notes for June. Remember that planting an orchard is not like planting a crop of wheat, as it is not a question of a few months, but of a lifetime; therefore it pays to have the land in thorough order and to plant the trees thoroughly. Do not plant too many varieties, and only plant such fruits as the soil and climate are best suited to grow to the greatest perfection. In the cold, late districts plant late varieties of apples and pears—the apples on the lighter soils, and the pears on the heavier, as we want good late apples and pears for our own consumption, being now almost entirely dependent on Tasmanian fruit. Plant only three or four varieties, and several acres of each; this will pay you better than planting a lot of worthless varieties, and you will have fruit that you will always find a market for, and when our local wants are supplied you will have fruit that is fit for exporting, and that can be exported at a profit.

The only fruits to be marketed during the month are oranges and lemons, and in the case of oranges it is desirable to relieve the trees now of a large portion of their crop, as, except in favoured localities, oranges begin to drop during August. The best of the oranges, if cut, sweated, graded, wrapped, and properly packed, should be suitable for export, and should carry well if cut during this month, but later gatherings will not carry as well. For export you cannot send too good fruit or be too careful in the grading, packing, and general get-up of your fruit, as the better you get it up the more chance there is of its carrying safely and of fetching a good price. The cost of getting our fruits on to the English market is so great that it will not pay to send anything but the best, and to make the best pay it must be marketed in the best possible manner. Lemons, as previously mentioned in these notes, should be cut whenever ready, and if properly handled there is no more difficulty in our exporting our main crop to Europe than there is in the Italians exporting their main crop to us; but if we are to succeed we must follow the example of the Italians, and thoroughly grade our fruit before packing, rejecting every bruised or blemished fruit, as a single bad fruit will spoil a case.

If there is any slack time during the month devote it to draining the orchard, keeping all surface drains and the outlets of all underground drains clear, looking after the fences, gates, and roads, gathering rubbish for compost heaps, as a good compost heap is of great value, as it conserves a large amount of manurial matter that would otherwise be lost, and when the compost is applied to the trees it forms a good mulch. Where codling moth is bad, scrape off and burn all the loose bark on the trees, and remove and burn all stakes or other material that is likely to form a hiding-place for the grub, as every grub killed now lessens the loss to next season's crop.

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General Notes.

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RAIL FARES TO THE HAWKESBURY COLLEGE AND

EXPERIMENT FARMS. WITH a view to the convenience of farmers and others desirous of visiting either the Hawkesbury College or the various Experiment Farms, the Department has been in correspondence with the Railway Commissioners. It bas been arranged that the Commissioners will grant special rates to parties of twelve or upwards, who can arrange to make the journey together. These rates can be ascertained either by communicating with the local station-master or writing direct to the Secretary for Railways, the latter course being probably the better.

BIRDS DESTRUCTIVE TO VINES AND FRUIT-TREES. WITH a view to protecting their vineyards and orchards from destructive birds, the Corowa Vine and Fruit Growers' Association has decided to offer a prize of five guineas for the largest collection of heads and eggs of the following birds, viz.:—Crows, parrokeets, parrots, and leather-heads. This reward will be given at the annual show of the Corowa Agricultural and Horticultural Association in August. This announcement is made at the request of the Corowa Vine and Fruit Growers' Association, in the hope that other districts may follow their example, and thus assist to abate the nuisance.

QUEENSLAND NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL

SOCIETY's Show. We have been favoured with a Schedule of Prizes of the Twenty-first Annual Exhibition of this Society, to be held in Brisbane on the 12th August next. The prizes offered are on the usual liberal scale, and as the exhibition is a feature of the year in Brisbane there should be a good opportunity for residents in New South Wales of extending their reputation in the many classes of stock and produce which will be gathered together. The Secretary is Mr. Henry C. Wood, of Brisbane, who will gladly afford information on application.

419

AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES SHOWS, 1896.

1896. Society.

Secretary.

Date. Dapto A. and H. Society ... ...

... A. B. Chippindale Jan. 7,8 Albion Park A, and H. Association Kiama Agricultural Association ...

... J. Somerville ... , 23, 24 Gosford A. and H. Association ...

... W. McIntyre ... , 24, 25 Wollongong A., H., and I. Association ...

... J. A. Beatson ... , Berry Agricultural Association ...

... A. J. Colley ... Feb. Shoalhaven A, and H. Association

... T.C. Kennedy... » Ulladulla Agricultural Association

... C. A. Cork ... , Cobargo A., P., and H. Society ...

... T. Kennelly ... » Berrigan A. and H. Society

... R. Drummond... , Kangaroo Valley A. and H. Association... ... ... H. Joyce ... , Southern New England P. and A. Association (Uralla) J. D. Leece ... Tumut A. and P, Association ... ... ... ... N. Emanuel ... Alstonville and Richmond River F., C., A., and H.

society ... ... ... ... ... ... ... H. R. Elvery ... , 25, 26 Candelo A., H., and Dairy Farmers' Association ... J. H. Brooks ... » Cannden A., H., and I. Society ... ... ...

... W. S. Cranfield , 26, 27, 28 Lithgow A., H., and P. Society ... ... ... ... T. Asher ... , 27, 28 Manning River A. and H. Association (Taree) ... ... W. Plummer ... , 27, 28 Robertson Agricultural Society ... ... ...

... R. G. Ferguson Mar. 3, 4 Bega A., P., and H. Society ... ... ...

... J. Underhill ... „ 4, 5 Inverell P. and A. Association ... ... ... ... J. M'Ilveen ... , 5, 6, 7 Luddenham A. and H. Society ... ... ... ... R. G. Megarrity , 10, 11 Tumbarumba and Upper Murray P. and A. Society ... W. Williams ... , 10, 11 Berrima District (Moss Vale) A., H., and I. Society ... J. Yeo ... ... 10, 11, 12 Tenterfield I., P., A., M., and H. Society ... ... F. W. Hoskin ... , 11, 12, 13 Goulbum A., P., and H. Society ... . ... ... J. J. Roberts ... , Cumnock P., A., and H. Association ... ... ... T. Howard ... , 17 Armidale and New England P., A., and H. Association W. H. Allingham , 17, 18, 19 Port Macquarie and Hastings District A. and H. Society ... ... ... ..

... J. Y. Butler ... , 18, 19 Gundagai P. and A. Society ...

... A. Elworthy ... Lismore A. and I. Society ... ...

... W. Moses ... „ 19, 20 Crookwell P. and A. Association ...

... H. J. Peard ... , Cooma P. and A. Association ...

... W.M.Madgwick , 25, 26 Blayney P. and A. Association ...

... J. Clements ... , 26, 27 Royal Agricultural Society of New South Wales F. Webster ... April 1 to 7 Castle Hill and District A. and H. Association... ... F. H. G. Rogers , 6, 7 Cudal A. and P. Society ... ... ... ...

... C. Schramme ... » 8,9 National Pomological Society ... ... ... ... H. R. Whittell.. „ 15(about) Molong P. and A. Society ... ... ...

... W. M. Betts ... , 15 ,, Upper Hunter P. and A. Association (Muswellbrook)... D. H. Allan ... ,

15, 16 Bathurst A., H., and P. Association ... ... ... W.G. Thompson , 15, 16, 17 * Namoi P., A., and H. Association (Narrabri)... ... J. Riddle ... , 15, 16, 17 Warialda P. and A. Association ... ... ... ... W. B. Geddes... » Upper Manning (Wingham) A. and H. Association ... P. Doust ... , Hunter River A. and H. Association (West Maitland)... W. C. Quinton , 22, 23, 24 Macleay A., H., and I. Association ... ... ... H. R. Gray ... , 22, 23,124

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* Abandoned in consequence of drought.

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