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These latter particulars will enable anyone with the aid of a microscope to recognise these eggs in the dung of infested fowls, an important feature in the diagnosis of the disease.

The ovaries are symmetrically reflexed, and begin where the Fig. 7.—Heterakis inflexa of the horns of the uterus end, near

common fowl. the vulva. That portion of the

I. Male worm.

II. Head of same. sexual tube, known as the semen

III. Tail of a female,

VI. Tail of a male. pocket, is convoluted, and about

a, b, lips. one-fifth of a millimetre wide,

c, nerve-ring or brain. thence the ovary soon narrow8 d, esophagus. to one-twentieth of a millimetre,

e, cardiac constriction.

1, pharyngeal bulb. with which diameter it occupies

9, intestine.

h, nerve-ring or brain. a few convolutions. The true i, excretory pore.

j, testicle. ovaries now begin, one-fourth of

k, pyloric constriction. a millimetre wide, and meander 1, rectum,

m, anus. one branch forward and one

n, testicle, branch backward to end near

o, terminus of tail.

P, beginning of ejaculatory duct. the neck and anus respectively. 9, male accessory organ.

r, four anterior male papillæ. 85

s, ejaculatory duct. -34 2 7.3 6M 98.3

t, three median male papillæ. •8 1:1 1.8 2.5 1.7 33. mm. The

u, three posterior male papillæ. tail of the male differs from that v, spicula, side view.

w, terminus of male. of the female in being pointed «, one of the spicula, front view. and apiculate. The nearly cir.

2, male accessory organ, seo q. cular supplementary male organ is flattened on the posterior side, where there is also a break in its contour. The diameter of this organ is one-third as great as that of the body, and its location is described by saying that it is exactly ventral, and that its centre is in front of the anus à distance equal to one-half the length of the tail. There are ten pairs of papillæ, as follows :Pre-anal.—One pair opposite the anterior part of the supplementary

organ. One pair opposite the posterior part of the supplementary


One pair a trifle in front of the anus. Post-anal.—On the anterior half of the tail four pairs, three showing as broad ribs to the bursa, and the fourth near the base of the middle pair of ribs; the anterior ribs are opposite the anus, while the posterior pair is just in front of the middle of the tail. Half-way between these latter and the end of the tail occur three other pairs of small papillæ, one of which is specially small. In profile the bursa is inconspicuous, but may be seen to originate opposite the anterior part of the supplementary organ, and to extend thence to near the end of the tail. The two equal slender spicula are 1.2 millimetres long and 20 u wide ; while the blunt tips are only 12 u wide, the proximal ends are 36 u wide. The ejaculatory duct is 9 milli. metres long and half a millimetre wide. The single testicle on a male 40 millimetres long, meanders to within 7 millimetres of the head, and is one-fifth of a millimetre wide. Most of the features of this description are well set forth in Fig. 7, which the reader may consult with the aid of a magnifier if necessary.

Habitat.-In the small intestine of the common fowl, all over the world.

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The following are particulars of a small worm found in the intestine of a fowl along with adult H. inflexa, and appears to be a smaller specimen than has hitherto been described.

-2 1-5 () 84 96.

8 1.8 2.1 2.8 18 5 mm. The colourless skin was marked by plain transverse striæ barely resolvable with moderately high powers, such as a Zeiss D. There were no hairs on the body. The conoid neck ended in a somewhat rounded head not set off from the body by any distinct constriction. There were no cephalic setæ. A number of low flat circular papillæ occurred on the three lips. I saw no lateral organs, and there were no eyes. The pharynı resembled that common in the free-living genus Monhystera. The nearly cylindrical oesophagus was barely swollen in the posterior part, thus showing a rudimentary bulb. Though the cardiac column was not very distinct, its position was easily made out on account of the difference in colour between the æsophagus and the intestine. The finely granular intestine was half 15 wide as the body. The rectum was twice as long as the anal body diameter. Nothing was made out concerning the ventral gland. The position of the brain remains uncertain. The irregularly conical tail ended in an acute point. 2. Heterakis papillosa, Bloch.15

141 43 14: '47.' 876–8. min.
43 17

The skin shows fine transverse striæ, 2 u apart, and also crossed oblique striæ at least in the vicinity of the salient wings. There are no bairs on the body. The

conoid neck ends in a sub

truncate head not set off from Fig. 8.- Heterakis papillosa of the

the body by any perceptible concommon fowl.

striction. There are no cephalie setæ. Of the three large hemi

spherical lips the dorsal is the III. Side view of tail of same. IV. Ventral view of tail of same. smaller; each lip bears a minute a, lips.

papilla. No lateral organs were b, pharynx.

seen. There are no eyes. Each d, excretory pore.

of the lips appears to be armed e, base of pharynx.

on the lower part of its inner , cardiac constriction. 9, esophagus.

surface with a tooth. The bases h, testicle.

of these teeth are opposite the i, proximal end of spicula. j, testicle.

bases of the lips. The cesophagus k, beginning of ejaculatory duct. 1, intestine.

is cylindroid to the ob-pyriform m, shaft of spicula.

cardiac swelling; while the tube 11, papilla 0, 0, 0, papillæ.

is only half as wide as the head, p, male accessory organ.

the cardiac bulb is half as wide q, bursa. T, papilla.

as the base of the neck. The s, papillæ.

csophagus has a plain lining, t, u, v, papillæ. wo, proximal end of spicula.

and is separated from the intesy, distal end of spicula.

tine by a deep constriction. The 2, terminus.

granular intestine is half as wide as the body, but is swollen at

the commencement so as to form a rather large cardiac cavity. The ventral gland empties through a fairly well developed ampulla and a pore situated just behind the oblique nervering. The longitudinal lines are marked by prominent so-called “wings" of cuticle. The conical tail tapers from near the rather inconspicuous vulva to the pointed terminus. The anus is rather inconspicuous. No tail.glands were seen. The vagina passes forward a distance equal to


I. Male worm.
II. Head of the same.

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c, brain or nerve-ring.

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", anus.

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the width of the body, or a little more, and then forks, and each of the two branches at a further distance, equal to half the width of the body, presents a valve leading to one of the uteri. The two uteri extend, one forward to within a neck-length of the cardia, and the other backward to within half a tail-length of the anus, and evon in adults are rather slender, holding the eggs in a single or double row. The eggs are 40 x 72 m, that is, one-fifth as long as the body is wide, while the shell is 4 u thick. They do not undergo segmentation, it appears, while in the body of the mother. These facts enable us to at once distinguish these eggs from those of H. inflexa, even where they occur together in the same excremant, which is a matter of importance, if it becomes necessary to determine what particular worm infests a given fowl. After the last above-described flexure the ovaries are coiled back and forth across the body. 1:14.5 15. M 94:

99- 6. to 8. mm. The tail of the male is conoid from the conspicuously elevated anus. No candal glands were seen. The projecting button-shaped male supplementary organ is one-third as far in front of the anus as the pointed terminus is behind it, and when seen ventrally is onethird as wide as the body, and appears to possess distinct oblique muscles, suggesting suctorial functions. The papillæ are arranged as follows: Pre-anal.—Two pairs surrounding the supplementary organ. One pair, sub-median, as far again from the anus as those just men

tioned. Post-anal.-Two pairs, small, near the end of the bursa; one pair, half

way from these to the anus; one pair half-way between the two

groups just mentioned ; six pairs near the anus. (See fig. 8). The bursa extends from somewhat in front of the supplementary organ to the middle of the tail, and when seen in profile appears nearly half as wide as the body. Of the two unequal spicula, the right is three to four times as long as the left, the latter being somewhat shorter than the tail; both are slender, flat, slightly cephalated at the proximal ends, and tipped with a sigmoid apiculum.

Habitat.—Caeca of the common fowl throughout the world.

Chemical Notes.


PARIS GREEN. PURCHASERS of Paris green, for spraying purposes, should be aware that a compound is sold under this name for use as a pigment. The pigment contains varying proportions of Barium sulphate (Barytes or heavy spar). A sample obtained from a Sydney firm contained nearly 15 per cent. of this ingredient.

Barium sulphate increases the value of Paris green as a pigment, as it gives it a better covering-power, but it is quite valueless as an insecticide, as the mixture contains only about 45 per cent. arsenic (arsenious acid).

Purchasers of Paris green should, therefore, be particular to ask for pure Paris green for use as an insecticide, or for spraying. This should contain about 50 per cent. arsenic.

Both Elliott Bros. and the Australian Drug Company keep the pure article in stock.

Analyses of samples obtained from these sources gave in one case 54-8, and in the other 55 per cent. arsenious acid, either of which are sufficiently near the theoretical quantity of arsenic to be effectual if used in the proportions usually recommended for spraying mixtures.

If, however, the pigment is used, the results will probably be disappointing.


BAT GUANO. The following analysis of a sample of bat-guano shows the characteristics of this class of guano.

Moisture ... ... (a) Volatile matter

17.69 Insoluble matter

... ... ... 28.77 (6) Phosphoric acid

11:42 Lime Ca0 ... ...

13.72 (a) Containing nitrogen ...

1.55 Equivalent to ammonia ...

(6) Equivalent to tricalcic phosphate

... 24.93
Of the phosphoric acid 1.2 per cent. was soluble in water,
There were no nitrates in the sample examined.

TOBACCO STALKS. THE foilowing analysis of tobacco stalks, obtained from Messrs. Dixson's factory may be of interest in showing the composition of this waste product.

Western Tobacco.

Southern Tobacco, Moisture ... ...


... ... ... 14.16 Volatile matter ...


69.62 Ash ... ...


16:22 Containing nitrogen ...


... ... ... 2:76 Equivalent to ammonia



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The composition of the ash is given below. It will be seen that its principal value lies in the amount of potash it contains, which is, moreover, in an exceedingly soluble form, as carbonate.

Ash of

Ash of
Western Tobacco.

Southern Tobacco.
Sand and silica ... ...


... ... ... 2.83
Charcoal ... ... ... •57

Oxides of iron and alumina
(Fe,0, and Al,03)

Lime (CaO) ...


7:36 Magnesia (Mg0) ..


6.65 Potash (K,0)... ..


36.15 Soda (Na,0) ... ...


12:42 Phosphoric acid (P,05)

3 29

2.98 Carbonic acid (CO) ... ... 30:55

29.67 (by difference)

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SUGAR BEETS GROWN AT TENTERFIELD. In order that readers of the Gazette may have some idea of the work that is being done in the Tenterfield district in the growing of sugar-beets for sugar, I append the results of the examination of a number of beet-roots forwarded for analysis by Mr. C. A. Lee, M.L.A., who takes a very active interest in this industry.

Weight of

Percentage of

sugar in 100 cc. (trimmed).


lb. oz. No. 1

1 71


No. 3


No. 7

20.6 21.1

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No. 10

20.8 Average ...

2014 The average specific gravity of the juice of the above ten samples was 1,099:9, so that the average percentage of cane-sugar by weight in the above juice becomes 18:55 per cent., a result very much higher than any obtained from beets grown in other parts of the Colony, that have been tested.

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