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mixed with it. The addition of lime does away with the possible bad effects of soluble arsenic, while the molasses gives the mixture better adhesive qualities. In conclusion, never spray in the bright sunlight, but in the cool of the evening. Other remedies worthy of trial are1. A mixture of gypsum and kerosene oil, in the proportion of one
table-spoonful of kerosene with two quarts of gypsum. 2. Fine shell-lime mixed with ashes, and applied to the affected plants
during the early part of the day whilst the dew is upon them.
FRIENDLY BEETLES. We will now briefly consider those ladybirds which prey upon other insects of destructive nature, such as the Aphides and Scale-insects, commencing with the aphis-eating ladybird, Leis conformis, Boisd.
This small insect is perhaps the most useful of the whole of our long list of ladybirds, although the pride of place is sometimes given to the steel-blue
L. conformis is, in its larval and adult stages, a fierce and active enemy of such pests as the Peach Aphis, the Woolly Aphis, and the Cabbage Aphis, and one cannot speak too highly of the work done by this beetle in keeping down the pernicious black aphis of the peach-trees. Growers of peach-trees are well aware that if in the early spring the aphis does not attack the young and tender shoots, there is not much likelihood of its doing damage later on, when the shoots have become stronger and more fully grown. The Aphides increase with alarming rapidity, and by means quite beyond the ordinary comprehension; hence they obtain a firm hold before their natural enemies are present in sufficient numbers to suppress them. But as the spring advances the ladybirds multiply, and the slaughter of the Aphides goes on constantly until they become weakened and gradually disappear almost altogether.
By the unobservant this state of affairs is, as previously stated, regarded as the ordinary course of things, and the hard-work of the ladybird is not eren noticed.
The Governments of New Zealand and Cape Colony are both desirous of introducing this ladybird, amongst others, to their orchards, and a consignment recently sent to New Zealand by this Department has met with some success; but one sent to South Africa early in the spring has not been so encouraging, the long sea-journey being the present difficulty.
An unfortunate circumstance in connection with L. conformis, is its close resemblance in the adult stage to the destructive insect E. 28-punctata mentioned above. It is therefore important to contrast the characteristics of the various stages of the two insects.
Egg8.-Similar, yellow, ovate in shape, and laid end on end in groups. Those of E. 28-punctata need not be sought for on such plants as peach, nectarine, apple, citrus trees, or even cabbages; nor is it very likely that those of L. conformis will be found on pumpkins, marrows, potatoes, &c., which constitute the principal food-plants of the Epilachninæ.
Larvæ.-Compared with E. 28-punctata, the larvæ of the friendly species are very different. L. conformis has not the full fleshy appearance of the former, being flatter, longer, a dense black with red ornamentation, and without the characteristic branched spines of the other insect.
Pupe are not so easily distinguished by the uninitiated ; but, as to where they are likely to be found, the remarks that apply to the eggs apply to them.
The adult beetles are very similar in general appearance, and are often mistaken for one another at first sight. L. conformis is a bright yellow in colour, and glossy, whilst the Epilachna is covered with fine hair, which gives it a dull appearance. Lastly, I. conformis is hemispherical in shape, and the Epilachna ovate and slightly longer. The easiest way to distinguish these is by the number of black spots with which they are marked; E. 28-punctata has, as its name signifies, twenty-eight spots, whilst Leis has only about eighteen.
The next beetles in point of value are the steel-blue ladybirds, Orcus australasia, Boisd., and Orcus chalybeus, Boisd. These two insects must certainly be regarded as very instrumental in checking the spread of the red and brown scales. Throughout the larval and adult stages they wage &
constant war, devouring the eggs and young of the scales with great voracity. They are a bright metallic blue in colour, and very pretty beetles, the former with four yellow spots, and are very common in the orange groves of Cumberland.
Other ladybirds described and figured in the early part of the Gazette are Verania frenata, Erichs., and Halzia galbula, Muls., illustrations of which are reproduced here for guidance.
There are a number of other useful ladybirds which will be figured and popularly described in future numbers of the Gazette.
Disease of the Vines in Talca and Quirihue
(From the Boletin de la Sociedad Nacional de Agricult. ra de Chile.)
TRANSLATED FROM TIE SPANISH BY H. CAMBRIDGE.
The news that the Phylloxera vastatrix had made its appearance among the vineyards in Talca, caused no small amount of alarm among our viticulturists.
Immediately that the Directorate of the National Society of Agriculture became aware of the report, steps were taken to obtain samples of the affected plants, and to submit them to the inspection of a competent judge. When the plants were received they were handed to Dr. F. Phillippi, whose report thereon will be shortly available and which will be published in the Boletin as soon as received.
We have interviewed Dr. Phillippi, who assures us that, judging from the cursory examination of the roots of the affected plants, we have not absolutely to deal with the phylloxera in this case. The Phylloxera destroys the smaller roots of the vine, and the disease now to be considered affects the thicker roots. The learned Professor thinks that this disease may be produced by the great age of the vines, or through the poverty of the soil in which they are growing.
As we stated in our previous issue, we think it has been plainly shown that the disease that has appeared among the vineyards of Talca is not the dreaded Phylloxera vastatrix. We think it will interest our viticulturists to read the following extracts, published in El Ferrocarril, and which bear the signature of Mons. Enrique Taulis, M., which have reference to this matter. The paragraph says:“Messrs. Editors of El Ferrocarril.
“Dear Sirs,—On the 14th instant your important paper reproduced from La Discusion, of Chillan, the following extract:
Mr. Meyer, the writer on Agriculture, has already returned from his trip to Talca, where he had gone to study the disease that has appeared in the vineyards of that district.
The result of Mr. Meyers' investigations is that the insect that has commenced the destruction of those vineyards, if it be not the Phylloxera vastatrix, is a variety of the same species or a species hitherto unknown, but very similar to P. vastatrix, and equally as destructive as it, and which doubtless deserves the technical name of Phylloxera Chilensis.
Mr. Meyer has brought with him various specimens of the insect, and is at present concluding his observations so as to publish a report on same discussion.
As a notice of this character may cause groundless alarm among foreign countries, above all among those that import Chilian vines, diminishing or altogether abolishing the exportation of these plants, which has already acquired such magnitude, I sent La Discusion the following reply, and as up to the present I am not aware whether it has been published, I beg of you to do so in your periodical. “Messrs. the editors of La Discusion,
“Dear Sirs,-In El Ferrocarril of to-day, I bave seen an article taken from your important journal, in which Mr. Meyer states not only that the insect which is found in the vineyards of Talca belongs to the order Hemip. tera to which the phylloxera also belongs, but Mr. Meyer goes even further and dares to give it a name, calling it Phylloxera chilensis.
I think Mr. Director, that Mr. Meyer has committed a grave error, as the insect that is found in Talca is not even distantly related to the phylloxera, it is an acarus or true mite, belonging to a genus of arachnidans, which
mites, the phylloxera being a Hemiptera-Homopteran of the family Chermesina. The phylloxera, in any of the stages in which it causes injury to the vines, is an insect with segmented body, punctuated on the back, with two antenpæ, and provided with a suctional mouth ; with three pairs of individual legs, these being attached to three segments.
The acarus of Talca has a round body, unsegmented, ending in the male in a small hook, and in the female in a small vent; four pairs of legs divided into five segments; the male having the first pair of legs furnished at the extremity with bristles. Neither the male nor the female have antennæ, their place being taken by two bristles visible in the female with a microscope of 500 diameters, and which seem to form a part of the masticating ap. paratus. This acarus has no appliance for sucking, but has a mouth formed for biting, and resembling nippers in form.
Briefly, the phylloxera belongs to the sub-class Hexapoda, which embraces only animals with 6 feet, and the pest found at Talca to the sub-class of Arachnida, which embraces spiders, mites, ticks, and scorpions, so that there can be no relationship between them.
On the other hand, Mr. Meyer cannot say positively with the data he has up to the present, that this acarus destroys the plants, and to be able to do this a very long investigation is required, extending over one or more periods in the growth of the affected plant.
The acarus in question has many features in common with the Tyroglyphida, and presents much similarity to Glyciphagus cusor, Gen., an insect destructive to feathers and collections of insects. M. Megnin, in his treatise on " Los acaros parasitos," says, on page 98:-“ The Tyroglyphideæ embraced acari that are never parasitic in decomposing animal or vegetable matters."
I think, sir, taking these facts into consideration, we are in no position to make positive statements unless we have the time to make an extended study of the matter.-I am, sir, &c., Santiago, 28th December, 1894.
EURIQUE TAULES, M.
Report on the Disease among the Vines of Talca and Quirihue.
Santiago, 20th December, 1894. Senor Presidente de la Sociedad Nacional de Agricultura,
Mr. President, I have received two memos. from the National Society of Agriculture, one of the 6th instant, accompanied by samples of vines from Talca, and the other of the 12th instant, accompanied by vines from Quirihue, asking me to examine the vines sent.