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people thought the children might have of the hill. Of course it is only the creakescaped and lost themselves in the woods; ing of the trees that they hear. But the but search failed to reveal a trace of them, face may yet be seen from the door of
- unless one may believe the tales of im- the tavern, still calmly and peacefully upaginative travellers that stay a night in the turned ; and, by those that know the tale, forests toward the southeast, that they hear it is still called as the children named it, voices, as of children climbing the slopes “Faithful.”
NEW ENGLAND IN CALIFORNIA.
By Charles Howard Shinn.
HE American historian, in tracing and Missourians, the Younts and Cabells the settlement and growth of states, – men who had ridden with Kit Carson
comes at last to regions where op- and fought beside St. Vrain. But among posing currents have met and blent, or the trappers who explored the San Joaquin still are blending. It would take a volume and Sacramento, were Yankees enough to describe with fulness and fidelity the who had somehow managed to cross the elements of New England character which continent. One of them came down to have been transplanted to the Pacific the old Mission San José, in 1840, and coast, especially to California, and have lived awhile in a tent by the Creek, within wrought strongly and bravely at the foun- sight of San Francisco Bay. dations of social and political organization. When the world heard the news of the In every field of human activity, — in discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill, not the business, finance, mining, agriculture, in first nor the second gold discovery in Caleducation, religion, literature, — the New ifornia, but the first that made any noise, Englander helped to shape the growth of the “men from New England” were on the young commonwealth.
hand. They came by thousands, singly If we look for the beginning of this and in famous associations. I lately came influence, it was in the days of the across Samuel C. Damon's Diary of the hide-droghers, of Dana's picturesque Two Voyage of the “ Massachusetts," published Years before the Mast, and of the New in Hawaii in 1849. The Massachusetts England vessels, such as the Pilgrim, cruis- left Honolulu April 17th, of that year, ing up and down the Spanish coast from bound first for the Columbia, thence for San Diego to Yerba Buena. Little enough San Francisco. Capt. Wood, her comthese New Englanders found in the coun- mander, was a Harvard graduate, a classtry, after all, but they traded, and made mate and friend of Prescott, the historian. money, and introduced a good many no By the time the Massachusetts had reached tions of their own. It was not alone on San Francisco, " half of the New England the Columbia that the natives called all colony at the Hawaiian Islands" had taken the Americans “Bostons"; the term was more direct passage and were found by widely scattered along the coast, during Mr. Damon in the new city, or at the the days of the herdsmen and the padres. mines. He took an especial interest in Before the American conquest of Califor- studying the “ Eastern Associations” of nia, there were numbers of runaway sailors plain, middle-class people who had come settled down in the small Spanish towns. to the new country. Chief among them, English, French, and Portuguese names at that time, was a party of one hundred occur in the annals, but now and then one from Boston, under the name of “The Califinds a good New England name a Ward fornia Trading and Mining Association," or a Macy. The trappers began to drift who had arrived on the ship Leonore. across the desert from Taos and the Santa The capital stock was $30,000, divided Fé trail, but they were mostly Kentuckians into 100 shares, and the articles of agreement are dated December 28th, 1848. a score of other towns. Among the promiWhen the company disbanded by mutual nent names are Appleton, Bradbury, Bryant, consent, the members scattered over the Carter, Eggleston, Freeman, Griswold, HasPacific coast, and many of them afterwards kill, Holbrook, Knox, Lord, Morrill, Noyes, became prominent citizens.
Towle, Upham, Washburn, and Whipple. Some light is thrown on another famous The records of the California pioneers are association of the time by a manuscript in full of instances of close association among my possession, the Personal Recollections the early miners, and one often comes of Captain Timothy Rix, one of the mem- across evidence that men of New England bers of the association. The captain, who were controlling spirits in such organizadied sixteen years ago on his farm near tion. I find, for instance, the written San Francisco Bay, was born at Landaff, agreement made in 1848 by a few MassaNew Hampshire, in 1796, and fought in chusetts and Connecticut men, in Montethe war of 1812. He was prosperous in rey, on going to the mines, “ that we shall business, and by 1820 owned “about 20 bear an equal share in all expenses ; that Mackerel Ketchers of 60 to 70 tons, we will work together in the mines and pink stems." In 1823 he began trading use our tools in common; that we will with the West Indies, in schooners of stand by each other; that no sick comabout 200 tons. “In 1834,” he writes, rade be abandoned.” Of these early “I travelled from Chagres to Panama with companies some ordered an equal divis200 natives, each carrying a bale of Eng- ion of all the gold found; others said, lish cottons, weighing 212 pounds.” At “gold belongs to the finder, but there this time he determined some day to visit shall be equal assessments for expenses." California, and when, in September, 1848, Some forbade the use of ardent spirits some of his ventures failed, he began to except as medicine. Some arranged for organize a company in Boston and the a trust fund, of ten per cent of all the earnvicinity. To this aim he devoted three ings of the camp, to be kept in case of months.
sickness or accident. The sober-eyed, This was the noted “ Edward Everett shrewd, earnest New England business Company," which sailed December 12th, men formed the nucleus of social order 1848, on the ship of the same name, in hundreds of small camps scattered and numbered one hundred and fifty along the axis of the Sierra. In searching associates, besides a crew of twenty- many sources for glimpses of the formative eight and the necessary officers. Edward life of the time, the names one finds are Everett gave the company a library of often very distinctly New England names. considerable value. The capital stock The old grave-boards of pine and cedar was placed at $45,000, all paid up. On that still stand, worn and weather-beaten, their arrival off the Golden Gate, July 4th, on the hillsides, among the rocks, by for1849, they “held off” and “celebrated, gotten towns, in Butte, Shasta, Trinity, and like good Whigs, as most of us were," and El Dorado, tell the same story.
“ John then sailed into harbor with all their flags Morey, a native of Maine, died DecemAying. I have in the handwriting of Rev. ber 11, 1849"; “Eli Stiles, of ConnecJohn A. Benton, one of the members, a ticut, died of fever, Nov., 1850, at Rough list of the Everett associates. Sixty-one and Ready Camp." came from Boston, one from New York, the J. D. Borthwick, one of the most interrest, one or two from a place, from more esting of the early writers about California, than sixty New England towns. Maine speaks in his book, now very rare, of the sends from Portland ; New Hampshire “ubiquitous Yankee,” whom he met everyfrom Manchester, Haverhill, and Con- where in the mines of 1850-1853. He cord ; Rhode Island from Pawtucket and made many admirable sketches of life in Little Compton ; Connecticut from New the camps, of miners at monte, miners Haven and Lyme ; Massachusetts, out- dancing, miners at work on their claims. side of Boston, from Chicopee, Brighton, He tells with much delight of the striking Amesbury, Salem, Middleboro, Springfield, capacity of the American miner to work Worcester, Charlestown, Lowell
, Chelsea, by himself, going off for miles, prospecting Framingham, Duxbury, Quincy, Wey- or gold-digging, and as lonely and danmouth, Sharon, Roxbury, Westfield, and gerous as a grizzly bear. Men of other
nationalities were far more gregarious. But, loon, and published a little newspaper as he also noticed, when Americans associ- for that part of the country. “ Yankee ated themselves it meant business, they from away back," he remarked. could pull together. In the Life and Letters run Sunday-school daown east; here I be, of that bright, generous poet and novelist, sellin' whiskey, an' stayin' by the camp, Theodore Winthrop, I find the same sort this forty year. Can't live anywhere else of testimony to the “rough sincerity" of excep' here in these mountains. Prospect the pioneers of California. Mr. C. T. a little too; might strike it again, ye know." Blake, a Yale graduate, tells me that he The other type of New Englanders are began to work in the mines when there forever at work, changing the order of was hardly a custom or a law, and that by things; over the waste and decay of these dint of talks among the best men and pub- old camps they are planting thousands of lic meetings a gradual organization spread acres of orchards, vineyards, and gardens. from camp to camp, claims were registered, They gather up the rivers that the Argoand written records kept. Everywhere, nauts turned on the gold placers, and the men who came from New England guide them to the roots of orange and were apt to hold together.
olive trees. They are steadily changing The late Senator A. A. Sargent, himself the region of the old mining camps to a a miner, used to tell a story which illus- horticultural paradise. I have travelled trates the sort of government some of the on horseback over hundreds of miles of camps adopted. It was on the San Juan foothills and mountains, and here, far more Ridge, whether at Columbia or San Juan I than on the lowlands and in the valleys, do not remember. The alcalde, or chief the better elements of New England are officer, was a mild-mannered, gentle-spoken to be found, in homes that have grown out New Englander. A young fellow who had of the struggle of the gold episode. stolen a buckskin bag of “dust"
There is one little Californian town not brought before him. The witnesses gave far from Carquinez Straits, and near to such clear testimony that in about ten Monte Diablo, a town in the hollow of the minutes the alcalde said :
hills, Martinez, long the county seat, which “ Would
you like a jury trial, my was chiefly settled by Nantucket people. son?”
There were representatives of the Worths, “No, Judge, I reckon you'll be fair." the Coffins, the Swains, the Lawrences,
“ All right, my son. Now first you give and other Nantucket families, who for back the dust you stole.”
years led in the social and business life of “Certainly, Judge ; the sheriff has it." the town. Other New England colonies
“ And the court regrets it, but you ought here and there throughout California make to pay costs; one ounce for sheriff fees, notable centres of influence.
A New Engone ounce for me.”
land woman, Mrs. Coleman, was for twenty “Here it is, and thank ye, Judge,” years superintendent of schools in Shasta pulling out a heavily filled bag, and hand- County, and she made them remarkably ing over the required amount.
practical and efficient. The county conThe alcalde looked him all over, and tains eight thousand square miles of mounhis voice grew even milder as he said : tain and valley, but she knew everybody “ That is all, except one trifling formality. and went everywhere. Another New EngBoys, take him out, give him thirty-nine land lady was for years the superintendent lashes, well laid on, put him on his mule, of Trinity County. In the old towns of and tell him to travel.”
both these counties, New England leads. In all the old camps of to-day, ancient, The Missourians came by thousands to almost deserted villages, where only a few the mines, but they drifted into the valleys, families live, one finds the New England and became cattle-raisers, sheep-herders, element under two widely different types. then wheat-farmers, and most of them are One I saw in most characteristic expression wheat-farmers still. The city man of the in a camp which had had its five hundred middle West, of Chicago and Kansas City, voters in 1853. The brick stores were came to speculate in town sites and opoccupied by Chinese; the brick hotel was tions, and though he often built and rea ruin; the whole town had but twenty mained, his influence is yet a small factor voters left. Old Levi Snow kept the sa- in the growth of the commonwealth.
But in the development of social life founders of its cherished institutions. The since the days when California became Stanford University is the work of a son American, the man of New England has of New England. The first reorganization taken a not unworthy share. The staid of the public school system of the state and well-settled portions of the state are was effected by John Swett, a son of Maspermeated with New England influences. sachusetts. So much for education. In The long seaward slope of Alameda County, other departments of social life also, the from Berkeley to Fruitvale, the educational men of New England have toiled at the centre of California, with its State Univer- foundations, and the extent and character sity, its high schools, preparatory schools, of their work, however difficult to describe, seminaries, and colleges, draws its inspira- are broad and strong. This life is chiefly tions in unbroken succession from Yale manifest in rural communities, but these and Harvard, the Alma Maters of all the are the safety of the cities.
A MODEL VILLAGE LIBRARY.
By William R. Cutter.
zen, and are generally well supported by an appropriation from the town. The existence of nearly all of them is covered by the past forty years. The primary object of their establishment was the furnishing of reading matter for amusement or entertainment, the object of instruction being a secondary consideration ; and this is true to a great extent to-day, although the element of instruction is gaining in prominence, and the library is regarded more and more as an adjunct of the public schools. If they were originally intended for the very poor, our experience shows that that use has long been
superseded, for their privileges BOSTON PHCGRAWU DE are now shared by the rich and
poor alike. The public library "HE free public library may now be is one of the most democratic of our in
said to dot every hillside in New stitutions, and a good librarian will show
England. Especially in eastern Mas- the strictest impartiality in the treatment sachusetts, where it apparently had its of his patrons. The current literature of origin, there is scarcely a town, however the day is brought into speedy contact small, which does not have its library for with the general public in the libraries, and the free use of its reading public, however as the interest centres largely in the newlimited in numbers. These institutions est books, the patronage is greatly increased are often benefited by a small private by the circumstance of finding them there. endowment from some liberal-minded citi- Everybody can appreciate the privilege of
finding the latest and best literature on fortune of considerable magnitude, much any subject in the public library, knowing of which was bequeathed for benevolent that the free use of such books may be objects. An only daughter, the wife of the had for the asking. Most of the libraries, Hon. Edward D. Hayden, late a member by taking periodicals and newspapers, be- of Congress, died a number of years become a combination of library and reading- fore her father, and the only son, Charles room, and this enlarges the field of their Bowers Winn, unmarried, survived the father usefulness. The influence of these centres but a short time, and died, the last member of intelligence makes better citizens of our of his father's immediate family, at the young people, enlarges the thought of the early age of thirty-seven. The family of older ones, enables many no doubt to Winn had been prominent in the annals bear the ills of life better, and affords en- of the town from the time of its first settertainment for others in many an idle tlement, and the first-born child recorded in hour.
Woburn was Increase Winn, born DecemOne of the best examples of the New ber 5, 1641. Many were the offices of a civil England village library - in many respects and military nature which the members of it seems almost the ideal village library – this family held in the town; and when is that at Woburn, Mass. The Woburn the munificent donations of Jonathan Bow
public library was founded through the ers and Charles Bowers Winn are included liberality of the Hon. Jonathan Bowers in the estimate, no family can be said to Winn and his only son. The father had have done so much for Woburn as this been a country schoolmaster and possessed old and well known family of Winn. a genius for finance, which he later devel- There had been other libraries of a oped in the prosecution of the leather public nature in the town, before the liindustry, in which business he made for brary known as the Woburn public library himself and others connected with him a had been thought of. A social library,