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priests of the Greek Church, educated to some extent, to minister to their spiritual wants. These have so far taught the people that most of them understand the service in Russian, can manage their accounts, and transact business successfully. The Coloshes have a tribal organization and little or no education. The priests scattered through the different villages are all natives, under a Russian bishop, and were educated in a school established by the Russian government at Sitka. Since the country came into possession of the United States, that and all the schools under Russian control have ceased operations, and there is yet no law under which any community or group of families may organize themselves for the support of schools. At Sitka, however, the necessity for some civil organization has been so great that, even without a law to authorize it, the citizens have settled themselves into a voluntary community, elected certain officers, and established an English school.
The chief contact of the people of the Territory with civilization now is through the traders, who have posts established at different eligible points to the number of twenty or more. These are visited about once a year by vessels sent out for trading purposes. The effect of this trading on the population, of course, must depend largely on the character of the agents employed in it.
The islands of St. Paul and St. George represent an interest apart from other portions of the Territory, and have been made by resolution of Congress, a Government reservation. The contract made with the Alaska Seal Company requires them to keep up each year for eight months a school on each island. A school-house was fitted up and properly dedicated on St. George Island, and a school commenced October 2, 1873. It continued eight months, but on account of a prejudice among the people, who have a fear that in learning English their children will forget their Russian and weaken their attachment to their church, only seven attended regularly. Under the assiduous care of the teacher, these made very commendable progress. There were at the same time three classes taught by natives, two in Russian, one in Aleut. Seventeen scholars attended schools of all kinds. Assistant-Agent Samuel Falconner reports the same difficulties existing on the island of St. George in regard to securing attendance at school.
Hon. A. P. R. SAFFORD was born in Hyde Park, Vermont, February 14, 1832, and early removed to Illinois with his parents. In 1850, he proceeded to California, engaging in mining, and devoting all his spare hours to reading and study. In 1856, he was elected to the California State Legislature, from Placer County, and re-elected in 1857. In 1862, he moved to Nevada, resuming mining operations, taking an active part for the Union cause during the war, and holding several positions of trust. In 1867, he was appointed United States Surveyor-General of Nevada, and held the position for two years. In 1869, he was appointed Governor of Arizona by President Grant, and reappointed in 1873. As Governor of the Territory, he is ex officio Superintendent of Public Instruction.
EDUCATION IN THE PAST.
THE Territory of Arizona was separated from that of New Mexico, and organized by Act of Congress, passed February 24, 1863. The government is administered by a Governor, Secretary, Treasurer, and Auditor, who are appointed by the President of the United States. The Legislature and a Delegate to Congress are elected by the people.
In 1867, this Legislature passed an act concerning common schools, which was approved October 5. No educational progress was, however, made under this law. Accordingly, during the following year, the Legislature passed another bill entitled an Act to establish public schools in the Territory of Arizona. But nothing of consequence was accomplished under this measure.
When Mr. Safford-appointed Governor in 1869—arrived in the Territory to assume the reins of authority, he found it ove run by hostile Apache Indians. The people were generally in a poverty-stricken condition; the children were mostly of Mexican parentage, speaking a foreign tongue. He immediately undertook the task of establishing a system of common schools through the Territory. He traveled from settlement to settlement, laboring with the people individually and collectively. As a result, the Legislature of 1870-1 passed a school law, approved February 18, 1871, levying a tax for school purposes of ten cents on each one hundred dollars of the taxable property of the territory, and giving authority to the several Boards of Supervisors of the counties and the Boards of Trustees of the
school districts to levy additional taxes, sufficient to maintain a free school in each of the school districts. The Governor was made ex officio Superintendent of Public Instruction, and the Judges of Probate were made County Superintendents. The year 1871 was spent in collecting funds, and in preparations to open schools, but none were actually put in operation until 1872. The total receipts for school purposes for 1871 and 1872 were $7,653.81. The total expenditures were $5,165.46, leaving on hand at the beginning of the school year of 1873 an unexpended balance of $2,488.35. In his annual message, January, 1873, Governor Safford said, “Free schools have been taught during the past year in every school district in the Territory for at least three months. The advancement made by the pupils has been extraordinary, and the sentiment of the people has become interested and cemented into a determination to make almost any sacrifice to educate the rising generation. No officer entrusted with putting the school law into operation has yet received any compensation for his services, so that every dollar raised for school purposes has been applied to furnishing school-rooms, the purchase of books, and payment of teachers.”
PRESENT SCHOOL SYSTEM.
During the following February (1873), the Legislature materially amended the school law, and as amended the act is in force to-day. The following are its main features:
The Superintendent of Public Instruction, who is the Governor, apportions, under the supervision of the Territorial Board of Education, to the several counties their share of the school fund, on the basis of children between six and twenty-one years of age, and transmits to local officers such instructions as he may deem necessary and proper for the organization and government of schools. He is required to visit each county in the Territory once a year to inspect the schools, consult County Superintendents, and to address public assemblages on educational subjects. He receives no compensation for his services as Superintendent of Instruction.
County Superintendents have charge of the schools in their respective counties, prescribe and cause to be adopted a uniform series of text-books in the principal studies pursued in the public schools, and perform the duties generally devolving upon the
office. They are paid quarterly, out of the school fund of the respective counties, the sum of $100 per annum. The Probate Judge of each county is made, ex officio, County Superintendent of Public Schools. The legal school age is from six to twenty-one years. The school year begins on the first day of September and ends on the last day of August. Five days constitute a legal school week, and twenty-eight days a legal school month.
Boards of Supervisors are required to annually levy a county school tax of twenty-five cents (it was ten in the old law) on every hundred dollars' valuation of taxable property. This is known as the Special Fund for school purposes. In addition to it, $5,000 are annually appropriated from the funds of the territorial treasury for educational purposes, and divided among the counties. From these and other sources, it is believed that there will be a sufficient revenue in the future to maintain free schools in all the districts of the Territory at least six months in the year.
Under the new law, education has made gratifying progress. The Superintendent of Education wrote us (July, 1874): “We now have free schools in every district in the Territory, and although much opposition has been and is encountered by those who prefer the education of children under church rule, still the system of free schools is popular with the people, and I do not believe will ever be allowed to languish."
1873-'74. Value of school-houses and furniture....
$6,247 00 Number of children in Territory between six and twenty-one. Number attending public schools...
343 Average monthly salary of teachers, about..
$100 00 Total receipts from all sources..
$13,832 53 Total expenditures.
.$11,060 12 COLORADO.
HORACE M. HALE, A. M., Superintendent of Public Instruction of Colorado, was born in Hollis, N. H., March 6, 1833. With his parents he removed to Rome, New York, in 1837, and in 1840, to Ontario county, New York. Here he resided until the death of his father, John Hale, in 1852. In the winter of 1852, at the age of nineteen, he commenced teaching in the district adjoining his own. With the net proceeds of his three months' work ($42), he resolved upon a college course. He entered Genesee Wesleyan Seminary, at Lima, New York, in the spring of 1853, and graduated at Union College, New York, in 1856. After graduating, he went to Nashville, Tennessee, and was there engaged as Principal of the Howard Public School until July, 1861. He was married in 1859 to Miss Eliza Huntington. In 1861 he went to Detroit, Michigan, entered the law office of Hon. C. J. Walker as a student, teaching in an evening school and during three hours of each day in the German English School. He was admitted to the bar in 1863. Being afflicted with a severe bronchial affection which forbade his entering upon the practice of law, he emigrated to Colorado, crossing the plains with a horse and buggy. Finding his health greatly improved, he returned with a mule team and conveyed his family to his Rocky Mountain home in Central City. Here he was for five years Principal of the Central City public school, and for two years County Superintendent of Schools. In 1873, W. C. Lothrop, Esq., resigned his superintendency, and Mr. Hale was appointed by Governor Elbert to fill the vacancy, and reappointed for the full term (two years) in February, 1874. Mr. Hale advocates a liberal and free educational system, compulsory attendance at school, and, only as a last resort, corporal punishmenl.
EDUCATION IN THE PAST.
SUPERINTENDENT HALE sends us the following:
Fifteen years ago, Colorado, then known only as a constituent part of the “Great American Desert," was uninhabited, and supposed to be uninhabitable.
During the ten years succeeding 1859, her immigrants were transitory, or, if temporarily otherwise, they were always uncertain as to the length of time they would remain, this depending wholly upon their luck in the mines. Solicitude for the future permanent well-being of the Territory, therefore, was seldom manifested. Public instruction received little or no attention. The immediate demand was met in some localities by a county or district tax, in others, by the establishment of private schools. In 1869 there was not a public school building in the territory, and the children of school age numbered less than three thousand.
In 1870, Peter Parley being no longer considered as reliable