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of the upper classes are required to give two hours weekly. In giving the gymnastic exercises the teachers must follow the course laid down in the official manual prepared for the purpose. Prussia was the first country in the world to establish normal schools, the earliest of these dating back as far as 1701. In 1819 it was decreed that ten should be established, one in each province. Now there are eighty-eight. In the whole German empire there are one hundred and forty-three. The course of training in these professional schools varies from three to six years. In 1873 there were twenty-one universities in the German empire, with one thousand seven hundred and thirty-four professors, and eighteen thousand five hundred and eighty-eight students.

RUSSIA.

UNDER new laws just issued, no National School in Russia is to be opened without official sanction, and they are all to be placed under Government control. In each district this control will be exercised by a School Council, the Councils to be composed of the Marshal of the Nobility, the School Inspector, and Representatives of the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Home Affairs, and the Episcopal Diocese, two members of the District Assembly, and one of the Municipal Council, when the latter takes part in the maintenance of schools. The expense of establishing the system of control above described is estimated at 319,000 roubles. The subjects to be taught are religion, reading Russian and Slavonic, writing, the first four rules of arithmetic, and singing. Instruction is to be given in the Russian language, and those books only are to be used which are recommended by the Ministry of Education and the ecclesiastical authorities.

The Russian Commission, appointed to afford greater facilities for the instruction of women in the empire, have recommended that in order to deter Russian women from going to foreign universities, a “ Higher School for Women " should be established at St. Petersburg. This school is to be divided into five sections: First, a physico-mathematical, with a pharmaceutical sub-section; second, a Russian section ; third, a Ger

man one; fourth, a French one; fifth, a historico-philological section. In the last four sections the teaching of Latin is to be obligatory. In the fifth section, modern history is to be taught in the first year, mediæval history in the second, and ancient history in the third. The length of the course in all the sections is to be three years.

Russia has instituted successful and valuable Teachers' Meetings, and a large number of Normal Schools. In 1872, the Government appropriated 230.000 roubles for these schools. The gymnasia teach Greek, Latin, German, French, and scientific branches. The professional schools offer to students, mathematics, drawing and design, chemistry, and other industrial studies. In 1874, the State appropriated 150,000 roubles for the feminine gymnasia. At the end of 1871, Russia had one hundred and eighty-six establishments of medium and higher instruction for girls, attended by twenty-three thousand four hundred and four pupils. Russia has also eight universities like those of Germany, taught by five hundred and twelve professors, and frequented by six thousand seven hundred and seventy-nine students.

There are no complete official statistics of the number of primary schools in the country. The last published report, 1872, computed the number in European Russia at twenty-four thousand, with an attendance of eight hundred and seventy-five thousand pupils. Teachers’ Institutes were held in forty-seven different localities. Owing to the sparseness and poverty of the population outside the cities, the spread of education is unquestionably attended with no little difficulty in Russia. The prospects are certainly, however, flattering.

SWITZERLAND.

IN accordance with the new Constitution, the public schools of Switzerland may be attended by the members of all sects without prejudice to their liberty of conscience. Convinced that religious instruction in elementary schools ought not to be dispensed with, the Society for Liberal Christianity of Switzerland had taken the initiative by offering prizes for a book of unsectarian religious instruction. Two prizes, 500 francs and

200 francs, have been proffered for the two best works. They must be sent in, anonymously at present, by the end of March, 1875. The work may be in the German or French language.

School attendance is obligatory in all but four of the cantons of Switzerland, unless it be shown that children are receiving equally good instruction in private schools or at home, and even then such children must undergo examinations. In some of the cantons the prescribed school age is from seven to fourteen, in others from six to sixteen. The schools are maintained by taxation. Gymnastics and military exercises form a prominent feature, and to provide competent teachers young men are sent by the government to receive instruction in the great gymnastic establishment in Dresden. There are three Swiss Universities, situated at Basel, Bern, and Zurich. They are cantonal rather than national, and are organized after the general plan of the German University, but are of inferior rank.

IN the Tennessee Teachers' Association meeting held recently, one of them said, that while he believed in the co-education of boys and girls before the war, his opinion was now somewhat changed. He thought that boys now, as a rule, were less fit to associate with girls than they were then.

It is reported that among persons of eighteen years and under the proportion of the illiterate is smaller in San Francisco than in any other large city in the Union.

An Indianapolis teacher thinks that too much school time is. occupied in trying to learn exact historical dates, and that only a few of the more important should be learned.

Not long since the people of a Brazilian city decided to erect a monument indicative of their respect for the present wise Emperor. The latter, hearing of their purpose, sent word to them that the most gratifying expression of regard on their part would be in the erection of a school-house for the education of their children.

TABLE I.

POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES BY YEARS.

Years.
1780.....
1781.
1782.
1783.
1784.
1785.
1786..
1787.
1788.
1789.
1790.
1791.
1792.
1793
1794.
1795
1796.
1797
1798.
1799
1800.
1801.
1802...
1803
1804,
1805
1806.
1807.
1808.
1809
1810.
1811.
1812.
1813

Population. Years.

3,070,000 1814... 3,144,000 1815... 3,221,000 1816... 3,300,000 1817... 3,382,000 1818.. 3,467,000 1819.. 3,554.000 1820.. 3,664,000 1821.. 3,737,000 1822.. 3,832,000 1823.. 3,929,214 1824.. 4,043,000 1825. 4,162,000 1826.. 4,287,000 1827.. 4,417,000 1828.. 4,552,000 1829... 4,692,000 1830.. 4,838,000 1831.. 4,990,000 1832.. 5,146,000 1833.. 5,308,483 1834.. 5,478,000 1835.. 5,653,000 1836.. 5,833,000 1837. 6,019,000 1838.. 6,209,000 1839. 6,405,000 1840.. 6,606,000 1841.. 6,812,000 1842.. 7,023,000 1843.. 7,239,881 1844.. 7,453,000 1845. 7,673,000 1846. 7,898,000 1847.

Population. Years.

8,131,000 1848.
8,369,000 1849.
8,614,000 1850.
8,866,000 | 1851.
9,124,000 1852.
9,338,000 1853..
9,658,453 1854.
9,939,000 1855.
10,229,000 1856.
..10,527,000 1857.
..10,834.000 1858.
,11,151,000 1859.

11,476,000 1860..
.11,810,000 1861.
, 12,153,000 | 1862..
.12,505,000 1863.

12,866,020 1864.
.13,221,000 1865.
.13,579,000 1866
.13,974,000 1867.
.14,373,000 1868.
..14,786,000 1869.
..15,231,000 1870..
.15,655,000 1871.

16,112,000 1872.
..16,584,000.1873.
..17,069,453 1874..
.17,591,000 1875
.18,132,000 1876.
.18,694,000 1877
.19,276,000 1878.
.19,878,000 1879.
. 20,500,000 1880.
.21,143,000

Population .21,805,000 ..22,489,000 .23,191,876 .23,995,000 .24,802,000 .25,615,000 26,433,000 .27,256,000 .28,083,000 .28,916,000 29,753,000 30,576,000 31,443,321 -32,064,000 32,704,000 33,365,000 ..34,046,000

34,748,000 ..35,469,000 .36,211,000 .36,973,000 :37,756,000 .38,558,371 •39,672,000 .40,881,000 .41,976,000 .43.167,000 44,384,000 .45,627,000 .46,896,000 .48,191,000 .49,511,000 ..50,858,000

The above table has been prepared by Professor E. B. Elliott of Washington. Basing his conclusions on the same calculations which gave these figures, he estimates that the population of the United States in 1870 would have been 41,718,000 instead of 38,588,000, had there been no war. In 1880 it would be 54,017,000, instead of 50,858,000.

ELEVEN States of the Union now have compulsory educational laws, viz.: California, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Michigan, Texas, Nevada. Of these New Jersey, New York, and California have adopted the law this year.

TABLE 2.-NUMBER OF SCHOOLS, SCHOOL TEACH

ERS, AND SALARIES PAID. (1873.)

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84 28

350

35 00

36 281

27 68 30 64

15 16 39 86

93 65

29 os

20

39 60

33 So

16 53

88 73

36 6I

I Alabama.

2,650

1,796 854 2,650 $40 00 $40 00 2 Arkansas.

2,035
60 00

40 00 3 California.. 1,868 134 882 1,454 2,336

63 37 4 Connecticut..

1,638
173 715 2,240 2,955 67 01

34 og 5 Delaware.

349 146 6 Florida

500 102 150

500

35 00 7 Georgia. .

a1,735 66 8 Illinois..

11,620 151 8,765 12,029 20,794 52 921 40 51 9 Indiana.

9,100 166 7,430 4,816 12,246 IO Iowa...

8,816 130 6,091 10,193 16,284 II Kansas...

4,004 107 2,200 2,469 4,675 38 43 12 Kentucky.

5,521 IIO

5,521 13 Louisiana

864 90 865

611 1,476

50 00

50 00 14 | Maine....

4,283 II2 1,904 4,094 5,998 34 28 15 Maryland. 1,742 283 1,079 1,476 2,555

39 86 16 Massachusetts 5,305 168 1,028 7,421 8,449

34 14 17 Michigan..

5,521 142 3,010 8,940 11,950 51 94 27 13 18 Minnesota.

132 1,219 1,419 2,638

36 90 19 Mississippi.

4,650 165

4,800

51 32 51 32 Missouri..

6,879 5,821 3,803 9,624 42 43 31 43 21 Nebraska.

1,863 85 1,046 1,176 2,222 22 Nevada...

250 29 47 76 23 New Hampshire.. 2,496 106 527 3,296 3,823 40 78 23 84 24 New Jersey.. 1,480 193 907 2,224 3,131

65 92 25 New York...

11,995 175

18,295

49 53 49 53 26 North Carolina.

3,311 50

2,690

25 00 27 Ohio..... 14,543 140 9,789 12,110 21,899

29 00 28 Oregon...

642 90

607

47 54 43 70 29 Pennsylvania .

16,305
146 7,944 11,145 19,089

42 69

34 92 30 Rhode Island

719
179
II2 646

758

75 72 41 97 31 South Carolina.

2,081 I 20
1,439 935 2,374

33 78 32 Tennessee.

3,949

3,254 364 3,618 32 04 32 04 33 | Texas...

1,842 210

2,207

57 00 34 Vermont.

2,503 180 671 3,544 4,215 35 Virginia.. 3,696 165 2,434 1,323 3,757

32 00 32 00 36 West Virginia.

2,857 80 2,443

639) 3,082

34 00

28 89 37 | Wisconsin. 5,540 150 1,765 4,116 5,881

27 34 TERRITORIES. 38 Arizona..

100 00 100 00 39 Colorado..

180 III 107 134

241
62 00

51 00 40 Dakota.... 100

30 00

30 00 District of Columbia...

200

245 271 42 Idaho....

51 43 Montana

90 83 50 19 99 44 New Mexico. 164

196 45 Utah....

198 174 173 347 47 59 24 14 46 Washington.

196 I 20 47 Wyoming..

8
200

150 00 70 00 48 Indian...

1721 185

357 a Thirty counties not reported.

30 00 41 00

32 06

57 00

43 66

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285

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