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never countenance or aid secession, and will endeavor to inculcate in the minds of youths, sentiments of patriotism and loyalty.” The County Superintendents issue three grades of certificates to teachers, holding semi-annual examinations at the County-seat for applicants, who are charged one dollar each. They superintend the Teachers' Institutes, furnish suitable textbooks for schools, and are forbidden to apportion the School Revenue to any district in which a Common School was not taught three months by a qualified teacher during the previous school year.

District Trustees, one for each district, are elected annually and have full charge of the local educational interests of their respective districts. The penalty for not serving when elected Trustee is twenty-five dollars.

Teachers are forbidden to permit the use of any sectarian books in their schools. The penalty for insulting a teacher in the presence of pupils is twenty-five dollars.

The Common School Fund is derived from lands granted by the United States, gifts, or devises, fines, escheats, from the one dollar per capita tax on every male inhabitant, and from so much of the ordinary annual revenues of the State as may hereafter be set apart for the maintenance of Free Common Schools.

LEGISLATION DURING 1874. The Legislature of 1873 passed a revenue law which forbids the State Auditor to draw any warrant in favor of the schools on any fund derived from the general revenue of the State. This, as interpreted by the Attorney-General, “ tied up” the proceeds of the State two-mill tax, leaving available for distribution only the interest on the permanent School Fund and the capitation tax, and reducing the fund to be apportioned from $210,000 to $55,000, which latter amount was apportioned by the State Superintendent, and paid out. During the recent troubles in the State, a special session of the Legislature was called, which passed an Act authorizing the Auditor to draw his warrants in favor of the several counties for their proportion of the $155,000, and that amount was accordingly so paid out. The special session also passed an Act to prevent frauds in the disbursements of school revenues, by requiring county treasurers to keep a registry of school warrants paid, contracts with teachers to be made in triplicate, statements to be published, etc.

State Superintendent Corbin writes us: “A decision of our Supreme Court, making the district tax payable in scrip instead of currency, has about destroyed our School System. Scrip now, in the summer of 1874, is worth only twenty-five per cent. of par."

EDUCATIONAL STATISTICS.

The State Superintendent sends us the following statistics for 1873-4:

2

Number of Normal Schools in the State...
School-houses erected during the year....

114 Cost of the same....

$57,027 75 Estimated total value of school-houses..

$297,764 00 Whites of school age.

56,784 Colored

37,293 Pupils enrolled in the schools..

59,587 Male Teachers employed.

1,161 Average Wages...

$160 Scrip. Female Teachers employed....

1,481 Average Wages....

$120 Scrip. Amount Permanent State School Fund in State Scrip.... $25,000 Legal school age

5 to 15 years. Total receipts for school purposes..

$258,456 09 Total expenditures..

$246,699 29

NOTHING can be better for a neighborhood than to inspire in it an enthusiasm for the common schools. This is a right kind of pride. And if it cures meanness and stinginess in dealing with teachers, and school committees, and schools, it will go far not only to ennoble the young, but to convert the old, and make them better parents and better citizens.

ONE of the distinguished teachers of a neighboring State was recently toasted by his affectionate pupils. The Professor (Root by name) is the possessor of very red hair. They scorched him thus: “The garden beet-a red root with a green top; our Professor-a green Root with a red top.

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CALIFORNIA.

Hon. H. N. BOLANDER is the Superintendent of Public Instruction in California. His post-office address is San Francisco. All efforts to ascertain anything from him regarding educational matters in the State have, so far, proved unavailing. He was kind enough to forward us his tickets when running for the office, but we have been constantly writing him from the 22d of May until the present time, September ioth (enclosing numerous prepaid envelopes), for material or data for this volume, without eliciting a single response. We should infer that he is dead, did his name not appear upon the August number of the California Teacher as publisher. Report credits Mr. Bolander with being more interested in politics than in the educational interests and welfare of California, which probably accounts for his silence in this

case.

EDUCATION IN THE PAST.

CALIFORNIA was admitted into the Union in 1850. Her Constitution stipulated that the proceeds of all lands donated by the United States, for educational purposes, should be inviolably set aside for that purpose, and enjoined the Legislature to provide a system of common schools. The Legislature forthwith proceeded to do so, and from 1852, when the system went into operation, to 1865, inclusive, $5,825,133 were expended by the State for educational purposes. Various modifications were made in the school laws from year to year, particularly in 1863, until 1867, when free schools were thoroughly established through the State, and the most ample provisions made for the education of youth.

PRESENT SCHOOL SYSTEM. During the past year (1874) the school system has been considerably amended by the Legislature, and embraces the following main features:

The State Superintendent of Instruction is elected for four years. He collects and compiles the school statistics of the State, reports annually to the Comptroller before the oth of August the total number of children in the State between five and seventeen years of age, apportions the school fund, and performs the other duties incidental to a Superintendent's position.

The State Board of Education consists of the Governor, the Superintendent of Public Instruction, the Principal of the State Normal School, and the School Superintendents of San Francisco, Sacramento, Santa Clara, Alameda, Sonoma, and San Joaquin

Counties. They prescribe rules for the examination of teachers, and the government of the public schools and district school libraries, select the books for district libraries, and enforce the use of a uniform series of text books in the public schools, except in incorporated cities and towns. They meet not less than twice a year at the call of the Secretary, and their actual traveling expenses are paid by the State.

Boards of Education are elected in cities under the provisions of special statutes.

County Superintendents are elected for two years, and receive such salary as the respective Boards of Supervisors may determine. No School Superintendent who receives a salary of $1,500, or more, per annum, can teach or engage in any other avocation that can conflict with his duties as Superintendent. The County Superintendents apportion the school moneys of each school district, visit each school in their county at least twice a year, preside over Teachers' Institutes, and report every year to the State Superintendent the number of children between five and seventeen years old. For every school not visited at least once in each year, the Board of Supervisors must, on proof thereof, deduct $10 from the Superintendent's salary.

The State Board of Exainination comprises the Superintendent of Public Instruction and four teachers, holding State educational diplomas, appointed by him. The latter receive a salary of $200 each. This board grants life diplomas, State diplomas for six years, and State certificates, respectively for four years, three years, and two years.

The County Board of Examination comprises the County Superintendent and not less than three teachers appointed by him. They grant certificates of three grades, and are entitled to $3 per day, and traveling expenses.

The Boards of Trustees in school districts and Boards of Education in cities, employ and fix the compensation of teachers, exclude from school children under six years of age, and control the schools and the school property within their respective jurisdictions. They expend the Library Fund, and are responsible for the care and preservation of the school libraries.

Separate Schools must be provided for children of African or Indian descent. Unless they are so provided by the trustees, then these children must be admitted into the white schools.

All schools, unless otherwise provided by special statute must be divided into first, second, and third grades.

Women over twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States and of California, are eligible to all educational offices within the State, except those from which they are excluded by the Constitution.

All certificates given by County or City Boards of Examination must be granted only upon actual examination.

Any parent, guardian, or other person who insults or abuses any teacher in the presence of the school, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and be liable to a fine of not less than $10 nor more than $100. Any person who willfully disturbs any public school or any public school meeting, is liable to a fine of not less than $10 nor more than $100.

The School Fund consists of bonds of the State of California, bearing legal interest, and amounting to $1,417,500. In March, 1874, there was in the State Treasury, subject to apportionment, $316,630.94, derived from the following sources: Interest on school lands.....

$ 33,244 33 65 bonds held in trust..

44,280 00 Property tax....

239,630 94 The counties levy in addition to this a school tax.

An important measure, known as the Tuttle bill, , which became a law in 1874, provides for an expenditure of fully $1,000,000 for school purposes, or nearly four times as much as the schools received during 1872 or 1873. It fixes $500 as the minimum amount of school funds which every district must receive for every teacher assigned it. For every one hundred census children, or fraction thereof, of not less than fifteen, one teacher must be assigned to a district. In other words, a district having from fifteen to one hundred and fourteen census children is entitled to one teacher; a district with more than one hundred and fourteen and less than two hundred and fifteen, is entitled to two teachers, etc. For every teacher to which a district is thus found to be entitled, the district must receive $500. Provisions are made that the school revenue be at least large enough to give $500 to each district for every teacher assigned it. But for most, if not all, counties, the school revenue will be large enough to leave a balance after $500 have been apportioned to each district. This balance must be

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