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men in the arsenal, to the number of a thousand, of whom he has formed a corps-these are exercised every morning and evening for a couple of hours before and after their work, and I am told they make a very good show. He is certainly quite a character, and one or two anecdotes I have heard concerning him may amuse you. I before mentioned the little attention he bestows on dress: it is said that when standing for the borough of Portsmouth, one of his opponents styled him “ the gallant and ragged candidate :" he felt this aspersion on his apparel so much, that the next day at a meeting, he actually appeared in a pair of clean and whole inexpressibles ; but the novelty of the thing was such, that he could not help alluding to it himself, and he opened his address to the meeting by, Gentlemen, my opponents call me ragged: I have therefore, as you perceive, put on a pair of clean and new breeches, that they may no longer have this subject to harp on." He used frequently at his country residence near Portsmouth to be annoyed by nightly depredations on his poultry-yard, and made use of the following curious expedient to intimidate those who took such liberties with his ducks and geese. He killed a pig, and at night, after everybody had retired to bed, he took the blood in a basin, and sprinkled it across the yard and on the palings which formed the boundary of it; then returning to the house, and undressing, he gave the alarm that he heard somebody about the premises, and seizing a pistol, ran out, and after crying out“ Stop, or I'll shoot you, by G-d!" he let fly, and the person who was in the secret, and was concealed on the other side of the fence, immediately roared out most lustily, and taking a circuit, returned unperceived to the house-all the inmates of which were by this time on the move: a lantern was procured, the track of blood was followed to the extremity of the yard, and all were astonished at the quantity the thief must have lost in crossing the palings over which he escaped, at least mortally wounded. This story of course got wind, and so far produced the desired effect, that since the Admiral's poultry have never been disturbed by their former nightly visitors. You may rely on this being a true bill, as I heard him relate it himself as a good joke.

Whilst at Lisbon, I made the most of my time in visiting all that was worth being seen, which consists principally of churches: they are certainly very rich, but as you have seen so much of them in Italy, I will not try your patience by a description. At the Convent of San Vincente are the tombs, or rather the coffins, of the kings of Portugal of the Braganza family ; they are twenty-three in number, and are enclosed in large chests. On the one containing the body of King John, the father of Pedro and Miguel, was pinned a piece of paper with the following lines :

“ Hum filho te assassinon, entro te vengara." 29 de Julho de 1833.

D. Pedro. meaning

(“ One son murdered thee, the other will revenge thee.”—29th July, 1833.) The old friar who accompanied me said that, on the day in question, Don Pedro had visited the convent, and on coming to his father's coffin, bad hastily written the above lines and ordered them to be fastened on the lid, probably as a menorial of filial or brotherly affection.

I did not neglect in my peregrinations to visit the celebrated aqueduct near Lisbon, called the “ Arcos dos Acquasliveros," nor the no less famed Cintra, with which I was highly pleased; it has been well described in “ Childe Harold," but I cannot remember the lines to quote them. Lord Byron appears, however, to have followed the common opinion of the convention of Cintra having been signed here at the palace of Marialva, whereas I understand that, although bearing the name, it was concluded at some distance from this.

I left Lisbon on the 17th, and arrived, after a tedious passage, at Oporto on the 20th, where we learnt, with great satisfaction, that the siege had been entirely raised the night before, leaving the entrance of the Douro free, of which I took advantage to visit the town, which, in some places, presents the most deplorable signs of a protracted siege, particularly in the neighbourhood of the batteries of Virtudos and Victoria, opposite the Serra Convent; the houses here, if they any longer deserve the name of such, are reduced to regular skeletons, nothing but the rafters remaining. The Miguelites signalized their departure by destroying 7000 pipes of wine belonging to the Company; their conduct, on this occasion, requires no comment, it is perfectly consistent with the manner in which they have hitherto acted.

I regret that, my stay being confined to a few hours, I had not time to visit the lines and the rest of the city. The Miguelite batteries, at the time I left (the afternoon of the 20th), were seen burning in every direction, and the poor people were eagerly rooting up the palisades, casks, &c., for firewood. General Saldanha, on the night of the 18th, made an unexpected attack on the right of the Miguelite lines, which he turned, drove his opponents before him for two leagues, and returned to Oporto with the loss of only 60 men. The Miguelites, on this occasion, it is said, sustained a loss of 800 men. Since then, the desertions from the royalist camp have greatly increased; and on the 20th, between the hours of ten and twelve, no less than 86 came into Oporto.

Thirteen thousand men (the whole of the army before the town) left Oporto on the morning of the 20th, to join Bourmont, who was said to be at Coimbra, with 3000 troops. Exclusive of guerrillas, his whole force, therefore, amounts to 16,000 men, with which, it is said, he intends to march on Lisbon ; to effect this, it would take him at least fifteen days, and what with stragglers and deserters, it is not probable he would reach that place with more than 10,000 men,-a number infinitely too small to attempt anything with, particularly if we consider the state of Don Pedro's forces, amounting to between 12,000 and 13,000 regular troops and 16,000 volunteers, distributed as follows:

Regulars. Volunteers.
At Lisbon, under the Duke of Terceira 6,000 12,000
At Oporto, under General Saldanha

5,500 4,000
In the Algarves, under General Brito

1,200 At Peniche

200 or 300 16,000

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13,000 All these things considered, it is probable that Bourmont, even should his design of marching on Lisbon not be in the mean time prevented by the interference of England and France, will think twice on the subject, ere he commences so hopeless an undertaking.

Lisbon, August 4th, 1833. La tactique est dans les jambes.-Saxe. It appears that the Count of Villa Flor is not too familiar with that maxim of modern warfare, for, after having the good luck of entering Lisbon, sans coup férir, on the 24th July, (thanks to the people, who, without any chief or commander, raised and proclaimeil Donna Maria on the 23d,) he is yet parading or gadding in the streets of Lisbon, while the Duke of Cadaval is slowly retreating with his posse comitatus of bishops, abbots, disembargadores, gendarmerie, &c. Had the Count of Villa Flor followed him, as he ought and could, Cadaval would never have been able to arrive at Enxára dos Cavalheiros, or at Alenquer; such was the confusion of the dispirited caravan that had gathered around him. Though that fault has been observed to the Marquess of Palmella, who entered Lisbon on the 25th with Napier; Villa Flor and his division remained at Lisbon to greet his Imperial Majesty's arrival !!!

His Majesty arrived on the 28th ; and though he refused to come a month before with 3000 men, he was nevertheless proclaimed a conqueror by a set of claqueurs his ministers picked up at Oporto for the purpose. The Baron Renduffe, a great favourite with Dom Miguel in his first egyra to Santarem, was the leader of the heralds of Dom Pedro on his landing. The people were gay, and cheered heartily; but the bourgeoisie did not utter any other word, but for the Queen, and for the charter. Dom Pedro has been mortified with that affectation, and to console him, his ministers are bribing all place-mongers to get some signatures to a petition, where Dom Pedro is to be requested to be so kind as to continue to govern us. The trick shall not take ; for the people know that Dom Pedro was obliged to quit the Brazils in consequence of his endeavouring to trample on the constitution. The regency for Portugal is designed in the charter, and soon would begin a new civil war, if Dom Pedro intended to convocate the Cortes, under his influence, in order to continue in power. Palmella has once more compté sans son hóte; he flattered himself to be placed at the head of the ministry, but M. Candido Jose Xavier, who is representative of the Buonapartistes near Dom Pedro, is not disposed to admit of the Marquess of Palmella in the council. Saldanha, who fought, twelve years since, for the constitutional monarchy, would fain support Palmella, and then this nobleman would be able to put down his opponents, but Saldanha fears the duplicity of the Marquess, and refuses to act with him in the ministry. So Palmella isen l'air. Oporto, August 10th, 1833. MR. EDITOR,- Events of importance have succeeded each other with such rapidity, that we had hardly time to consider the magnitude of one before another arrived. The total annihilation of Tellez Jordao's army at Almeida by a handful of our gallant soldiers; the Duke of Cadaval's panic; the spontaneous declaration of Lisbon, by the sole heroism of the people ; and last, though not least, the good thrashing Marshal Bourmont received at our hands on the 25th ult., are events which happened in the short space of forty-eight hours, and that have sealed the doom of Miguel for ever.

Bourmont and Clouet assaulted Oporto on the 25th, but Saldanha prored that he had learned, under the Duke of Wellington, how to treat French generals in the Peninsula. Poor Bourmont!-he complains of the roads in à radius of 200 toises, in the same ground where his army fought a year ago! Dom Miguel issued a proclamation to his army, assuring them that the Duke of Cadaval was going to join him with a division, 12,000 men strong, and by this means his army is yet in order, though many deserters abandon him every day. Perhaps he will try another assault at Öporto, before his retreating, with that part of his partisans that will remain faithful to him, to the eira Alta, where he will adopt the conduct Spain may be induced to recommend him. We have laughed heartily at the battles General Solignac was pleased to explain and win in the columns of the too credulous Morning Herald. It is a pity that he had had none of such divine inspirations while at Oporto. Permit me to tell the Morning Herald that there are at least a hundred majors, lieutenant-colonels, and colonels in the constitutional army, who would not change their military capacity for that of the gallant general—to be sure, I do not question either his courage or his intentions.

Colonel Hodges has disappointed us in his “Narrative of the Expedition :" he did not dare to tell all the truth he knew. His juste-milieu pleases nobody: he is correct about Freire and Xavier, but not so about Palmella, Villa Flor, and Mosinho. He tlatters them : we are sorry for it, as the services of the gallant colonel, at Ponte Ferreira, are gratefully remembered by the Portuguese officers. We wish his friends in England to be assured that he was ill used by the Emperor and his clique, but not by his brother officers.

I will not finish this long letter without lamenting the death of the brave Colonel Cotter: he lost a hand in the Portuguese service at Salamanca, fought with us in the province of La Plata, and fell by a cannon shot on the 2d of July. We regret in the same manner three other distinguished officers-Duvergier, a French colonel, who died in consequence of the wounds he received in the battle of the 5th of July, and Major Fernando d'Almeida, and Lieutenant-Colonel David Mendoça, both as honourable men as brave soldiers. Many tears were shed on their tombs--and a tear in the field is a cry of the heart. I remain, Mr. Editor, your most obedient and respectful servant,


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In my last, you will recollect I expressed a confident hope that the gifted hero of Algiers, notwithstanding all his generalship, would fail before the undaunted determination of the constitutionalists, and my heart's sanguinity has been fulfilled to the utmost. The 25th of July may be said to be an ominous day to Marshal Bourmont; four years ago, his colleagues by the ordonnances dashed to pieces the throne of his old master; and this year, the very same day, by the result of the battle, the tottering power of his new master was irretrievably lost, the charm of Bourmont's name henceforth having no more influence on the beaten Miguelites than any other of the former generals. At daybreak of the aforesaid day Bourmont began a masked attack on the out-posts ; soon after very strong columns were observed pouring down by different directions, especially by the Lordello road, with the intention to cut our communication with Foz, as Barbacena had before attempted on the 5th; but the purpose being foiled, a general engagement commenced on the whole line, which was fought with desperation both by the assailants and the besieged, till one o'clock p. m. when Miguel's troops were repulsed with a tremendous loss. Pasteleiro and Quinta do Wauzeller were bravely contested for, and these positions were taken and retaken, the former five times and the latter four, and heaps of slain covered the esplanade of them. A masterly dash from Saldanha, with his staff, at the head of the lancers, decided the day. Our loss was severe, about 700, including officers, among whom was General Saldanha's aide-de-camp and nephew, the much-lamented Don Fernando de Almeida, and the gallant Colonel Cotter ; but that of the enemy must be very heavy, if we consider that only before redoubt Saldanha they left better than 300 men deal. This brilliant victory of our arms is of a twofold nature ; first, as being the defeat of the last hope on which the Miguelites anchored their political existence, after the fall of Lisbon ; and secondly, by the glorious achievement being done by a native, which will serve to open the eyes of many a good heart, who often have been misled by bias and prejudice against the nationals. General Saldanha is not so raw in tactics as many might suppose, for in the Peninsular war he was always recommended by Major-General Pack, no doubt a competent judge on the matter ; and Lord Beresford distinguished him by giving him the command of a regiment, whilst he was a youth, and in La Plata performed wonders in that hazardous and arduous warfare.

Bourmont, to prevent a numerous desertion, and fearful of a sortie intended by Saldanha, has raised the siege on the north side, and is collecting all his forces at Valongo, perhaps to cross the Douro at Regoa, fearing to lose artillery and baggage were he to attempt it lower. In a few days we shall be able to judge what he intends to do.

Dom Pedro went to Lisbon surrounded by the very same set which made him play so despicable a part here, and his first measures and nominations there are all stamped with the same imbecility. The worthy clique intends soon to call the Cortes, hoping to obtain the regency for the ex-emperor of Brazils, should the deputies be elected under their intluence; but, I think, they will be sadly mistaken, for the nation will not be easily bamboozled by so pitiful a faction. Palmella is again laid aside by the intluence of minions, but he deserves all for his continual transversations.


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REVISED INFANTRY MOVEMENTS. Although reserving to a future and more fitting occasion our general notice of the British system of Infantry Movements in its revised form, we deem it due to the troops experimentally exercised at Portsmouth, under the direction of Lord Frederick Fitzclarence, in the drill proposed for adoption, to offer our brief testimony, from personal observation, to the complete success of the experiments, as regards tho troops, and the officer by whom they were so ably instructed.

About two months since the depóts of the 7th Fusiliers and the 94th Regt., stationed at Gosport, were placed, by the General commanding in chief, under the immediate orders of Colonel Lord Frederick Fitzclarence, (a member of the Board of Revision,) subject to the control of the Lieutenant-Governor, Sir Colin Campbell, for the purpose of being exercised in the revised drill, to enable Lord Hill to judge practically of the expediency of its general adoption in the British army. The task could not bave been confided to better hands, as the result, which we had the satisfaction to witness, justifies us in affirming. The inspection by Lord Hill of the two depôts, united in one battalion, and commanded by Lord F. Fitzclarence, took place on the 7th ultimo, on the parade-ground between Fort Monckton and Haslar Barracks. The appearance and discipline of the troops were, notwithstanding the obvious disadvantages under which the Reserve Companies of regiments necessarily labour, equal to those of veteran corps in the highest order; while the special movements under practice were executed in a manner to furnish a clear and satisfactory test of their comparative working, and appeared to engage the interest and excite the approbation of Lord Hill in no ordinary degree. It was unquestionably, on many accounts, one of the most gratifying spectacles which could be presented to a Commander so capable of appreciating the honourable results of zeal and intelligence in those who command, and of a corresponding attention to their duties in those who obey. We cannot at present enter into details, or offer any critical comments on the movements performed, as revised, but shall resume the subject in proper season. The principal feature, however, of the revised drill is the employment of Sections by Threes, as applicable to the various modifications of infantry movements, and as a general substitute for filing. On this point, it appeared to us that Lord Hill, and the Adjutant-General who accompanied him. had formed a decided opinion from the evidence before them ; but an early general order will doubtless place his lordship's decision beyond conjecture. We should add, that in addition to the movements in battalion, Lord Frederick Fitzclarence also formed and manquvred a brigade by the aid of a third battalion, represented by graduated ropes, held on the flanks by intelligent soldiers, and duly commanded by an officer

an expedient which he had originally and successfully employed in drilling the officers of the 11th Regt., without harassing the men.

We owe it to the Reserves of the Royal Fusiliers and 94th,--the former commanded by Lord William Thynne, the latter, since the promotion of Colonel Snoilgrass, to whom they are greatly indebted for their excellent training, by Major Mackie, the gallant fellow-campaigner, to whose services, as a Connaught Ranger, we have so repeatedly had occasion to advert in our Peninsular “ Reminiscences," to express our admiration of their steadiness and soldierlike appearance-qualities the more remarkable in troops so young, and subject to fluctuation; nothing, however, could exceed the zeal and activity of the oflicers of those corps.

Upon this occasion, as in the whole course of his military career, Lord Frederick Fitzclarence has exhibited a talent for command, which, coupled with his evident devotedness to his profession, holds out a well-founded promise of future distinction in the service.

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