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bank of the river Gaya, found itself menaced, early in the morning, by the approach of a corps of 1200 Spaniards, whilst another column, 1500 strong, was discovered moving parallel to the first, along the high road, and a force of 3000 men was ascertained to be in march upon the French posted at Rieria. In consequence of these movements, General Mengarde lost no time in reinforcing the French troops at the chapel of St. John with part of the 6th regiment of chasseurs, a battalion of the 31st of the line, and four cannon; whilst General Achard led to the support of the troops at Rieria two battalions of the 1st light infantry, the 23d chasseurs, and the 18th of the line.

The enemy did not hesitate to attack both posts almost simultaneously : at the chapel, Colonel Baron Thilories scarcely waited their approach, but charged them with the bayonet at the head of the 31st regiment, and literally tumbled them pêle mêle into the hollow. At Rieria a very similar reception awaited the Spaniards, who were met in front of this post by Colonel de Fitzjames, at the head of the 18th regiment, and charged with such vigour, that they at once gave way, and never attempted to rally. The Colonel pursued them as far as the town of Scipio, killing a good many, and making some prisoners.

Marshal Moncey, who had previously left Altafulla, no sooner heard of these movements, than he set out from his quarters at Valls, at the head of the brigade of Tremolin, and the Spanish division of the Baron d'Erolles, with the view of moving upon the flank of the enemy, and cutting off his retreat; but on learning the failure of the attacks, and the enemy's flight, he countermarched upon Valls. The loss of both sides was considerable in this affair, as the Spaniards conducted themselves at the commencement of the attack with more than their wonted courage.

It soon became known that the garrison of Barcelona was about this time much in want both of water and provisions, and that Mina and Millans not only disagreed in their views and plans with the Swiss governor of the place (Rotten), but entertained jealousy of each other. Under these circumstances, the addition to the numbers of the garrison, in consequence of Mina and Millans having thrown their troops into the place, soon came to be felt as embarrassing and inconvenient, rather than as adding strength to the original garrison of the fortress ; and accordingly on the 9th of September, a heavy swell having driven the French squadron to some distance from the mouth of the harbour, 2300 men of the besieged were embarked in fishing boats and landed at a place called the Castillo de Mongate, situated between Matan and Barcelona. This corps included a force of about 300 French and Piedmontese exiles, the whole commanded by General Fernandez, the ex-governor of Cardona. 'These people immediately threw themselves into the mountains, and took the road to Hostalrich, along which General Nicolas followed them without delay at the head of the 23d chasseurs, and two battalions of light infantry. At the same time the garrison of Barcelona attempted a sortie on the land side, but were repulsed and driven into the town by General Larocheaymon.

On the 13th, the Spanish column of Fernandez arrived at Llado, where it was encountered by Major-General the Baron de Damas. This officer had only under him a force of 1600 French, with which he did not hesitate to attack the enemy, whom he routed without difficulty, and the day following 2000 Spaniards and the refugees laid down their arms, the Baron humanely agreeing to spare the lives of the latter. It ought to be mentioned that the Spanish corps had been fatigued by long marches, and saw that escape was impossible from the numerous bodies of the French troops and royalist Spaniards, which hemmed them in, when they agreed to surrender to the inferior force of the Baron.

On the 23d of August, Figueras capitulated to the Baron de Damas, and the garrison, which consisted of 2500 men, were sent into France. The same day, the Baron, whose health had suffered from the fatigues of the campaign, laid down the command of the 4th division of the 9th corps, and set out for France. He was succeeded in the command of his division by Major-General the Viscount de Marangone.

In order to relieve the garrison of Tarragona, a corps of 3000 infantry, and 400 cavalry, under the command of San Miguel, the ex-minister for foreign affairs, left the place on the 23d of September, and advanced upon Llerida, in which place part of the division was left, whilst San Miguel continued to march upon Arragon; but the formidable force under General Tremolin, and that of the Baron d'Erolles, closing upon its rear, whilst Santos, Ladron, and Capa pe threatened its flanks; and the successes of Marshal Lauriston at Pampeluna having enabled him to spare a strong division of his army, he detached part of the division of Pecheux, under the command of General Chastelleaux, who appearing in front of San Miguel's corps, the latter formed in order of battle, on the 8th of October, at Tramaced, and received the attack of General Chastelleaux with considerable resolution, killing Lieut. Abel, of the hussars, and Lieut. Baur, of the chasseurs ; and it was not till Colonel San Miguel and a partizan chief named Barbas were both severely wounded and made prisoners, that the Spaniards were finally overcome, and obliged to fly in all directions.

This enterprize of Colonel San Miguel, whom we have last noticed as destined to reinforce the army of the north of Spain, forms, in all its details, a bright contrast to the contemporaneous military proceedings of the greater part of the Spanish army. Whether the superior skill and valour of this small band was the real cause of the prowess which it displayed, or that this division of the Spanish army was possessed of a superior organization and materiel to the others, certain it is that, in this instance, bravery was exhibited by the troops and their leaders, which calls to mind the exploits of the Cid and of Palafox *.

On the 19th of October the strong mountain fortress of Urgel surrendered to the French, and on the same day Llerida also capitulated to the Marquis de Lauriston.

The state of affairs in the south of the Peninsula had also become known in Catalonia, where, probably influenced by the fate of the rest of Spain, the drama was now drawing to a close.

On the 24th, Mina signified to the Duke of Cornegliano his wish to capitulate, in which his colleague Rotten also coincided. It appears, indeed, that a choice was not left them, as they had for some time experienced the utmost difficulty in preventing the inhabitants from

* General San Miguel is said to be a different officer from the person of the same name who, in 1820, insulted Ferdinand VII. by singing the “Tragala” in the theatre at Madrid. See Don Miguel de Alava's letter in the Number of this Journal for December, 1832, and p. 104 of the Number for January, 1833.—R.

taking arms against the troops of the garrison. The Duke, however, following the dictates of his noble disposition, accorded the most favourable terms to the besieged ; and on the evening of the 24th, the terms of surrender were finally signed, by which the French troops took possession of the town and fortress on the 5th of November. This capitulation included both Tarragona and Hostalrich, these fortresses being within the jurisdiction of Mina's command.

From the tone at first assumed by Mina, he seemed to affect to think that in conducting the operations of the constitutionalists in Catalonia, he had only done his duty to his sovereign, and that there could be no question but that the latter would view his conduct in the same light; his friends, however, succeeded in making him see this affair in its true colours ; and Marshal Moncey generously putting at his disposal a French brig of war, he embarked on board of her, and arrived at Plymouth on the 22d of November.

When we add that, previous to the operations which have been last detailed, the garrison of San Sebastians, consisting of 2200 men, had capitulated on the 27th of September to Lieut.-General Count Ricard, and that, on the same day, Santona, in which was a garrison of 1800 men, had surrendered to the Prince of Hohenlohe, our readers will perceive that the subjugation of the whole of the north of Spain was completed by the surrender of Barcelona.

On the 18th of October, the vigorous and energetic Llobera had submitted unconditionally to the clemency of the King-his formidable division of 5000 declaring their obedience to the Baron d'Erolles, who had been appointed Captain-General of Catalonia.

It would be unpardonable to omit from this narrative the account of a brilliant rencontre of the brigade de la Rochejacquelin with the corps of General Palencia, in Estremadura, The Duke of Reggio, aware of the numbers in which the constitutionalists still continued to keep the field in this province, had detached the Marquis de la Rochejacquelin from the corps d'armée under General Bourke, soon after the surrender of Corunna had taken place. It was not, however, till the 3d of October that Palencia offered battle to the Marquis near Truxillo. The ground he had chosen was exceedingly strong; the Spanish right being protected by sharpshooters placed in ambush on some very rocky and uneven" heights, whilst a battalion of infantry of the line defended a deep ravine on the left. In the plain which extended between the two wings eight squadrons of cuirassiers were drawn up, having in their front three pieces of cannon. General de la Rochejacquelin led on his troops in a manner worthy of his name and their reputation : but notwithstanding the formidable front assumed by the Spanish commander, the resistance of his corps was scarcely more vigorous than what his countrymen had hitherto offered to the enemy in other situations; and, after having sustained some loss in killed and wounded, the Spaniards, as usual, abandoned themselves to flight.

The fate of this action most probably led to the resolution of the garrison of Ciudad Rodrigo, to throw themselves upon the King's mercy, and surrender at discretion to Don Carlos O'Donnel; whilst General Laguna, the royal commissioner, also received the adhesion of the garrison of Badajoz on the 29th of the month.


We have oftentimes been told of the Loves of the Angels,-the Loves of the Plants,--the Loves of the Flowers,—but we never yet had a good edition of the Loves of a Sailor. Marryat, in his Newton Forster, never drew from his own heart or feelings, but dashed off the commonplace scenes with the levity of a man who set the whole sex at defiance, or only used them as convenient commodities, to swell his chapters, and to vary his nautical sketches. Glasscock's women are poor silly creatures, -half methodists, half idiots,--pretty dolls dressed out by a capricious fancy. Chamier, in his Life of a Sailor, has never touched upon the subject, being, perhaps, afraid of splitting on the same rock which his brother officers of the navy have run end on against The Loves of the Esquimaux, or the affections of the ladies in the Tedjee Islands, have been but poorly portrayed ; the former by the pens of Parry, Franklin, and Lyons,—the latter by the author of those interesting travels, whose name I have forgotten, and whose black idols have escaped through the same treacherous channel. Even the famous song of the King of the Cannibal Islands gives us no insight into the courtship of this second Solyman; nor have any desperate feats performed by the ladies of that powerful king been recorded in the poet's song, or in the historian's pages: but now, thanks to the private log of an honest tar, which I assure you, Mr. Editor, was lent me under the promise of inviolable secrecy, we are to be enlightened in the various modes of love-making by those biped curiosities, sailors.

I have myself the greatest esteem and admiration for the heroes of our wooden walls, and I not unfrequently wish that I had been bred to that service; which, whilst it teaches respect and courtesy to those above them in life, expands the mind, inculcates an honest generosity, and nurtures short-coated loves and tight-breeched seraphis. No man who has not danced at the back of the Point can tell what steps Jack takes to forward his attachment; or how the melodious catgut softens his mistress until she confesses herself his in to-to. And very few know, but those who have experienced it, how easily an honest Jack, when he crosses the Atlantic, and leaves behind him all civil jars and discordant notes, alters his temper and varies his love when he gets into the Pacific. I never knew an attachment so ductile as to stretch across to the New World. The first gale shakes love down to its proper position; the neve

ver-resting first-lieutenant gives the little god a second shake; and the cat,—that emblem of an old woman,-if it cannot, like the old woman, assail his ears, not unfrequently scratches his back, and completes the pain of separation. The duties of the ship interfere with the whole duties of man, and of the heart ; and before we cross the Tropic of Cancer, Jack has got rid of his crab of a wife, and defies the claws of all other crabs.

When I have given one or two illustrations of the common sailor's love,- from the first time of beholding the object of his affection, to the marriage, the poetry, and lastly, the allotment and separation, I intend gradually to mount the ladder of etiquette; and having given

U. S. JOURN. No. 59, Oct. 1833.

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some vivacious anecdotes of midshipmen and lieutenants, come finally on the formal ground of commanders, captains, and admirals ; in fact, I shall give such information on this interesting subject, that I shall, I hope, be appointed intrigue.master to the navy, -and save many of the young men of the rising generation from going to a certain gentleman in Paris, in order to learn the art of love, or rather the art of deception. My reason for beginning at the beginning is, in order to show how the intellectual scale advances in proportion as authority is gained, and impudence established. The poetical effusions of honest Jack are, of course, not so refined as those namby-pamby verses of which we have had a most glorious specimen in the jumble of the midshipman and lawyer's clerk production called the Port-Admiral, and which work is no more the production of a genuine sailor, than the Travels of Forsyth, or the Life of a Sailor, are the work either of the pope or a chimney-sweeper. The soi-disant sailor of the Port-Admiral had left the service, having ascended to the high dignity of boy of the second class, before he could have known much either of the service or of the list of admirals. The idea of making the Port-Admiral a smuggler !--the lady's horse, which knelt down to receive its load, and the lady love who rode the bare-backed Pegasus ! " like a newborn babe striding the blast,” or, “ heaven's cherubim horsed,”—all head and wings, like the angels on a tombstone, --could only have been fancied by an attorney's clerk, or a half-cracked degradation of a midshipman, who may have had the spanker-boom crutched for him to mount; and who might, for his misbehaviour, have been indulged in a bare and uncomfortable ride. But to my subject. When I come to the Loves of a Sailor, as touching his aspirations for literary fame, I may condescend to crush this mushroom reviler of his betters, and show him forth to the world, the miserable crow that he is, when divested of the borrowed feathers he has rashly and foolishly assumed.

Your common sailor has various loves and affections : his early propensities are like those of all other boys ; idleness is the general characteristic,-mischief-making is the common attendant,—and sticks as closely to idleness as a duenna does to a Spanish muchacha; it is like a drunken man's boots,—the last thing he takes off when he rest. The mischief leads to associates not very likely to mend the evil. Then comes distaste to home, or a mutinous spirit in regard to parental control. And then the finale,-some travelling swindler, with a decent voice, dressed in the garb of a sailor, flourishes away one of Dibdin's songs. The young scape-grace follows the syren to the back of the Point at Portsmouth; he joins the mad revel of some liberty-men belonging to a man-of-war refitting in the harbour ; the grog circulates freely,—the dance succeeds,—the roar of a chorus gives a fillip to what flip has already began; the half-drunken boy, intoxicated with the liquor, the music, and the dance, is seduced by the more cautious sailor. His mind is inflamed by the recital of naval victories, and the wholesome supply of brandy; and by twelve at night, the boy, in a fit of intoxication, is safely on board his Majesty's ship refitting, as aforesaid. The morrow sees him shorn of his long tails, and he himself tailing on to a rope's end. He is mustered with the other boys,chosen as the boatswain's servant,-is placed under the inspection of the master-at-arms and ship’s-corporal, and one month from that date

goes to

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