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natives of Hydra, Spezzia, Psara, and Samos; but though the naval prowess of the insurgents was loudly bruited, it was but little superior to that of the Turks, who are, perhaps, the most contemptible maritime enemies that can possibly be found afloat. Instead of a decided plan of operations, the patriot sailors took to piracy, and had no other idea of conquering the naval force of the incautious Ottoman than by fireships, which, as an exclusive mode of warfare, must be condemned ; while against the Turks, whom a strict fatalism renders singularly callous and careless of human life, it is inefficient.

The atrocious massacre at Scio, in the summer of 1822, had struck fury into the minds of the Greeks who were cruising in the vicinity; but their leaders did not seem to partake the feeling, if we may judge by their discreditable inactivity. But that horrid carnage had hardly ceased, when it was reserved for Kanaris to deal retribution upon some of the perpetrators.

Towards the close of the Ramadan, the Greek squadron returned to their respective ports, without having made any serious disposition to attack the Turkish fleet at Scio, although they had twice entered the strait which divides that island from Asia Minor, for the purpose.

It was on the last of these occasions, while losing sight of the enemy in the distance, that the idea first struck Kanaris, that all had not been done which ought to have been, and of the possibility of destroying some of the ships single-handed by surprise. While pacing his deck he matured a plan, and immediately on his arrival at Psara, made a proposal to his superiors, which was most readily acceded to.

Previous to this, Kanaris had commanded the Platoff fire-ship, with such credit as to have gained general notice ; and in the retreat through the Spalmador passage, he dropped astern of his companions, backed his main-topsail, and was the last out of the straits, a station of his own choice, in order, he said, to protect the rear of the feet. This afforded him an opportunity of observing the sluggishness of the larger ships of the enemy; and from that moment he felt so thoroughly persuaded of success, that he resolved to venture at all hazards, notwithstanding two other vessels, commanded by Nicolao Apostolo, the admiral's son, had failed but a very short time before, owing, it was thought, to their being fired too soon.

Hearing the intention of Kanaris, the captain of a Hydriot brig, Andrea Pepino, volunteered his services to accompany him, and was accepted. Their two vessels were carefully fitted for the deadly

purpose, and manned with picked crews of twenty-three men each. The combustibles were of the most inflammable and inextinguishable description; and two large swift-rowing boats were given them to effect their escape in. Thus equipped, they sailed for the port of Kaloni, in Mytilene, in order, from its advantageous position to the northward of Scio, to await there the opportunity of the first northerly wind for carrying their project into execution, as well as to create less suspicion by coming from that quarter.

Owing to light, bafiling winds, they were three days on their passage to Kaloni, and it was not till the third day after that they got a breeze suitable to their wishes. In the meantime they amused themselves, fishing and sporting in and about the harbour.

On Wednesday, the 19th of June, at noon (the sixth day from Psara), they sailed, with a steady breeze from the N.E., steering direct for Spalmador island, intending to get within the straits of Scio as soon after dusk as possible. On nearing Spalmador, they got sight of the lookout Turkish squadron of five sail

, (three brigs and two schooners,) cruising to the northward of the island ; on which they hauled up and shaped a course as if bound into Smyrna, but kept the yards fine, to check the vessel's way as much as possible. This deception answered, for so little did the Turks understand their duty as cruisers, that they made no disposition to follow. Another difficulty arose: an English man-of-war hove in sight, bound into the gulf, and Kanaris was well aware of the vigilance which British sailors use; he was, therefore, however perilous, under the necessity of showing his colours to her, but he hauled them down again immediately after, to prevent their being made out by the Turks.

At sunset he had lost sight of the Turks behind Karabouna, on which he altered his course, and rounded the Cape, keeping the main close on board. As he approached the entrance of the straits the wind gradually died away; and when abreast of Green Island, about 10 P.M. it fell nearly calm. Pepino, the Hydriot captain, hailed him at this time, and asked Kanaris, “What do you intend doing? do you think it safe to go on ? the wind is very light; will it not be better to give it up for to-night, and take a more favourable opportunity? If we get becalmed inside the islands, the chances will be against our getting out again.” Kanaris boldly replied, “ There is nothing to fear; we shall have a breeze presently, and we have some time yet till daylight.” A short time after, the Hydriot hailed him again to the same effect, and he answered, with something of asperity in his tone, " It is my intention to proceed, come what may; I will either do the business at once, or not at all.” Some of Kanaris' crew now began to feel dissatisfied ; and, hearing them mutter about the chances of being taken, and that it would be better to make the attempt on some other night, he called them aft, and upbraided them with their wavering : “ Did I ask you to come with me ?" demanded he ; was it not your own voluntary choice? Did not ye beg of me to take ye? If ye are tired of the thing already, and want to get home again, ye had better jump overboard and be off at once; and if that won't please ye, I must declare that ye are all under my command, and if one of you dare open your mouths again on the subject, I will cut his throat that instant." From that moment he had no further trouble with them, and they obeyed every order implicitly.

On nearing Hippo island, the five look-out cruisers were observed to leeward of Spalmador, standing across towards the main, on the larboard tack; and a large ship, on the opposite tack, was seen in the middle of the channel. This ship showed a light, which was answered by the others, each of whom showed one. This was a ticklish moment; Kanaris braced his yards in, and kept them pointed as near as the wind would allow, and on towards the Turks, to prevent their seeing him. The land here being very high, by keeping close under it, he luckily passed un perceived, and the breeze freshening up again, soon carried him out of sight.

To leeward of Hippo island the land trends down to a low point, off which lies a shoal, which he bordered on as close as the lead would permit, till, having rounded it, he braced sharp up, and hauled directly across for the town of Scio. When about mid-channel over he saw the Turkish fleet with their lights up for the festival of the Bairam : “Look my lads !" said he to his crew, " those fellows shall have better lights before their feasting is over.' But the body of them were rather on his weather-bow, owing to the wind having drawn more to the N.W. off the hills of Scio. This was unfortunate, as Kanaris had allowed for hauling his wind from the shoal-point sufficient room for passing to windward of the whole, from whence he intended to bear up and choose his object. Two of the largest ships, however, being the leewardmost, still laid within his reach, and he stood towards them, while they, have ing no suspicion of an enemy eluding the vigilance of their looks-out, supposed they were vessels belonging to their

own fleet. It was about two in the morning, when the weathermost ship of the two, which proved to be the Capudan Pasha, hailed Kanaris as he approached, who, without making reply, steadily continued his course. Pepino, the Hydriot, now grappled this ship on the larboard side, and applying the fire there, spread consternation on board; but she was injudiciously placed, and unfortunately kindled too soon, so that the prodigious efforts of the Turkish crew at length succeeded in disengaging her, after which she was sunk. This was but a momentary respite for the Capudan Pasha, for in a few minutes Kanaris laid him aboard athwart his bowsprit, and in that position set fire to the fatal train. In the panic, no sort of opposition was made, nor were there many people apparently now upon her decks : but notwithstanding, Kanaris, feeling anxious to escape, hurried his men into the boat; one of them, however, a fellow full of humour, begged to stop a little, something having just occurred to him, which he said he wished to tell the Turks, and catching up the trumpet, he bawled out—" There is a fire for you-put it out if you can." This timely joke added considerably to the spirits and confidence of the Greeks; and they pulled away before the wind to escape by the southern end of the straits, where, meeting no impediment, they arrived by daylight. At about 10 A.M. they got on board one of their cruisers off the little isle of Veneccia, and at sunset anchored at Psara, amidst the loud acclamations of their compatriots.

In the mean time the flames spread over the ill-fated line-of-battle ship with such rapidity, that every effort to save her was utterly useless; and within three-quarters of an hour she blew up with a deafening explosion. The Capudan Pasha, though severely wounded, was unwilling to quit his ship, but as the fire increased, his officers forced him into a boat alongside; a mast, however, which immediately fell, wounded him mortally on the head, and sunk the boat. He was brought ashore on part of the wreck, and expired within an hour after; and at 10 o'clock the next morning, at the very moment that Kanaris had accomplished his escape, was buried in the castle of Scio. With the crew, and the prisoners on board, among whom were about 80 Greek women, there were upwards of 1200 people destroyed.

This success led to a second expedition. On the arrival of the Turkish fleet off Tenedos, the Greek cruisers having previously quitted the coast and returned to their respective ports, Kanaris was appointed to disturb them. Having made all his arrangements, he sailed from Psara on Friday the 8th of November, 1822, at sunset, with two well-equipped fire-vessels, the one a brig called the Emperor Alexander*, carrying 21

* In addition to our former remarks, it is seen, that both the vessels commanded by Kanaris had Russian names. And there were many houses which we visited in the islands ornamented with portraits of the Emperor Alexander,-a proof that he was held as a patroni.

men, including himself, and the greater part of whom had served under him in the former expedition to Scio; the other, a small coasting saccoleva, as a better deception than two square-rigged vessels, with the same number of hands, commanded by Giorgio Nicolas Brastanos. Two settees accompanied them as an escort

, the largest having 34 men and 8 guns, the smallest 28 men and 3 guns, for the purpose of receiving them on board on the completion of their enterprise. Accordingly, on the noon of Saturday, the 9th, they were off Cape Sigri, in Mytilene, with light airs from the southward, having run about forty-five miles since the preceding evening at sunset.

At the close of day they were about half way between Sigri and Cape Baba, steering for the latter, when the wind freshening gradually, the saccoleva was taken in tow. Having arrived off Cape Baba, the two settees were sent away to rendezvous to the S.W. of Tenedos, within sight of the anchorage; there to wait, and, in the event of success, to make the best of their way, immediately that they observed the fire break out, to the edge of the great shoal on the east side of Lemnos, where Kanaris intended to pull, under the idea of escaping pursuit, if chased by Turkish frigates, by getting into shallow water. If no fire was perceived, then they were to take it for granted the fleet was not at Tenedos, in which case Kanaris was to run on through the roadstead to Imbro, where the settees were to rejoin him, and from thence concert further measures against the fleet in the Dardanelles.

Having parted company with the settees, Kanaris hauled in close under the land, keeping it as close aboard as possible, to prevent being seen by the Turkish look-out ships. They passed a corvette standing off on the larboard tack ; but as she paid no attention to him, they supposed her to be French. At eleven he was obliged to cast off the tow, the breeze having freshened considerably; and, to enable the saccoleva to keep up, he took in his top-gallant-sails, going between six and seven knots.

About midnight they saw Tenedos; and a few minutes afterwards observed three Turkish frigates under easy sail standing off on the larboard tack. These our hero passed astern of unperceived, by hug ging the shore close on board. To the northward of Scorpiata a long shoal runs off, which obliged him to keep a greater offing; and as he drew out from under the land, the frigates tacked, and one of them set her foresail as if to chase him. But this was only an inference; for the Turks, ignorant of what was being wafted against them in the darkness, took no other notice of them. In a few minutes more, Kanaris discovered the lights of the flag-ship; and in about a quarter of an hour plainly distinguished three huge line-of-battle ships riding towards the main land, with their heads to the westward, and the wind on the larboard beam, owing to a strong current setting to windward through the roadstead out of the Dardanelles. The frigates and small craft were lying more in shore, near the Troad, relying on the look-out squadron for protection.

The saccoleva being still astern, and Kanaris perceiving that the ship with the lights aboard (which he therefore took to be the flag) lay to leeward of the nearest line-of-battle ship, and that to get at her he must pass within hail of the latter, he decided on assigning the nearest ship, as the least difficult, to the saccoleva, in order that he might not be accused of acting unfairly, and that, by not lighting his own vessel

first, his companion might have a better chance of succeeding. Besides which, he drily observed, the first in command was always his quarry.

Having thus decided, he stood direct for his unsuspecting prey, Fortunately the first ship paid no attention to him, though he passed so near as to hear the voices of her crew : . but instantly afterwards he was hailed by the second, who, on receiving no answer, fired two shot at him, one of which went through the head of his mainsail, and a third shot was fired from the other ship at the saccoleva. To prevent the chance of cutting away his running gear, Kanaris racked the halliards and ties aloft, and in this manner, with full way on him, and a fresh breeze, going six or seven knots, he ran his vessel on board, stem on to the larboard bow of his antagonist, under the forechains, his bowsprit luckily going into one of the ports. It was his original intention to have steered for her spritsail-yard, but observing her lying broadside on, he was afraid the fire would be too much ahead, and therefore steered a course for her foremast. As he drew near her, he perceived a multitude of people on her poop, all in fright and confusion, calling aloud to their prophet, and exclaiming, " She is a fireship! a pirate ! an infidel! Fire away! sink her!” with other cries of terror. A great many of them at the same time leaped into a boat astern; but when once Kanaris was alongside, no effort was made, nor even a musket fired at him.

Just as he was approaching his object, Kanaris sent his men into the boat on the larboard side of the brig, sitting himself on the larboard gunwale, from whence he conned, as she was steered to her destined position; and when thoroughly grappled fast, lighted the train from the boat, and hailed the Turk—"We are no Austrians-(a report having reached him that he wore Austrian colours at Scio)-nor pirates, but true Psaraotes, and the same that burnt your Capudan Pasha at Scio!" The flames flew fore and aft in an instant, and the breeze being very fresh, they communicated almost as rapidly with the Turk, whence the most dreadful shrieks and yells were now proceeding from people who were shortly afterwards silent for ever.

The same instant that his own vessel was kindled, Kanaris had the mortification of perceiving that the saccoleva was very improperly fired. Being lighted too soon, as at Scio in the instance of the Hydriot, the vessel did not get a thorough hold, and broke adrift without accomplishing her object. This was just what he anticipated, and to prevent the probability of which he had so nobly resigned his own claim to Captain Brastanos. No sooner had he shoved off in his boat, than he observed a Turkish frigate steering directly towards him, and to avoid her he stood close in to the town of Tenedos, where she lost sight of him under the land, which he kept close on board, pulling head to wind, and when clear of the south point of the island, tossed up his mast and made sail for Lemnos, where, with the assistance of their oars and a good breeze, they arrived by eight o'clock. When abreast of the eastern point, about half an hour after he had quitted the fire-ship, he observed the line-of-battle ship entirely in flames; her three masts, as he said, burning “ like three candles." The other ships of the fleet were firing guns, and, in the greatest confusion, falling on board of each other, some with their cables cut, others with their sails loose, and some apparently on the shoal. There being a swell on, and a fresh breeze, much distress and mischief must have ensued. The

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