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light of the brilliant flames enabled him clearly to distinguish the different objects. It was about three o'clock on Sunday morning of the 10th when he laid his desolating brig alongside.
Finding the two settees punctual to their rendezvous off Lemnos, Kanaris immediately went on board, and there being no signs of the other boat with the crew of the saccoleva, he sent the settee appointed as her escort to look out to windward of Tenedos, while he bore up towards the N.E. end of the island, to be ready in case the boat should have rowed through the roadstead, and had come out at that end. In about an hour after the saccoleva's settee made signal of having picked up the boat, upon which they both made sail to the westward, undisturbed by any of the imbecile cruisers of their enemy, whose frigates, with common attention, ought to have caught them. The whole of this enterprise was so ably and suddenly executed, that not the most triling casualty occurred to the Greeks, and every man returned to Psara without a hair of his head singed. Contrary winds detained the settees at S. Giorgio di Skyros three days, where they were received with the greatest joy and hospitality by their countrymen. The next evening Brastanos reached Psara, and the following morning Kanaris returned into port, under a salute from every gun in the island. On landing, he was met by a procession, which conducted him to the church, where a public and solemn thanksgiving was offered up to the Most High, for the success which had attended their hero's undertaking.
Kanaris afterwards attempted to set a Turkish ship on fire in the daytime, and while under sail; but his vessel falling astern, he missed his aim, and was obliged to retreat with the utmost precipitation to effect his escape, two of his men being killed, and himself wounded in the hand.
In 1824, the capture of Psara by the Turkish Admiral, and its recapture by the Psaraote sailors, gave ample employment to the energies of Kanaris, who was at every post where he could be serviceable. In August of the same year, the Ottoman forces having made a descent on Samos, a Greek squadron, under the command of Giorgius Taktouri, advanced to relieve that important island, when several skirmishes took place. On the morning of the 16th, the Pasha stood out with twenty-two ships and vessels, and Taktouri met him with sixteen under his own flag, and some vessels commanded by Kanaris, who had a sort of roving commission. An obstinate combat ensued, in which our hero tried all his art to hook an enemy, without being able to close. The Turks were, however, thrown into disorder and retreated. But on the following morning they again approached under a leading breeze, on which the Greek admiral ordered all his fire-ships to make sail, under the escort of the different ships of war, and there was every appearance of both sides fighting to extremity.
At 10 A.M., the brulot of Captain Demetrius Zapli approached a heavy frigate and grappled with her, but by the fresliness of the breeze and the assistance of some galleys, she escaped the impending danger. Though this attempt was unsuccessful, it afforded the daring Kanaris an opportunity of coming up with the same frigate, and he succeeded by il o'clock in grappling her whilst under full sail. In an awfully short space of time she was all in flames; and the devouring element penetrating quickly to the magazine, she blew up with a horrid crash, not only launching her own 600 men into eternity, but proving fatal to several vessels inshore of her. On this brilliant occasion, Kanaris lost only two of his crew.
Kanaris is a modest man, of plain manners, and great apparent sincerity, requiring to be drawn out before the foregoing particulars could be elicited from him. He is the master of a merchant vessel, and occasionally acts as pilot to foreign vessels, a duty for which he is admirably calculated, from his perfect knowledge of the Archipelago. He is poor, but contented, being happy that he lives as respectably as any of his relations, and that he has not lost ground since he began the world. He has a wife and two children; the former takes a pride in her husband's career, and in the young Constantine they fondly predict an ornament to the islands. When requested to sit for his portrait
, (now in our possession) he smiled, saying, they must make the picture very ugly to be like him, “unless the artist could catch him setting fire to the train of a brulớt."
AN EYE-WITNESS SKETCH OF THE LATE INSURRECTION IN JAMAICA.
AN EXTRACT FROM THE PRIVATE JOURNAL OF AN OFFICER OF H. M.S,
Quæque ipse miserrima vidi,
Et quorum pars magna fui. The Christmas holidays appointed by the Colonial Legislature of Jamaica were ushered in by the observance of the usual festivities amongst the black population :-the negroes from the several parishes and from the mountains carrying the produce of their own grounds to the nearest market, to exchange them for the more grateful aliments of beef, pork, &c., or for the purchase of the more elegant possessions of civilized life. The Kingston market was unusually well supplied,butcher's meat, fowl, and fish, that would
of the same in England, and fruits of the most exquisite taste attracted attention, and the gentle fair within several miles of the vicinity, added to the elegance of the market by their presence, and courtesy to the black peasantry, while sets of dancing girls possessed the streets, in the enjoyment of that degree of hilarity almost peculiar to the blacks, in whatever part of the globe they may be existing.
Notwithstanding these demonstrations of apparent quietude and satisfaction on the part of the slaves, the experienced colonist could observe some circumstances which excited suspicion as to the reality of that contentment, of which their sportive amusements above-mentioned are indicative. The women alone were engaged in dancing and other festivities, while the men were congregating upon the neighbouring estates, the communication between which was frequent, and the leading men always confining themselves upon the properties to which they were attached, with a view to lull their owners into an idea of comparative security, from their apparently zealous attention to the estate.
“ It is a remarkable feature in this rebellion,” says his Excellency the Earl of Belmore, in his address to the House of Assembly in Jamaica, " and worthy of particular and attentive consideration, that the leaders and chief promoters of the insurrection appear to have been almost exclusively composed of persons employed in confidential situations on the properties to which they belong."
An idea had universally, and for a long time, been entertained amongst the negroes, that they were to receive their free paper, or emancipation, from England, on the 1st of January, 1832, and as a practical conviction of this fact, they were to strike work on that day: in the event of their masters withholding liberty from them, or coercing them to resume their servile labours after the holidays, the right was to be decided by an appeal to arms. They have always been taught to believe that his Majesty's commands have been signified for their liberation, and that they only continue to be held in vassalage by their lawless owners, in disregard of the royal authority. Whence this opinion could have originated it would be difficult to explain, unless from the English newspapers; in these vehicles of communication they read the fierce sentiments of anti-slaveryism, and conclude them to be the ordinances of his Majesty. However, suffice it to say, that the idea was entertained by young and old, and it was resolved that measures should be adopted for the attainment of this great object. But prior to the commencement of the new year, and during the Christmas holidays, many of the slaves expressed themselves without reserve on the eventful subject, and spoke of the approaching momentous period when the distinction between master and bondsman should cease, and already manifested such acts of disobedience and inattention, as may readily be imagined would follow upon such an alteration in the moral and political system of the West Indies.
Notwithstanding the tranquil state of affairs at Kingston, Lord Belmore, the then Governor of the colony, received information by express, that the negroes about the parishes of St. James, Trelawney, and Hanover, were disorderly to a degree of rebellion; and soon after, that the destructive measure of conflagration was superadded to their riotous conduct. A similar communication was made to Commodore Farquhar, then senior officer at Port Royal, with a request that a ship of war might be despatched immediately to those parts of the island where a spirit of disaffection had been manifested. The Racehorse was ordered to proceed to Montego Bay, it being hoped that the presence of a vessel of war would have the effect of restoring order and tranquillity ; but very shortly after, further accounts were received, stating the very serious extent of the rebellion, when Major-General Sir Willoughby Cotton, commanding the troops, ordered the military to hold themselves in readiness to embark on board the ships of war then lying at Port Royal, in order to be conveyed to the western extremity of the island. It wou be needless to attempt any eulogy on the activity which pervaded every department of the naval and military establishments at this important crisis ; suffice it to observe that, in the course of a few hours, an adequate force was in motion to protect the lives and properties of our countrymen, and the fortunate termination of the rebellion with a comparatively small loss of lives, furnishes the most ample proof of the zeal and judicious conduct displayed on that occasion.
The was lying at Port Royal, with the mail on board for St. Jago de Cuba, to which place she was under orders to proceed; but accounts having been received at Spanish Town, (the seat of government,) of the insubordinate conduct of the negroes menacing the safety of the establishment at Portland, we received orders to proceed to Port Antonio, at daylight on the following morning, 25th December, 1831, our Captain being desired to use his own judgment as to the necessity of remaining at Port Antonio, for the protection of the inhabitants, or of continuing his cruize in execution of the orders he had previously received, directing him to proceed to St. Jago de Cuba with the mail.
Having got the ship under way, and rounded Port Royal Point to run into the Eastern channel, the wind fell light, and consequently little progress was made, the surface of the sea presenting an almost glaciated appearance, its smoothness being only disturbed by the undulation of the waters in their gentle progress to the beach. A calm day in the West Indies is extremely oppressive, particularly when out in mid-ocean, where there is no object to relieve the eye from the reflected glare of the sun upon the sea, or from the dazzling brightness of the heavens, and has often reminded me of the powerful language of the inspired lawgiver in his enumeration of the curses which should attend the Israelites for disobeying the commandments and statutes of the Lord :“ The heaven that is over thy head shall be brass, and the earth that is under thee shall be iron.”
After occupying three days in performing a trip which is usually made in one, we arrived off the harbour of Port Antonio, when a pilot came on board, and in reply to our inquiries respecting the state of the settlement, we learnt that the militia were under arms, and that a general insurrection amongst the negroes was expected to take place on New Year's day.
By a standing order of the Colonial Government, and as a measure of precaution, a man-of-war is despatched a few weeks prior to Christmas, to the different ports of the island, for the purpose of depositing at the several military posts and forts a supply of ball and pistol cartridges ; and during the holidays, a company of the militia is called out for the preservation of order, and to overawe the numerous and unbridled assemblage of the blacks. The —had fortunately been employed on the service during the latter part of the month of November, and the early part of December, and it was on her return from the execution of this service that she was lying in Port Royal harbour, and so suddenly ordered to Port Antonio; but before entering upon the particulars of the negro rebellion in this part of the island, the parish of Portland, I would congratulate the inhabitants npon the very felicitous termination of those disturbances which, however imminent, were quieted without the loss of any lives on the part of the white and free population, and with only few executions of the blacks, which however distressing to the feelings of an Englishman, the planters were inevitably driven to, for the purpose of deterring from future rebellion, and as an example to the negroes of the neighbouring estates. The
as I have stated, sailed from Port Royal at dawn' on Christmas-day, and arrived at Port Antonio on the afternoon of Tuesday following; under the judicious discipline of her commander, the ship's company were exercised twice a week-on Tuesday and Friday, -at general quarters, and a division of small-arm men every day ; according to the standing orders of the ship, in the afternoon the crew were exercised with blank cartridge, this duty not having been performed for some weeks previous. Three rounds were fired from every gun in the ship, and their reverberation amongst the hills and mountains caused the report of our artillery to be heard at the distant estates, a circumstance which very materially contributed to the suppression of the rebellion, inasmuch as the negroes were by this
means made aware of the presence of a ship of war in the immediate vicinity. The blacks, in consequence, deferred the commencement of their rebellious meetings and conflagrations, in hopes of our early departure, which, it was concluded, an appearance of order and tranquillity would undoubtedly have the effect of hastening: however this temporizing policy proved fatal to the negroes; for the militia having apprehended some of the ringleaders upon the disaffected estates, intimidation took such possession of the deluded creatures, that a general development of their murderous and incendiary projects was the result. It appeared upon evidence taken before two magistrates, that immediately after the celebration of the Christmas holidays, instead of returning to the duties of the field, the negroes were to strike work generally, (such was the popular expression,) and the slaves upon an estate in an elevated part of the vicinity should kindle the first conflagration, which should answer the purpose of a signal for a general rising : having possessed themselves of any fire-arms belonging to the overseers and book-keepers, all persons, whether black or white, who were unfavourable to their plot, were to be murdered, then marching in a body to the next estate towards the town of Port Antonio, the same sanguinary and incendiary acts were to be there repeated, and so on progressively until they reached the town, which was to be the point of concentration for their forces. It would be revolting to enter into the barbarities which were then to be committed. Man, in the possession of unrestrained liberty, has never shown any consideration for the feelings of humanity, and the barbarous anticipations of the sable community prove them not to be inferior to, or more sympathizing than their brethren of a fairer hue.
Immediately these intentions were discovered, no time was lost in communicating with the - Day and night signals between our vessel and Fort George had been previously established in the event of any sudden attack on the part of the slaves ; and it was resolved that no time should be lost in forwarding regular troops and militia to the turbulent districts to disconcert their arrangements. At two o'clock in the morning, on the 1st January, 1832, the pinnace, cutter, and jolly-boat were despatched with about fifty regular troops and militia to Blue Hole, which place they reached at daylight in the morning; this pass was extremely narrow, and would have proved a highly commanding position for the rebels, if they had only shown a very ordinary degree of firmness. Here again our good fortune prevailed; for as the troops had been transported during the obscurity of the morning, it was necessary that the leading boat, having the pilot on board, should carry a light, to enable the cutter and jolly-boat to follow in her wake. This distinguishing light was seen by the negroes, who were already lying in ambush in the cane-pieces, or fields, with what fire-arms they had been able to get possession of, and the slaves again had recourse to that system of temporizing which had already proved so fatal to their machis nations. The blacks were driven from their holds with little resista ance-a few were seized and summarily punished, the greater part immediately returned to the estates to which they belonged.
Thus was the slave rebellion in this part of the island of Jamaica subdued; for the trifling resistance offered by some of the blacks when (about to be apprehended by Maroons despatched for that purpose,