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CONTRIBUTORS.

Among the Contributors to this Volume of the Annual Cyclopædiaare the following:

9

Hon. Benjamin F. Clayton,

President of the Farmers' Congress. FARMERS' CONGRESS.

Charles Henry Cochrane,

Author of “ The Wonders of Modern Mechanism." AËRIAL NAVIGATION, CALCULATING MACHINES, KINETOSCOPIC PICTURES, KITE-FLYING, TIN-PLATE MANUFACTURE, WIRE GLASS,

and other articles.

William F. Coston,

Joint Inventor of the Coston signals. SIGNALS, Night.

Mrs. Bessie Nicholls Croffut.

LITERATURE, AMERICAN, IN 1897,
LITERATURE, BRITISH, IN 1897.
SURETY COMPANIES.

Thomas R. Dawley, Jr.

CUBA.

Oscar Fay Adams,

Author of "A Dictionary of American Authors."
Corsox, JULIET,
GOULBOURN, EDWARD MEYRICK,
NEWMAN, FRANCIS WILLIAM,
OLIPHANT, MARGARET,
PEARSON, John LOUGHBOROUGH,
THAYER, ALEXANDER WHEELOCK,

and other articles. Marcus Benjamin, Ph. D.,

Editor of department of chemistry in the “Standard

Dictionary. ASSOCIATIONS FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, COPE, EDWARD DRINKER, MAYER, ALFRED MARSHALL, NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, New York City,

and other articles. J. H. A. Bone,

Of the "Cleveland Plain-Dealer."
Ohio.
John Henry Boner,

of the “Standard Dictionary” staff.
ALABAMA,
CONNECTICUT,
MAINE,
MARYLAND,
NEW JERSEY,
VIRGINIA,
VOLUNTEERS OF AMERICA,

and other articles.
Arthur E. Bostwick, Ph. D.,

Superintendent of New York Free Libraries.
Physics.
William G. Bowdoin.

BOOK-PLATES.
Thomas Campbell-Copeland,

Formerly of United States Census Bureau.
MECHANICS, JUNIOR ORDER OF,
STREET RAILWAYS,
UNITED STATES MILITARY ACADEMY,

UNITED STATES NAVAL ACADEMY.
Mrs, Helen C. Candee.

ILLINOIS,
MUNDY, JOHNSON MARCHANT,

Charles Fitzgerald,

Art critic of the “Evening Sun."
LINTON, WILLIAM JAMES,
MARTIN, HOmer Dodge.

Mrs. Fredericka B. Gilchrist.

PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH.

Rev. William Elliot Griffis, D.D.,

Formerly Professor of Physics in the University of

Tokio. JAPAN, KOREA.

George J. Hagar,

Associate Editor of the “ Columbian Cyclopædia." GIFTS AND BEQUESTS, OBITUARIES, AMERICAN.

Rev. Moses Harvey,

and other articles. James P. Carey,

Formerly Financial Editor of the “Journal of Com-
FINANCIAL REVIEW OF 1897.
John Denison Champlin,

Editor of "Cyclopedia of Painters and Paintings."
FINE ARTS IN 1897.

Author of “Text-book of Newfoundland History."
NEWFOUNDLAND.
J. Castell Hopkins,

Editor of “Golden Canada."
CANADA, DOMINION OF,
MANITOBA,
NEW BRUNSWICK,
QUEBEC,
PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND,

and other Canadian articles.

merce,"

Frank Huntington, Ph. D.,

Col. Charles L. Norton,
Of the “Standard Dictionary" staff.

Author of “Political Americanisms."

ABYSSINIA,

DISASTERS IN 1897,

EVENTS OF 1897.

AUSTRALASIA,

BULGARIA,

CHINA,

Rev. Solomon E. Ochsenford, D. D.

COLOMBIA,

LUTHERANS.

EAST AFRICA,

FRANCE,

Mrs. Evangeline M. O'Connor.

GREAT BRITAIN,

COLORADO,

MEXICO,

GEORGIA,

OBITUARIES, FOREIGN,

GEOGRAPHICAL PROGRESS IN 1897.

Russia,

Iowa,

SPAIN,

KENTUCKY,

and other articles.

LOUISIANA,

MICHIGAN,

Prof. Andrew J. Hutton,

MONTANA,

Of Wisconsin State Normal School.

PENNSYLVANIA,

WISCONSIN.

Texas,

and other articles.

Abram S. Isaacs, Ph. D.,

Editor of the “Jewish Messenger."

Rev. Thomas J. Shahan, D.D.,

JEWS.

of the Catholic University, Washington, D. C.

ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH.

Herman Justi,

Chief of Department of Publicity and Promotion, Lewis Swift, LL. D.,

Tennessee Centennial Exposition.

TENNESSEE EXPOSITION.

Formerly Director of Lowe Observatory.

ASTRONOMICAL PROGRESS IN 1897.

Miss Florence K. Johnson.

James B. T. Tupper,

KLONDIKE, THE.

Formerly of Internal-Revenue Office.

Mrs. Helen Kendrick Johnson,

SUPREME COURT (in article UNITED STATES).

INGELOW, JEAN.

J. Kendrick Upton,

William H. Larrabee, LL. D.

Formerly Assistant Secretary of the Treasury.

BAPTISTS,

UNITED STATES, FINANCES OF THE.

CONGREGATIONALISTS,

FEDERATION OF FREE CHURCHES,

Frank H. Vizetelly,

FRIENDS,

Associate Editor of “ Home and Country,"

METHODISTS,

DAUDET, ALPHONSE,

OLD CATHOLIC CHURCH,

and other articles.

ORIENTAL CHURCHES IN THE UNITED STATES,

PRESBYTERIANS,

Frank Weitenkampf,

UNITED EVANGELICAL CHURCH,

Of the Astor Library.

and other articles.

LITERATURE, CONTINENTAL.

H. T. Newcomb,

Chief of Section of Freight Rates, U. S. Department William J. Youmans, M. D.,

of Agriculture.

Editor of "Appletons' Popular Science Monthly."

RAILWAY SERVICE IN THE UNITED STATES.

CHEMISTRY,

METALLURGY,

Mrs. Joanna Nicholls Kyle.

METEOROLOGY,

REVENUE-CUTTER SERVICE.

PHYSIOLOGY.

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FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS.
COLORED PLATES-

MAP OF NORTHWESTERN INDIA
MAP OF ALASKA
MAP OF THE KLONDIKE REGION
MAP OF GREATER NEW YORK

Night SIGNALS.
VIEW OF HAVANA
THE NEW BUILDING FOR THE CONGRESSIONAL LIBRARY
West Point, FROM Fort PUTNAM
ANNAPOLIS Naval ACADEMY .

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THE

ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA.

A

ABYSSINIA, an empire in eastern Africa. The youth in grammar, poetry, religious ceremonial, ruler, styled Negus Negusti, or King of Kings, is and song. The judicial magistrates are the govMenelek II, who after the death of Johannes II in ernors, chiefs, and landed aristocracy. The people battle with the dervishes overcame his rivals and raise cattle, sheep, and goats, and cultivate the established himself on the throne in 1889 by the land to a limited extent. Cotton, coffee, the inaid of arms furnished by the Italians. He had en- digo plant, the sugar cane, the date palm, and tered into a treaty with Italy, signed at Ucciali on the vine grow wild. There are extensive forests May 2, 1889, at the beginning of the struggle, while abounding in valuable woods. The principal exhe was still only King of Shoa, and this treaty was ports, sent mostly through Massowah, are skins, confirmed in October of that year. The Italian ivory, butter, gums, and mules. Besides the forces version gave to Italy a protectorate over the Empire of the feudal chiefs, the Negus has a trained army of Abyssinia, otherwise called Ethiopia. Menelek of enlisted men armed with modern rifles. denied that the treaty conferred such right. The The climate is varied, producing the fruits of all relations between him and the Italians became zones, for Abyssinia is composed of a succession of strained on account of his refusal to recognize the table-lands rising from 4,000 to 8,000 feet in height, protectorate, and his denouncement of the treaty intersected with deep valleys and ravines. In the in 1893 led to a rupture. In 1895 the Italians lower plateaus rice, sugar cane, indigo, and other occupied Tigre, the northern kingdom, and ad- tropical products grow wild; in the more tempervanced into Amhara; but after the forces of Ras ate regions vines and nearly every species of EuroMangascia, King of Tigre, had been driven out by pean fruits and vegetables are found in great luxuthe Italians, Menelek marched into the north with riance: while the loftiest plains are suited to the a large army from Shoa, surprised the Italian gar- cultivation of barley and some native species of risons, surrounded the main body of Gen. Bara- grain. The southern districts are the natural tieri's army near Adowa, and well-nigh destroyed home of the coffee tree. The principal crop is it in a general engagement fought on March 1, doura, from which the Abyssinians make a great 1896. Through the friendly intervention of Rus- part of their food. The banana is the principal sia a treaty of peace was concluded on Oct. 26, fruit eaten by the natives. There are excellent 1896, at Adis Abeba. By this treaty Menelek rec- breeds of horses and mules in the country. The ognized as Italian possessions all territories lying mineral wealth of Abyssinia is unquestionable, and north of the Mareb, Balesa, and Muni rivers, and the lack of expert labor has been the obstacle to Italy recognized the absolute independence of the production and manufacture of the useful Abyssinia and the dominion of Menelek over all metals. The sale of gold is forbidden by law. It territories south of that line. The government of is forbidden also to traffic in ivory, though eleAbyssinia, or Ethiopia, is of a feudal character. phants are numerous. The kingdom of Tigre in the northeast, the ad- The ruling caste is of the Hebrew race, formed joining province of Lasta, the central kingdom of of successive immigrations from Palestine. The Amhara, Gojam next to it, and the powerful king- Jewish religion was established in Ethiopia by dom of Shoa in the south make up Abyssinia Menelek, son of Solomon and Makeda, or Nicaula, proper, the dependencies of which extend into the Queen of Sheba. King Solomon provided his Somaliland as far as Harrar and embrace a large favorite son, when he went to join his mother, with part of the country of the Gallas. The port of a guard of 12,000 Israelitish soldiers, with whose Massowah, formerly disputed between Abyssinia aid, after Makeda's death, he founded the Soloand Egypt, has been annexed by Italy with the monian dynasty of Ethiopian emperors. Jerusalem other dependencies to the north of the Abyssinian became from that time the center of pious pilgrimplateau and a part of the highland district in the ages of the Abyssinian people. An important Jewnortheastern part of Tigre. The area of the em- ish immigration took place during the first cappire is estimated at 150,000 square miles, and the tivity, and another during the reign of Salmanpopulation at 3,500,000. The Abyssinians once These exiles became rapidly acclimatized followed Jewish rites, and still practice some of and absorbed in the bulk of the Ethiopian nation. them, but since the fourth century they have been A last exodus followed after the destruction of the Christians of the Alexandrian rite. 'i'he head of Temple, but these later comers have remained to their Church, called the abuna, is a Copt selected the present day outside the pale of Abyssinian soand consecrated by the Patriarch of Alexandria. ciety, maintaining their ghettos in the prorince of There are about 12,000 monks, presided over by a Samen, where they follow metal working and renative ecclesiastic, called the echegeh, and these main faithful to their ancient creed. The Ethioand the priests instruct a select portion of the pians, on the other hand, embraced Christianity at

VOL. XXXVII.-1 A

asar.

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