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PRE FACE.

The study of American History in general, and of Indian History in particular, has long been the favorite employment of many of my hours ; I cannot say “ leisure hours," for such are unknown to me; but time amidsi a variety of cares and business, and before and after "business hours.” My first publication upon the subject of the Indians was an edition of Church's History of Philip's War, a duodecimo, with notes and an appendix. This was in the summer of 1825; and, in 1827, it was considerably enlarged, and issued in a second edition, the copyright of which, not long after, passed out of my hands, and the number of editious since issued is unknown to me; but, about two years since, one of the proprietors told me they amounted to some thirty or forty yet “ second edition” is continued in the titlepage to this day. In this republication I intimated my design of a work upon INDIAN Bı. OGRAPHY, and in 1832, a small duodecimo of 348 pages, bearing that title, was published, In thal edition, the chiefs and others noticed were arranged alphabetically. In 1833, a second edition was issued, with The Book OF THE INDIANS superadded to the title. The volume pow contained three times as much as before, and yet my materials were scarcely half exhausted. It was in octavo, and under an entirely new arrangement, namely, in books and chapters; each BOOK being paged by itself, for the purpose of adding new matter at some future time. This arrangemeni was continued through all the editions to the present. A third edition,* also considerably enlarged, was published in 1834, which extended to 548 pages, 108 more than the second. The same year produced a fourth, with a few corrections, bui without altering the number of the edition in the title-page. A fifth, which stands numbered as the fourth, appeared in 1835, with the addition of a catalogue of all the principal Indian tribes, arranged alphabetically. This was drawn, at great expense of time, from an incredible number of sources. The second edition had been stereotyped, to the original cost of which great expense had been added in corrections and additions, considerably exceeding the profils which had accrued, and I was now beginning to console myself that very lite, if any thing, more would be required by way of additions or corrections, and that I should soon begin to derive some small advantage from it, as it had been tolerably well received; but I found I had “reckoned without my host';" for, on the night of the 30th of September, 1835, the whole was consumed by fire. This was quite discouraging. However, I soon determined to stereotype it anew. Thus taking advantage of what I had considered a great misfortune, I began to revise the whole throughout. Parts were rewritten, and addi. tions made in almost every page, and the page itself was enlarged, although one of the pages of the former editions contained as much reading as two octavo pages in the common type. Besides this enlargement of the pages, their number was extended to six hundred. Such were the preparauons for the sixth (though printed as the fifth) edition, an impression of which was issued in 1836. The next year produced a seventh. This was the same as the preceding, excepting a few important corrections. I come now to the eighth and present edition, which has received very important enlargements in the three last books, amounting to more than one hundred pages, and it may be proper 10 note, that all after pages 143 of Book III., 96 of Book IV., 168 of Book V., are additions to what has been before published. And the catalogue of the TRIBES has been enlarged to more than twice its original amount. It is now submitted with all its imperfections; and, although I hope to multiply the number of editions, I have no intention of further enlarging the work.

This edition has been delayed many months in consequence of a hope I had entertained of living to be assured that the Florida war was at an end. That time may now be considered to have arrived. On the events of that war, as will be seen, I have been full and particular; and, if events of importance have escaped me, it was not because I had not used great exertions to possess myself of them. If, however, a doubt should be raised upon this head, I would refer the skeptical reader to a document published by order of the U. S. Senate in 1840, purporting to be a report of the secretary of war,“ showing the massacres committed and the property destroyed by the hostile Indians in Florida" since 1835, where a comparison may be made between what I have published, and the amount of information in the possession of the war department.

The history of the wrongs and sufferings of the Cherokees has been an important addition to this edition ; and, whatever judgments may be pronounced upon it by the present generation, I shall remain silent, under the consciousness ihat I have done no injustice to the parties concerned. I have been an observer through the whole course of it, and registered events as they passed. I have not used a dirk in the dark, but the broadsword in open day, with fair warning to the adversary. “Let those who undertake prepare to undergo."

As the word edition in the title-page of a book now-a-days may mean any thing or nothing, when a number stands before it, I will jusi observe that my first edition consisted of 1,500 copies, the second of 2,000, the third of 500, the fourth, fifth, and sixth of 1,000 each, and the seventh of 500.

AN

ALPHABETICAL ENUMERATION

OF

THE INDIAN TRIBES AND NATIONS.

An attempt is made, in the following Table, to locate the various bands

of Aborigines, ancient and modern, and to convey the best information respecting their numbers our multifarious sources will warrant. Modern writers have been, for several years, endeavoring to divide North America into certain districts, each of which should include all the Indians speaking the same, or dialects of the same, language; but whoever has paid any attention to the subject, must undoubtedly bave been convinced that it can never be done with any degree of accuracy. This has been undertaken in reference to an approximation of the great question of the origin of this people, from a comparison of the various languages used among them. An unwritten language is easily varied, and there can be no barrier to innovation. A continual intermixing of tribes bas gone on from the period of their origin to the present time, judging from what we have daily seen; and when any two tribes unite, speaking different languages, or dialects of the same, a new dialect is produced by such amalgamation. Hence the accumulation of vocabularies would be like the pursuit of an infinite series in mathematics; with this difference, however — in the one we recede from the object in pursuit, while in the other we approach it. But I would not be understood to speak disparagingly of this attempt at classification; for, if it be unimportant in the main design, it will be of considerable service to the student in Indian history on other accounts. Thus, the Uchees are said to speak a primitive language, and they were districted in a small territory south of the Cherokees; but, some 200 years ago, — if they then existed as a tribe, and their tradition be true, — they were bounded on the north by one of the great lakes. And they are said to be descended from the Shawanees by some of themselves. We know an important community of them is still in existence in Florida. Have they created a new language in the course of their wanderings? or have those from whom they separated done so ? Such are the difficulties we meet with at every step of a classification.

But a dissertation upon these matters cannot now be attempted. In the following analysis, the names of the tribes have been generally given

in the singular number, for the sake of brevity; and the word Indians, after such names, is omitted from the same cause. Few abbreviations have been used :-W. R., west of the Rocky Mountains ; m., miles ; r., river ; 1., lake ; and perhaps a few others. In some instances, reference is made to the body of the work, where a more extended account of a tribe is to be found. Such references are to the Book and Page, the same as in the Index.

ABEKAS, probably Muskogees, under the French at Tombeckbee in 1750.
ABENARIES, over Maine till 1754, then went to Canada ; 200 in 1689; 150 in 1780.
AesoroKA, (Minetare,) S. branch Yellowstone ; lat. 46o, lon. 1050; 45,000 in 1834.
ACCOKESAW, W. side Colorado, about 200 m. S. W. Nacogdoches.
Acomar, one of the six tribes in Virginia when settled by the English in 1607.
Apaize, 4 m. from Nachitoches, on Lake Macdon ; 40 men in 1805.
ADIRONDAKS, (Algonkin,) along the N. shore St. Lawrence; 100 in 1786.

vi

INDIAN TRIBES AND NATIONS.

AFFAGOULA,

small clan in 1783, on Mississippi r., 8 m. above Point Coupé. AGAWom, (Wampanoags,) at Sandwich, Mass.; others at Ipswich. ii. 46. AHWAHAWAY, (Minetare,) S. W. Missouri 1820, 3 m. above Mandans; 200 in 1805. Ajoues, S. of the Missouri, and N. of the Padoucas; 1,100 in 1760. ALANSAR, (Fall,) head branches S. fork Saskashawan; 2,500 in 1804. ALGONKIN, over Canada; from low down the St. Lawrence to Lake of the Woods. ALIATAN, three tribes in 1805 among the Rocky Mountains, on heads Platte. ALICHE, near Nacogdoches in 1805, then nearly extinct; spoke Caddo. ALLAKAWEAH, (Paunch,) both sides Yellowstone, heads Big Horn r.; 2,300 in 1805. ALLIBAMA, formerly on that r., but removed to Red River in 1764. AMALISTES, (Algonkins,) once on St. Lawrence; 500 in 1760. ANASAGUNTAKOOK, (Abenaki,) on sources Androscoggin, in Maine. ii. 136, 152. Andastes, once on S. shore Lake Erie, S. W. Senecas, who destroyed them in 1672. Apaches, (Lapane,) between Rio del Norte and sources of Nuaces r.; 3,500 in 1817. APALACHICOLA, once on that r. in W. Florida ; removed to Red River in 1764. APPALOUSA, aboriginal in the country of their name; but 40 men in 1805. AQUANUSCHIONI, the name by which the Iroquois knew themselves.

v. 3, &c. ARAPAHAS, S. side main Canada River; 4,000 in 1836, on Kanzas River. ARMOUCHIQUOIS, or MARACHITE, (Abenaki,) on River St. Johns, New Brunswick. ARREN AMUSE, on St. Antonio River, near its mouth, in Texas; 120 in 1818. AssinnABOIN, (Sioux,) betw. Assinn. and Missouri r.; 1,000 on Ottawa r. in 1836. Atenas, in a village with the Faculli in 1836, west of the Rocky Mountains. ATHAPASCOW, about the shores of the great lake of their name. Arnas, next S. of the Athapascow, about lat. 570 N. ATTACAPAS, in a district of their name in Louisiana ; but 50 men in 1805. Attapulgas, (Seminoles,) ou Little r., a branch of Oloklikana, 1820, and 220 souls. ATTIKAMIGUF.s, in N. of Canada, destroyed by pestilence in 1670. Aucosisco, (Abenaki,) between the Saco and Androscoggin River. ii. 48 ; iii. 93. AUGHQUAGA, on E. branch Susquehannah River; 150 in 1768; since extinct. AYAUAIS, 40 leagues up the Des Moines, S. E. side ; 800 in 1805. Ayutans, 8,000 in 1820, S. W. the Missouri, near the Rocky Mountains. BAYAGOULA,

W. bank Mississippi, opposite the Colipasa ; important in 1699. Bedies, on Trinity River, La., about 60 m. S. of Nacogdoches; 100 in 1805. BIG-Devils, (Yonktons,) 2,500 in 1836; about the heads of Red River. Biloxi, at Biloxi, Gulf Mex., 1699; a few on Red r., 1804, where they had removed. BLACKFEET, sources Missouri; 30,000 in 1834 ; nearly destroyed by small-pox, 1838. BLANCHE, (Bearded, or White,) upper S. branches of the Missouri. BLUE-MUD, W., and in the vicinity, of the Rocky Mountains. BROTHERton, near Oneida Lake; composed of various tribes; 350 in 1836. Caddo, on Red River in 1717, powerful; on Sodo Bay in 1800; in 1804, 100 men. CADODACHE, (Nacogdochet,) on Angelina r., 100 m. above the Nechez; 60 in 1820. Carwas, or Karwa, on main Canada River, and S. of it in 1830. Calasthocle, N. Columbia, on the Pacific, next N. the Chillates; 200 in 1820. Callimix, coast of the Pacific, 40 m. N. Columbia River; 1,200 in 1820. Camanches, (Shoshone,) warlike and numerous; in interior of Texas. CANARSEE, on Long Island, N. Y., in 1610, from the W. end to Jamaica. Cances, (Kansas,) 1805, from Bay of St. Bernard, over Grand r., toward Vera Cruz. Canibas, (Abenaki,) numerous in 1607, and after; on both sides Kennebeck River. CARANKOUA, on peninsula of Bay of St. Bernard, Louisiana; 1,500 in 1805. CAREE, on the coast between the Nuaces and Rio del Norte; 2,600 in 1817. CARRIERS, (Nateotetains,) a name given the natives of N. Caledonia by traders. Castahana, between sources Padouca fork and Yellowstone; 5,000 in 1805. Cataka, between N. and S. forks of Chien River; about 3,000 in 1804. CATAWBA, till late, on their river in S. Carolina; 1,500 in 1743, and 450 in 1764. CatulACUMUPs, on main shore Columbia River, S. W. Wappatoo i. ; 450 in 1820. CATHLAKAHIKIt, at the rapids of the Columbia, 160 m. up; 300 in 1820. CATALAKAMAPS, 80 m. up Columbia River ; about 700 in 1820. CathLamat, on the Pacific, 30 m. S. mouth of Columbia River; 600 in 1820. CathLANAMENAMEN, on an island in mouth of Wallaumut River; 400 in 1820. CATHLANAQUIAH, (Wappatoo) S. W. side Wappatoo Island; 400 in 1820. CATHLAPOOTLE, on Columbia River, opposite the Cathlakamaps; 1,100 in 1820. CathlAPOOYA, 500 in 1820, on the Wallaumut River, 60 m. from its mouth. Catalasko, 900 in 1820, on Columbia River, opposite the Chippanchikchiks. CathlathLA, 900 in 1820, on Columbia River, opposite the Cathlakabikits. Catulatu, 500 in 1820, on the Wallaumut River, 60 m. from its mouth. Cattanahaw, between the Saskashawan and Missouri Rivers, in 1805.

INDIAN TRIBES AND NATIONS.

vii

v. 115.

CAUGHNEWAGA, places where Christians lived were so called.
Chactoo, on Red River; in 1805, but 100; indigenous of that place, it is said.
CHAOUANONS, the French so called the Shawanese; (Chowans?)
CHEEGEE, (Cherokees,) 50 to 80 m. S. of them; called also Mid. Settlement, 1780.
CHEHaws, small tribe on Flint River, destroyed by Georgia militia in 1817.
CHEPEYAN, claim from lat. 60° to 65°, lon. 100° to 1100 W.; 7,500 in 1812.
CHEROKEE, in Georgia, S. Carolina, &c., till 1836; then forced beyond the Mississ.
CHESKITALOWA, (Seminoles,) 580 in 1820, W. side Chattahoochee.
CHIEN, (Dog,) near the sources Chien River; 300 in 1805; 200 in 1820.
CAIHEELEESH, 40 m. N. of Columbia River; 1,400 in 1820.
CHIKASAW, between heads of Mobile River in 1780; once 10,000; now in Arkansas.
CHIPPANCHIKCHIks, 60 in 1820, N. side Columbia River, 220 m. from its mouth.
CHIKAHOMINI, on Matapony River, Va., in 1661; but 3 or 4 in 1790; now extinct.
CHIKAMAUGAS, on Tennessee River, 90 m. below the Cherokees, in 1790.
CHILLATES, 150 in 1820, on the Pacific, N. Columbia River, beyond the Quieetsos.
CHILLUKITTEQUAU, on the Columbia, next below the Narrows; 1,400 in 1820.
Chiltz, N. of Columbia River, on the Pacific, next N. of the Killaxthocles.
CHIMNAHPUM, on Lewis River, N. W. side of the Columbia; 1,800 in 1820.
CHINNOOK, on N. side Columbia River; in 1820, about 400 in 28 lodges.
Chippewas, about Lake Superior, and other vast regions of the N., very numerous.
Chitimicha, on W. bank Miss. River in 1722; once powerful, then slaves.
CHOktaw, S. of the Creeks; 15,000 in 1812; now in Arkansas. iv. 25.
CHOPUNNISH, on kooskooskee River; 4,300 in 1806, in 73 lodges.
CHOWANOK, (Shawanese ?) in N. Carolina, on Bennet's Creek, in 1708; 3,000 in 1630.
Chowans, E. of the Tuscaroras in N. Carolina; 60 join the Tuscaroras in 1720.
CHRISTENAUX, only another spelling of KNISTENAUX, which see.
CLA CLELLAH, 700 in 1820, on the Columbia River, below the rapids.
CLAKSTAR, W. R., on a river flowing into the Columbia at Wappatoo Island.
CLAMOCTOmicu, on the Pacific, next N. of the Chiltz ; 260 in 1820.
CLANIMATAS, on the S. W. side of Wappatoo Island; 200 in 1820, W. R.
CLANNARMINIMUNS, S. W. side of Wappatoo Island; 280 in 1820, W. R.
ClAtsops, about 2 m. N. of the mouth of Columbia River ; 1,300 in 1820.
CLARKAMEs, on a river of their name flowing into the Wallaumut; 1,800 in 1820.
Cneis, on a river flowing into Sabine Lake, 1690; the Coenis of Hennepin, probably
COHAKIES, nearly destroyed in Pontiak's time; in 1800, a few near Lake Winnebago.
Colapissas, on E. bank Mississippi in 1720, opposite head of Lake Pontchartrain.
Conchattas came to Appalousas in 1794, from E. the Mississ.; in 1801, on Sabine.
CONGAREES, a small tribe on Congaree River, S. Carolina, in 1701; long since gone.
Conoys, perhaps Kanhawas, being once on that river; (Canais, and variations.)
Cookkoo-oose, 1,500 in 1806, coast of Pacific, S. of Columbia r., and S. of Killawats.
COOPSPELLAR, on a river falling into the Columbia, N. of Clark's; 1,600 in 1806.
Coosadas, (Creeks,) once resided near the River Tallapoosie.
COPPER, so called from their copper ornaments, on Coppermine River, in the north.
COREES, (Tuscaroras,) on Neus River, N. Carolina, in 1700, and subsequently.
CORONKAWA, on St. Jacintho River, between Trinity and Brazos; 350 in 1820.
Cowlitsick, on Columbia River, 62 m. from its mouth, in 3 villages ; 2,400 in 1820.
CREEKS, (Muscogees,) Savannah'r. to St. Augustine, thence to Flint r., 1730. iv. 54.
CREES, (Lynx, or Cat,) another name of the Knistenaux, or a part of them.
Crows, (Absorokas,) Š. branches of the Yellowstone River ; 45,000 in 1834.
CUTSAHNIM, on both sides Columbia River, above the Sokulks; 1,200 in 1820.
Daucota, or Docota, the name by which the Sioux know themselves.
DELAWARE, (Lenna-lenape,) those once on Delaware River and Bay; 500 in 1750.
DINONDADIES, (Hurons,) same called by the French Tionontaties.
Doegs, small tribe on the Maryland side Potomac River, in 1675.
Dogribs, (Blackfeet,) but speak a different language.
Dogs, the Chiens of the Frencb. See Chien.
Dotame, 120 in 1805; about the heads of Chien River, in the open country.
EAMUSES. See EMUSAS.
ECHEMINS, (Canoe-men,) on R. St. Johns; include Passamaquoddies and St. Johns.
EDIStoes, in S. Carolina in 1670; a place still bears their name there.
Emusas, (Seminoles,) W. side Chattahoochee, 2 m. above the Wekisas; 20 in 1820.
EneShures, at the great Narrows of the Columbia ; 1,200 in 1820, in 41 lodges.
Eries, along E. side of Lake Erie, destroyed by the Iroquois about 1654.
Esaws, on River Pedee, S. Carolina, in 1701; then powerful ; Catawbas, probably.
Eskeloots, about 1,000 in 1820, in 21 lodges, or clans, on the Columbia.
Esquimaux, all along the northern coasts of the frozen ocean, N. 'of 60° N. lat.
Eto_USSEWAKKES, (Semin.,) on Chattahoochee, 3 m. above Ft. Gaines; 100 in 1820.

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