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INDEX OF PLATES AND WOODCUTS.

Aquarium,. ..........

Drill for sowing seed,................ 485 Asparagus Knife (Book of Garden),.. 551 Dwarf fruit tree,. .................... 209 Banks on hill-side,.................... 87 Espalier,............................. Barn, ground plan, three stories,..... 454 66 for fruit house (Book of GarBarrel for liquid manure,. ........... 12 den), ............................... 124 Beaver Brook, Author's residence,.. Finis. Espaliered trees (Loudon),............ 197 Boiler, Weeks & Co.'s (Book of Gar Fall at Beaver Brook, Belmont, Mass., 729 den), ............

...... 723 Flower beds, staking out......... 29, 30, 31 Budding Roses, incision in stock, and Flower-garden, plan,. ................ 726 bud ready (Field's Pear Culture),.. 731 Forcing box,. .....

.......... 402 Budding: bud in place and wound, 731 Forcing cover,....................... 414 Buds, well and ill prepared,......... 730 Fountain,............... ............. 800

** good and poor, specimens of,.. 729 Fruit-houses, sections of, (Book of Gar

" method of cutting,.............. 729 den, altered),. ...................258, 259 Bulb-planter,......................... 26 Fruit-house at Everingham Hall (Book Canvas cover for greenhouse......... 103 of Garden),............ ............ 260 Catch drains,....................... 78, 79 Fumigating tunnel, 78.79 Fumigating tunnel,................

.. 808 Conservatory, plan and section,....op. 20 Furrows, ends of, made by different Conservatory bed,...............

ploughs,. ........

...... 574 Conservative pit,.........

Grafting, Cleft,..........
" cheap,......... ... 167 Grafting, Crown,..............
16 section,.......

236 Grafting Crown, Scion,.............. end,.........

Grafting, Saddle, .................... 560 Curved paths,. .................... Grafting tubers of Tree Peony (Book Cutting, A,.......................

of Garden),........................ 564 Dams, two specimens,............... Grafting, Whip or Tongue,.......559, 560 Dibbles, .......... ............

Grapery, plan and section,......... op. 121 Dibble guaged (Book of Garden),.... Greenhouse, plan and section, ....op. 9 Ditch before hedge,...............

roofs, span and curvilinDrainage, effect on roots,. ........... ear, ..........

.................. 15 spade, Irish,.......... 64 Grounds of J. W. Edmands,........ 346 pipes, laying............. 63 Groups; "planting out” disagreeable trench diagram (Shedd),.. 63 objects,.........................328,

trench, section, .... ...... 60 Gutter tanks,......................... Drain-tiles, joints in,................. 68 | Hay-cover, in use,. ..................

+ and pipes............... 61 | Hot pipe, dipped under path,. .......

" in place.................61, 62 Hedge, conical, spreading,........... Drains,.... .....

Horse hoe,.......... " for valley-meadow,........ 58 Hotbed for cucumbers,............... " on hill-side,................ 60 Hotbed heated by water; section and

4 instruments for cutting,....... 62' ground plan (Book of Garden),... 357 Drains on slopes,....

........

56 Hot water pipes,.... ............. 7

364

House for fruit in pots (Book of Gar- Rosary, in Luxemburg gardens,

den),........... ............ 26 ground plan (Paul's Rose Gard.),. ... 666 Initial letters, 1, 6, 95, 164, 224, 280, Rose, budded, diagram,.............. 604 347, 395, 456, 528, 587, 653, 722.

Roses, various forms of,.............. 673 Instrument for peeling Osiers,. ....... 757 Rose-tree, Dwarf, in flower (Paul),. ...677 Instrument for stretching wire,. .....

195 1 " " old, met bod of remodelling, Irrigation,....

........, " " No. 13, (Paul), ............ 682 Kitchen-garden, plan, ............... 191 Rose-tree, Pillar (Paul),..........680, 681 Land set off with feering poles, dia " " Pillar, in flower (Paul), 609 gram,................ .......... 570 " " Standard

" 678, 679 Lateral thrust, effect of,.............. " " Standard, in flower“ 610, 677 Layering,............................

" " thick-set with buds, No. 14, Level, ..............................

(Paul),............................. 683 Machine, mowing,................... Rose-tree, weeping, in flower (Paul),.. 676 Manger and drinking trough com Rose-tree, Weeping (Paul),....... 681, 682 bined,.................

218 Section of improved pit (Book of Melon-house (Book of Garden),...... 362 Garden),........

en.......................... 370 Pears, diagram of planting,.......... 426 Section of conservatory rafter,. ...... Peat drains,......................

Shutters for greenhouse,............
Pit, heated by manure,............... 354 Sleepy Hollow,......................
Plant basket (Book of Garden),...... 248 Stacks, of grain,............ ...... 700
Plant-case

248
“ long,............

" ......................... 698 Planting trees,.....................90, 158 6 roofs for (Steven's Book of Plough, deep tiller,.................. 741 Farm),.........

........... 669 1 Michigan........................ 488 Stacks, round,........................ 697

" subsoil,. ..................... 576 Stathels for grain (Steven's Book of Pot, for Endive (Book of Garden),... 409 Farm), ............................ 663

“ for Sea-Kale, “ " ... 412 Stratification, of different rocks,..... 791 * hinged, for large plants (Book of Strawberry house (Book of Garden), 362

Garden, altered), .................. 398 Supply water to cattle, contrivance to, 217 Pot, for striking cuttings (Book of Subsoil, unbroken, an obstacle to roots Garden, altered),................... 284

(Gisborne), ........................ 575 Potato digger,........................ 46 Subsoiling; effect on roots (Gisborne), 576 Potato, Sweet, tuber and sprout Tanks, for beating greenhouse,.... 360, 361

(Cours Elementaire d'agriculture),. 556 Throw crooks, for twisting hay rope Pruning, peaches,................299, 300

(Steven's Book of Farm), .......... 698

Transplanter,......... pears, ...... .......... 206

Trees, instances of grouping,......762, 764 vines,..............116, 117, 118

“ Twice gathered " land, diagram,... 74 Rafter to coal pit, with air chamber,. 170

Ventilation of glass houses; poor,.... 100 Ridge and furrow roof,. ............. 369 "

Ventilation of glass houses; good,. ... 101 " " " in section,.. 368

Ventilation of glass houses; by night, 102 Ridge and furrow applied to span

Ventilation of hot-bed, .............. roof, ..........

............ 367 Ridge and furrow roof diagrams,..... 365

Wardian case (Book of Garden),..... 247 Road making, ................... 81, 82

Waste-way for pond, ................ Roots, in deep soil,................... 643

Water supplied to cattle...........217, 218 Rosaries, of W. Paul, ground plans, 667-668

Window-garden, .................241, 242 6 designs for, by Author,..671, 672

Wire fence,.... " of J. Horner; ground plan

Wood road,.......................... 85 and elevation,...

......... 669

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Village-garden, ..

194 COUNTRY LIFE.

CHAPTER I.

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N Agriculture, Nature repeats herself. Each year is a repetition of its predecessor, and each month but a further development of the plans and processes of the last.

The cultivator of the smallest piece of land performs, on his scale, the same operations with

the farmer whose acres are numbered by scores, or with the gardener whose gardens and greenhouses have cost thousands of dollars.

In preparing a handbook for the instruction of one class of cultivators of the soil, we must touch upon the subjects which interest all; and therefore, to avoid redundancy, we will select as an example the estate of a person who must in the course of a year have occasion to practise every operation of agriculture and horticulture which comes within the means of men of moderate fortune.

I shall proceed to describe month by month a system of proceeding, based upon the most approved theories and practice of modern horticulture, agriculture, and landscape gardening, which will insure the largest return in pleasure and money to any one who will observe faithfully the directions given. I shall confine myself to the wants of men with small fortunes, as our country must always be principally inhabited by this class. Men of large fortunes need no such handbook, as they will seek their pleasure through agents whose especial business it is to understand all that I propose to discuss. Men with a bare competence need no special book, for although they may have a bit of land to cultivate, their operations will be identical with those I describe, only on a smaller scale, and they have but to reduce my advice and remarks to their own scale.

I do not propose to offer to the public advice and directions adapted to all parts of the continent. This would manifestly be impossible, owing to the great difference in climate. It might seem at first sight that differences in climate would only affect the time for commencing and concluding operations, and this idea has influ. enced all who have hitherto prepared such a work as this; but the view is incorrect. We must not assume that because the season in Philadelphia or Bangor is a week earlier or later than in Boston, directions prepared for either latitude will apply to the other. It is indeed so in a measure; but special directions are based upon special differences which are affected by slight variations in climate: as, what kind of plants will bear out-of-door culture; what precautions must be taken to secure satisfactory crops of various kinds ; the length of season that will enable those plants and crops to mature. Again, in the tasteful department of culture there is a considerable difference in the plants that will bear exposure to the weather, and consequently in the combinations and effects that are possible; therefore, if we should take the plants or crops advised for places four or five hundred miles asunder, and cultivate them ourselves, allowing the proper difference in time, so that the season shall have advanced to that point that will warrant a commencement, we should ultimately find that there was the same allowance to be made at the end of the season; and thus a crop which would require three or four months for its perfection would be cut short a fortnight at each end, a month in the whole.

Of course the difficulty in preparing a book of this general character is only one of size, as by taking room enough the writer might consider the whole continent; but the resulting volume would be too unwieldy and cumbrous for general use. Nor shall I treat the various subjects introduced in a complete and finished manner, entering into a discussion of the whys and wherefores which have induced me to assume and maintain the views enunciated, as that course also would demand too much space and time; but shall content myself with stating the theories and practice which experience and common sense have proved to be the best for people who live

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