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HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY

TRANSFERRED FROM
BOTANICAL MUSEUM LIBRARY

FEB. 26, 1934

COPYRIGHT, 1889, BY HUBBARD BROTHERS.

PREFATORY NOTE TO VOLUME IL

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This work was designed by its Publishers to meet a demand for a Supplement to the Encyclopaedia Brik annica which should contain fuller information on American topics and on other subjects in which the large body of American readers are interested. The generous reception accorded to the first volume of the new undertaking, and the tributes of approval from subscribers to the various editions of the Encyclopaedia Britannica and from disinterested critics of the highest rank, have been duly appreciated by the Editors and Publishers of this work, and have stimulated them to carry out the same plan in the preparation of the second volume. The work has been executed under the same editorial care, with the assistance of an able corps of contributors, most of whom are specialists in the various departments or topics assigned to them.

In the present volume the articles on American geography, natural history, scientific research, and whatever relates to the vast resources and rapid development of this country, will be found adequate to their theme

The articles on Charcoal, Clay, Coal, Coke, Cotton, Crop Reports, and Dairy Products, occupy a large space, but not disproportionate to their practical importance to the public.

The religious denominations have generally been treated by prominent members of each and embody a complete view of their history, doctrines, and latest statistics. In the case of some smaller religious bodies it has been deemed advisable to intrust the work of gathering information and preparing the several statements to one who is justly noted for his wide and accurate information in this department.

In the department of biography prominence has been given to those distinguished in literature, and an estimate of their works is included in the sketches. The lives of men of note in American history and in recent Furopean history have been treated with due regard to their influence on public affairs.

Various philosophical subjects which have been omitted in the Encyclopædia Britannica will be found discuss d at length by competent critics.

The results of recent research and exploration in various parts of the world have been carefully embodied in articles which will be found instructive and interesting.

A list of contributors to the present volume, including the Editors of the several departmenta, is appended, and it is trusted will be found to sustain the reputation established by the first volume, and to justify the high alaim made for the literary excellence and great importance of the entire work

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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS TO THE SUPPLEMENT,

VOLUME II.

This list embraces the names of those contributors whose names are signed (by their initials) to articles in the

present volume. Where two or more contributors have the same initials, a distinction has been made in printing them, which will

enable the reader to assign to each his own work. The writers whose names are marked with an asterisk (*) have exercised more or less editorial supervision in their

respective departments.

Prof. HERBERT B. ADAMS, Johns Hopkins University, Prof. EDWARD CHANNING, Ph. D., Harvard University. Baltimore.

Colonies, American, Commons,

Constable.
. Hon. Rasmus B. ANDERSON, U. 8. Minister to Denmark. CHARLES CHAUNCEY, Esq., Philadelphia
Daha, J. S. Felix,

Contompt, Judicial and Legislative.
and othor articles connected with Scandinavian and Danish
history and literature.

* WILLIAM J. CLARK, JR., Philadelphia.
Cruiksbank, George,

Darley, Felix 0. O.,
EDWARD ATKINSON, Esq., Boston.

and other biographical sketches of distinguished artists. Cotton Production and Consumption. CHARLES BARNARD, Century Magazine, New York, THOMAS M. CLEEMAN, C. E., Philadelphia. Cutlery, Carriages.

Cistern,

Concrete. JOHN ROSSELL BARTLETT, Providence, R. I.

Mrs. E. A. CONNER, Cincinnati. Corliss, George H.

Cincinnati. President S. C. BARTLETT, D. D., Hanover, N. H.

* Prof. HENRY COPPÉR, LL. D., Lehigh University, South Dartmouth College.

Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.
Bunker Hill,

Cold Harbor, • Rev. WILLIS J. BEECHER, D. D., Professor of Hebrew,

Chattanooga, Battle of,

Collins, Wilkie, Auburn Theological Seminary.

Chickamauga,

Conscience, Hendrik,
Canon of Scripture,
Daniel, Book of,

Cluseret, Gustave Paul,

Corinth, Siege and Battlo of, Canticles, David.

and other articles in American and European history, biogChronicles, Books of,

raphy, and literature. . Rev. BEVERLY R. BETTS, D. D., Columbia, New York,

ELLIOTT COUES, M. D., Smithsonian Institution, WashColumbia College.

ington, D. C. JOAN S. BILLINGS, M. D., LL.D., Asst. Surgeon-General,

Chat,

Coypu, U. S. A., Washington, D. C.

Chickadeo,

Crake,
Chinchilla,

Crane,
Cholera in America.

Cormorant,

Cross-bili,
Cotton Rat,

Crow,
JOHN BIBKINBINE, C. E., Philadelphia

Courlan,

Cuckoo,
Charcoal,
Coke.

Cowbird,

Curlow,

and numerous other articles in biology, American ornt ALBERT S. BOLLES, Editor of The Banker's Magazine,

thology, mammalogy, etc.
New York.
Clearing Houso,
Connecticut.

Hon. SAMUEL S. Cox, M. C., New York.

Census.
PETER BOYD, Esq., Philadelphia.
Building Associations.

Mrs. MADELEINE V. DAHLGREN, Washington, D. C.

Dahlgren, John Adolf.
LINUS P. BBOCKETT, M. D., Brooklyn, N. Y.
Bulgaria

Dr. HENRY DEGROOT, San Francisco, California.
California,

Colorado.
Rev. J. R. BROWN, D. D., Nashville, Tenn.
Cumberland Presbyterian Church.

Rev. HENRY M. DEXTER, D. D., Boston.
Prof. S. G. BROWN, D.D., Bowdoin College, Me.

Congregationalism. Choate, Rufus.

EUGENE L. DIDIER, Baltimore. Prof. GEORGE L. BURR, Ithaca, N. Y.

Cooke, John Esten, Cornell University.

and other biographical articles.
Rev. H. K. CARROLL, The Independent, New York. Rev. John JAY ELMENDORF, D. D., Racine College, Wis.
Christadelphians,
Christian Union,

Conceptualism.
Christian Coonection,
Church of God.

Rev. ISAAC ERRETT, Editor of The Christian Standard
W. I. CHAMBERLAIN, Ohio State Board of Agriculture. Cincinnati.
Crop Reports.

Campbell, Bov. Aloxandor.

Miss AMELIA B. EDWARDS, Bristol, England.

HOWARD M. JENKINS, Jenkintown, Pa. Egypt, Archæological Discoveries in.

Delaware,

Dupont, Samuel Francis. Rev. JOHN JAY ELMENDORF, D.D., Racine College, Wis. CHARLES W. JENKS, Atlanta, Ga. Dualism.

Goat, Angora. Rev. ISAAC ERRETT, Editor of Christian Standard, Cincin. * Prof. ALEXANDER JOHNSTON, author of History of Amer pati.

ican Politics, Princeton College. Disciples of Christ, Garfield, J. A.

Democratic Party,

Drod Scott Case. HENRY L. FELDWISCH, Denver, Col.

LYNDE E. JONES, New York, compiler of The American Denvor.

Catalogue.

Dictionary.
Rev. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, D. D., Shrewsbury, N. J.
Divorce.

CARL JUSSEN, Secretary of the New York Fire Depart

ment. HORACE HOWARD FUBNESS, LL. D., Philadelphia

Fire Departmonts.
Homoeopathy.
C. A. FYFFE, author of History of Modern Europe, London, W. W. KEEN, M. D., Philadelphia.
England.

Hydrophobia.
England.

Rev. JOHN S. KEDNEY, D. D., Faribault, Minn.

Determinism.
President E. M. GALLAUDET, Washington, D. C.
Deaf Mutes, Educatiou of.

Hon. HORATIO KING, formerly Postmaster-General.
Rev. T. A. K. GESSLER, D. D., New York.

Franking Privilege. Fatalism,

Idealism,

M. M. KIRKMAN, Chicago and North-western Railway.

Express.
Prof. W. J. GOLD, Racine College, Wisconsin.
Episcopal Church, Protestant,

Prof. John P. LAMBERTON, Philadelphia.
Decatur, Stephen,

Gladstone, W. E.,
C. A. GREEN, Editor Fruit Grower, Rochester, N. Y.

Espartero, Marshal,

Grant, Ulysses S., Grafting.

Farms,

Grévy, F. P. J.,
Dickinson, John,

Holmes, 0. W. * CHARLES W. GREENE, M. D., Merchantville, N. J.

Garibaldi, G.,

and other articles in American and European blography. Dominican Rupublic,

George, LAko, Eugenie, Empress,

Greenback Party,

Prof. JAMES LAW, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. Favre, Jules C.,

Huron, Lako, Flathead Indians,

Herd-Book. and other biographical and geographical articlon.

LAWRENCE LEWIS, JR., Esq., Philadelphia. RICHARD T. GREENER, Washington, D. C.

Deed,

Emancipation, Garnet, Henry Highland.

Demurrer,

Franchise. GEORGE BUTLER GRIFFIN, C. E., Los Angeles, California,

* W. N. LOCKINGTON, Philadelphia. Ecuador.

Fertilizers,

Fox,

Fish, E. P. Hanna, Department of the Interior, Washington,

Fish Culture,

Great Basin, D. C.

Flora,

India. Homestead Legislation.

BRANDER MATTHEWS, author of French Dramatists of the

Nineteenth Century. SAMUEL T. HARRIS, Cincinnati.

Dobbon, Austin,

Drama in America, Horso-Shoeing.

and other articles in literary and dramatic biography. * Prof. L. M. HAUPT, C. E., University of Pennsylvania. A. G. McCoy, Ph. D., Chicago. Esplosives, Hell Gate Improvements.

Idaho,

Illinois. Rev. ATTICUS G. HAYGOOD, D. D., President of Emory * THOMAS MEEHAN, Philadelphia. College, Georgia.

Dogwood,

Gingko,
Doggett, James Andrew,
Emory Collego.

Droseracea,

Golden Rod,
Floriculture,

Gooseberry,
Prof. ANGELO HEILPRIN, Academy of Natural Sciences, Franklinia,

Gum Plant, Philadelphia.

Fringe Tree,

Gum-troo, Earth-Worms.

Gardenia,

and other articles in botany. 8. S. HERRICK, M. D., Secretary Board of Health, New WILLIAM M. MEIGS, Esq., Philadelphia. Orleans, La. Fevens.

Entry,

and other legal articles."
FREDRICK RESS, Government Surveyor, Fort Dodge, CHARLES MORRIS, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philor
Iowa.
Fences, The Law of.

delphia.
Falcon,

Glucose,
Rev. P. H. HICKMAN, Radnor, P&.

Fruit,

Hæckel, Ernst, Diocese.

Furniture,

Helmholtz, L. A.,
Gas, Illuminating,

Heredity,
Prof. E. C. HINB, M. D., Philadelphia.

Glacier,

Horse, Girard College.

Glass,

Ice: WICKHAM HOFFMAN, Late U. 8. Minister to Denmark. W. L. NICHOLSON, Washington, D. C. Finland.

District of Columbia,

Erie, Lake. OLIVER O. HOWARD, Major-General U. S. A.

* LEWIS Nixon, Assistant Naval Constructor, U.S. N. Freedmon's Bureau, Gettysburg, Battlo of.

Harbors and Docka.

Frog,

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