Fourth Generation Evaluation
Publisher's description: Fourth Generation Evaluation represents a monumental shift in evaluation practice. Guba and Lincoln point to the inherent problems faced by previous generations of evaluators--politics, ethical dilemmas, imperfections and gaps, inconclusive deductions--and lay the blame for failure and nonutilization at the feet of the unquestioned reliance on the scientific/positivist paradigm of research. Fourth Generation Evaluation, a more informed and sophisticated approach, moves beyond science to include the myriad human, political, social, cultural, and contextual elements that are involved. Based upon relativism, a unity between knower and known, and a subjective epistemology, the authors show how fourth generation evaluation unites the evaluator and the stakeholders in an interaction that creates the product of the evaluation. Differing from previously existing generations, this new approach moves evaluation to a new level, whose key dynamic is negotiation. The constructivist paradigm is espoused by the authors and shown to offer multiple advantages, including empowerment and enfranchisement of stakeholders, as well as an action orientation that defines a course to be followed. Not merely a treatise on evaluation theory, Guba and Lincoln also comprehensively describe the differences between the positivist and constructivist paradigms of research, and provide a practical plan of the steps and processes in conducting a fourth generation evaluation.
The Coming of Age of Evaluation
What Is Fourth Generation Evaluation? Why Should We Choose to Practice It?
What Is This Constructivist Paradigm Anyway?
The Twin Failures of Positivist Science
Constructions and Reconstructions of Realities
Paradigms and Methodologies
The Methodology of Fourth Generation Evaluation
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action agenda for negotiation analysis approach argue assertion assessment audiences basic belief system believe CC&I Chapter claims client concerns confirmability audit consensus constructivist inquiry constructivist paradigm constructors context conventional paradigm criteria David Bellamy determine developed Educational emerge emic epistemological etic evaluand evaluator's example exist experience fact findings fourth generation evaluation given hermeneutic circle hermeneutic dialectic human identified informed and sophisticated informed consent inputs instrument interaction internal validity interpretations interview involved issues joint construction judgment level of sophistication Lincoln & Guba means methodology methods Michael Scriven Naturalistic Inquiry nature objective observation outcomes participants persons political positivism positivist possible problem proposition qualitative qualitative methods questions realist ontology reality reconstruction represent require respondents role scientific scientists sense simply social socially constructed realities stakeholder groups standards subjects tacit knowledge theorems theory tion truth value-free value-pluralism values