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of the celery crop have kept pace with the improvement in production. Formerly the entire crop was washed and bunched before shipment, but it has been learned that celery will bear transportation much better if a part of the roots and outer stems are allowed to remain upon it until after shipment. There are yet a number of vexing problems connected with the commercial production of celery, prominent among which are the control of diseases and the securing of competent labor. In this book an endeavor has been made to give plain directions both for the production of a home supply of celery and its culture on an extensive commercial basis. The information has been obtained from practical experience and from observation of the methods employed by the most successful growers. Many of the illustrations are from photographs taken upon a number of the most extensive celery plantations in the country. The author is indebted to the United States Department of Agriculture for the loan of several illustrations; to Prof. W. G. Johnson for several photographs; to B. F. Williamson for many of the excellent drawings; and, finally, to a number of seedsmen and tool manufacturers for courtesies extended. With the exception of those for which credit is given, all the illustrations are original. W. R. BEATTIE.

Washington, D. C., April, 1907.

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History and botany of the celery plant, 1; importance of
celery as a food plant, 2.

AREAs ADAPTED to CELERY CULTURE

Climatic requirements of the celery plant, 3; soils adapted
to celery culture, 4; marketing considerations, 5; labor
requirements, 6.

PREPARATION OF LAND

Drainage, 7; treatment of new land, 8; breaking and pul.
verizing land, 9; fitting southern land for celery, 11; prep-
aration for planting, 13.

FERTILIZERS - • - -

Natural fertility of soils, 16; chemical elements required
in fertilizers, 17; sources of nitrogen, 17; sources of phos.
phorus, 18; sources of potassium, 18; sources of calcium,
19; common salt as a fertilizer, 19; barnyard or stable
manure, 20; manure from fowls, 22; fish refuse, fish scrap,
fish guano, 22; Peruvian guanos, 23; night soil and sew-
age as fertilizers, 23; the application of fertilizers, 23; cost
of fertilizers for an acre, 25; time for applying fertilizers,
26; home mixing of fertilizers, 28; suggestive mixtures for
use on peat or muck soils, 29; mixtures for use on clay
and sandy soils, 29-31; table of fertilizer values, 32.

THE PRODUCTION OF PLANTs

Necessity of having good seed, 35; methods of sowing seed
for early plants, 36; starting plants in a window box, 36;
starting plants in a greenhouse or hotbed, 37; construction
and care of hotbeds, 38; temporary hotbeds, 38; permanent
hotbeds, 39; coverings for hotbeds, 40; ventilating and wa-
tering the hotbed, 41; construction, care, and uses of cold-
frames, 41; sterilization of soil for seed-bed, 42; starting

lants in the open ground, 43; care of the outdoor seed

ed, 45; protection of plant beds, 45; transplanting, .47;
substitutes for transplanting, 49; proper time to plant
seed, 50.

PLANTING IN FIELD AND GARDEN

Lifting the plants, 52; packing celery, plants for shipment,
53; setting in the open ground, 54; distances to plant, 56;
table of planting distances, 58; overcoming unfavorable con-
ditions at planting time, 59; mulching, 59.

CULTIVATION - * - - - - -

Frequency of cultivation, 61; tools adapted to celery cul-
tivation, 61.

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Home-made float or drag for leveling soil
Meeker harrow for smoothing surface for planting

. Horse-boots for soft or boggy land
. Machine for marking distances to plant
Tray for seed sowing or transplanting
. Cross-section of temporary hotbed
. Cross-section of permanent hotbed -
. Cross-section of cold-frame with muslin shade
. Cloth-protected celery plant bed for home garden
. Celery plant bed under slat shade -
. Effect of transplanting upon the roots
. Device for cutting roots in seed-bed
. Transplanting celery plants in Florida
. Crate of celery plants packed for shipment
. Setting celery plants in field -
. Dibbles for use in setting celery plants
. Setting celery plants in the home garden
. One-horse cultivator

. The wheel hoe r - - - - -
. Hand-weeding tools for working around celery

plants

. Deluge sprinkler system of irrigating . Skinner system of overhead watering . Arrangement of tiles for subirrigation

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FIGURE

46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
. Michigan crate
55.
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58.
59.

. Subirrigation adapted to back-yard garden
. Subirrigation system as employed in Florida
. Leaf affected with celery blight -
. Celery leaf affected with a blight
. Celery leaf affected with leaf-spot
. Celery leaf affected with rust
. The proper way to make Bordeaux
. Home-made spraying machine
. Celery leaf-tyer - - -
. Blanching celery by means of boards
. Planet Jr. Double celery hiller
. Blanching celery with earth .
. Blanching celery by means of drain tiles
. Temporary storage-pit for celery
. Celery storage house . - - - -
. Machine for loosening celery from the soil
. Washing and bunching celery in commission

merchant's room - - -
Row of blanched celery ready for cutting
Packing celery in crates in California field
Crates of celery shipped in the rough
Crate of Florida celery shipped in the rough
Celery trimmed for market - -
Floor plan of celery packing-house - -
Bunch of celery containing one dozen plants
Device for bunching celery

Device for displaying celery on retail market
Typical plant of Golden Self-blanching
Florida celery land - - - -
Celery prepared for table use
Packing celery in Florida

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113 114 115 116 117 118 119 121 122 123 124 126 135 136 138

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