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in a square
mile. Our readers, by inspecting the map, will per: ceive that the French, at Moscow, have just arrived at the northwestern extremity of these populous regions, whose resources are, therefore, still open to the Russian government.
M. Eustaphieve also well observes, that the population of France, and her tributary states, from the enormous drafts that have been made upon it for military service, is more numerical than effective; while that of Russia is not only much better supplied with youths of from 20 to 30 years of age, but that its peculiar character obviously renders it more effective in defence on Russian territory, than its invaders can possibly be in offence. From this view of the population of Russia, and of its distribution over her territory, combined with the knowledge which we possess of the hardy nature, and firm and loyal minds of the natives, this conclusion presses itself upon our minds;--that although from the rapidity with which the French ruler can, at all tiines, assemble from the different quarters of his immense territory an effective and well appointed army, it was to be expected that the first blow would fall like a thunderbolt on any given point to which the arm of the destroyer might direct it; yet that supposing the first alarm not to be fatal to the confidence of the government, the effect would be not more permanent than that of the storm which passes over the forest;—which, it is true, may scath a venerable oak or two, but whose permitted powers are incompetent to scatter and destroy the vigorous mass that has bloomed for ages before the eyes of its Creator. In word, we believe that although Buonaparte would not have entered Russia without knowing that he had in his hands an engine to wield strong enough to secure immediate success ;- we believe also, that his experience of the past did not lead him to expect a protracted resistance in an ungenial climate, and a depopulated country, for which neither his temper, nor the state of his affairs, nor the materials of his army are suited.
We shall not follow M. Eustaphieve in the detail which he has given of the ordinary revenue of Russia. The nature of the present contest is such, that the whole income, nay the capital of the country, may be calculated upon as a public resource; and we have no doubt that every rouble, and every article of necessity, will be cheerfully placed at the disposal of the government.
We shall, therefore, proceed to the next heads of resource, detailed by M. Eustaphieve, viz. the amount and constitution of the Russian army. In 1712, the whole military force of the Russian empire amounted to 107,330 men. At the death of Peter the Great, in 1725, he left a well appointed army of 200,000 men, which, in 1794, had gradually increased to 312,785 men. At present it amounts to nearly 700,000, the component parts of which are as follow : REGULAR TROOPS.
Rank and file. 1. Life Guards (horse) consisting of five regiments 3316 2. Ditto foot, six regiments
9305 3. Field cavalry, 46 regiments
49,788 4. Ditto infantry, 130 ditto
219,125 5. Garrisons, 19 ditto
70,884 6. Artillery
Invalids, including officers
“ The provinces, which were mentioned before as the most populous in the Russian empire, and which contain about 15 millions of male population, by a new levy in 1806 of one in a hundred, furnished an additional number of 150,000 men, which makes the present force of Russia amount to 683,150 men. By deducting 70,884 for garrisons, and 24,660 invalids, there remain 587,600 effective men; or 487,206 regulars, and 100,400 irregulars,-a force which, if assisted by local advantages, can defy the united efforts of all the invaders Europe can send against her.
“ It is a consoling and pleasing consideration, that the population of Russia has not since been drained by fresh levies, as it has been in France by the system of conscription, enforced and executed, with such rigour, in anticipation. Moreover, a militia was raised in the same year (1806), of no less than 600,000 men, who were already in motion, and in condition to take the field. In consequence of the peace of Tilsit, this force was dismissed, with the exception of those who wished to enlist in the regular army, and with the reservation of 200,000 men for any future emergency ; so that with this ample reserve, and in consequence of the natural progress of population in five years, or the great number of those who have attained the proper age for service, Russia bids fair to maintain the contest without resorting to any extraordinary measure, and exhausting those regular and main sources of strength, which, in the last extremity, must still prove her safeguard. She may still present-what imperial France cannot-the cheerful countenance of man. From St. Petersburgh to Moskow, and from Moskow to the Euxine, the traveller may still see that active and smiling industry, which neither fears nor feels the hostile sword but which, in the regions of France, shrinks with the chill blast of war, and withers in the meretricious embraces of a hollow peace. The tearful eye, the mournful visage, the wide-spreading desolation*, and the melancholy spectacle of helpless infancy, and tottering age, torn from their natural prop of manhood; all the calamities which France, in the fulness of her pride and the wanton exertion of her power, has brought upon herself, while wishing to afflict others,--are yet unknown, unfelt, and unseen in Russia ; and
may remain so, though hosts of foes should conspire her ruin." (P. 13,
It adds not a little to the efficiency of this formidable array that Russia contains within herself all the means of supplying the appointments of an army to any extent. Food, clothing, and ammunition of every kind, are amply supplied to her by art and nature. The manufactory of Tula, the Birmingham of Russia, is capable of affording arms to almost any extent; but we have for some time trembled when we recollected, that this town lies only from two to three degrees south of Moscow. Cloth, leather, and gunpowder, are also to be had to the necessary extent, and the pay of the regular army
does not amount to more than a tenth of the revenue, though the soldier is satisfied and well maintained. With respect to the facility with which the losses of the army in action may be recruited, on its own territory at least, we have the following consolatory statement from M. Eustaphieve, in which we are strongly disposed to acquiesce.
During the last war, no sooner had the government proclaimed the project of raising militia, than 600,000 men were immediately enlisted and equipped for the field. The nobles set the first example, and the ardour thereby excited in all the ranks was incredible. The spirit of emulation removed all distinction between the prince and the peasant, and conferred it only on those who made the greatest sacrifices. For two or three years afterwards, the public
papers teemed with the names of those patriots who had contributed their mite to the common stock. Some
personal effects, and some disposed of their houses, in order to enlist and maintain themselves; while others parted with all they possessed, in order to bring the produce into the public fund, which was raising for the support of this new race of warriors. Instances occurred of gentlemen selling their whole estates, that they might
The author's personal experience, and all recent accounts of France, confirm the desertion of roads even in the vicinity of Paris; and the difficulty of meeting, out of the army, young persons from 15 to 30 years of age. Boys,' women, and old men, are the only beings that present themselves to the sight of a traveller,
raise whole regiments at their own expense, and, at the head of them, present themselves to the delighted eye of their monarch. After this, it would be an insult to suspect among the nobles, or any other class of the Russian people, the existence of foreign influence and corruption." (P. 39.)
The admirable bravery and complete devotion of the Russian soldier has always been proverbial, and their enemies in the late campaigns have borne ample testimony that the spirit has not declined since Peter the Great put it to the following whimsical test.
“ The following anecdote will further convince us of the loyalty and discipline of the Russian soldier. Peter the Great, at an interview with the kings of Denmark and Poland, hearing them boast of the superiority of their soldiers, instead of disputing the point with them, proposed an experiment which was immediately assented to, and which was, to order a grenadier to jump out of a third floor window. The king of Denmark tried the experiment on one of his bravest and most loyal soldiers, who on his knee refused compli
The king of Poland waved the trial altogether, conceiving it to be hopeless; when Peter ordered one of his soldiers, the least promising that could be picked out, to descend the window. The soldier merely crossed himself, touched his hat according to form, boldly marched to the window, and had already one of his legs out; when the emperor stopped him, and told him he was satisfied. The kings were astonished, and each made the soldier a present of 100 ducats, requesting Peter to promote him to the rank of officer. The czar answered, that he would do so to oblige them, but not to reward the soldier; for all his soldiers would do as much, and by rewarding them in the same way he would have no soldiers at all.” (P, 43.)
With such an army thus constituted, with the means of recruiting and re-equipment still unimpaired, with a moral character in the population that has been always known to rouse itself in proportion to the impending danger, and to acquire energy from despair, our hearts should not sink were the prospects blacker than upon a fair review of them they can be pronounced. For our own consolation, and in anticipation of the fate of the intruder, we could dwell with extasy on the following interesting story.
During the period of terror and desolation, which terminated in the election of Michael, ancestor of Peter the Great, to the Russiap throne, the reins of governmeut were abandoned to the un. controuled rage of anarchy and lawless faction, and Russia, torn by internal and external wars, was neither able to crush the domestic traitor that fed upon her vitals, nor resist the insolence and wanton cruelty of the foreign invader. Impostors multiplying fast, and rebels springing up on all sides, harassed her provinces and preyed upon her towns; while the ferocious Tartar rayaged her fields, and
spread, far and wide, the torrent of destruction over her dominions. The rapacious Pole found way to Moskow, and held it firmly in his grasp; and the Swede, in the seeming garb of a deliverer, perfidiously seized on Novgorod, and unblushingły extended his usurpations to other cities. The empire was assailed in all its points at once. Serpents nestled in its bosom, and its extremities were lacerated with the edge of the enemy's steel. No arm was uplifted in its defence; for the few that were faithful to its cause had been dispersed and exterminated. National spirit was subdued, national efforts were paralized; and the country was sinking apparently to rise no more.
The whole space of Russia was within the citywalls of Nijney Novgorod; and there was also her final deliver.
“ Kuzma Minin, a person of mean condition, by trade a butcher, in spirit a patriot, and indeed a hero, suddenly appears in the market-place with all his property at his feet. He calls on his townsmen, he paints in true colours the miseries of their country, points to his bare arms, and swears to exert them for its deliverance or lose them; he points to his property, swears to sacrifice it in the common cause; and his manly appeal thrills like an electrical shock through every heart, and in a thousand breasts at once kindles the noble flame of patriotism. The citizens hear him, and vow to conquer or to die. They follow his example, they bring all their property to the common stock, they seize their arms, they raise a number of warriors from the sale of their effects, they enlist their children and servants, they place the gallant Pojarsky, a noble veteran, at their head, they march against the enemy, they drive him as the rising tempest does the autumn leaves; and in a few weeks the impostors, the rebels, the Tartars, the Poles, and the Swedes, were seen no more. Russia, astonished and rejoiced, could only observe by the bloody track left behind which way her ene. mies had disappeared. She looked back with the assured eye of experience, respired with conscious gratitude under the protecting shadow of the family of Romanow, and with prophetic delight contemplated her future greatness.
“ So small were the means, and so great was the event; yet nothing in all this was extraordinary or miraculous. The whole was the natural result of the inherent energies of Russia, which did not break forth only for want of proper excitement. Russia was not prostrated or undone; she slept, and had only to wake in order to shake off her ignominious fetters.” (P. 19.)
We ought perhaps to apologize to our readers for the sanguine view which we have now taken of the Russian resources. We are nevertheless well aware of the feverish peril of the crisis, and that all our speculations may at once be falsified by a single stroke from the arm of Providence, or by one vacillating moment in the councils of the Russian government; and that, even before what is now flowing from our pen can appear before our readers. But we are anxious to shew that Providence has still left to